acute infection
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
J. Yang ◽  
H. Zhao ◽  
H. Yuan ◽  
F. Zhu ◽  
W. Zhou

Abstract Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although remain controversial, several studies have demonstrated the association of M. pneumoniae infections with atherosclerosis. We evaluated the possible association of mycoplasma infections in patients diagnosed with atherosclerosis by ELISA and PCR methods. Atherosclerotic tissue samples and blood samples were collected for the detection of mycoplasma antibodies (IgA) by ELISA from the 97 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). M. pneumoniae specific IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by using the Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA/IgG/IgM ELISA. Detection of M. pneumoniae targeting the P1 adhesion gene was performed by PCR Acute infection of M. pneumoniae was diagnosed in 43.3% (42) of patients by PCR. The M. pneumoniae specific antibodies were detected in 36.1% (35) of patients. Twenty-five (25.8%) cases had IgG antibodies, 15 (15.5%) cases had IgM antibodies, 3 (3.1%) cases had IgA antibodies, 10 (10.3%) cases had both IgM + IgG antibodies and 1 (1%) case of each had IgM + IgA and IgG + IgA antibodies. None of the cases was positive for all three antibodies. A Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed an excellent correlation between the PCR and the serological results (r=0.921, p<0.001). A majority (17, 40.5%) of the M. pneumoniae positive patients are within the 41-50 years of age group, followed by 10 (23.8%) patients in the age group of 61-70 years and 2 (4.8%) patients were >70 years of age. Our study reported an unusually higher prevalence of M. pneumoniae by serological tests (36.1%) and PCR (43.3%). Although the hypothesis of the association of M. pneumoniae and CAD is yet to be proven, the unusually high prevalence of M. pneumoniae in CAD patients indicates an association, if not, in the development of atherosclerosis.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 123
Reginaldo G. Bastos ◽  
Heba F. Alzan ◽  
Vignesh A. Rathinasamy ◽  
Brian M. Cooke ◽  
Odir A. Dellagostin ◽  

Babesiosis is a disease caused by tickborne hemoprotozoan apicomplexan parasites of the genus Babesia that negatively impacts public health and food security worldwide. Development of effective and sustainable vaccines against babesiosis is currently hindered in part by the absence of definitive host correlates of protection. Despite that, studies in Babesia microti and Babesia bovis, major causative agents of human and bovine babesiosis, respectively, suggest that early activation of innate immune responses is crucial for vertebrates to survive acute infection. Trained immunity (TI) is defined as the development of memory in vertebrate innate immune cells, allowing more efficient responses to subsequent specific and non-specific challenges. Considering that Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), a widely used anti-tuberculosis attenuated vaccine, induces strong TI pro-inflammatory responses, we hypothesize that BCG TI may protect vertebrates against acute babesiosis. This premise is supported by early investigations demonstrating that BCG inoculation protects mice against experimental B. microti infection and recent observations that BCG vaccination decreases the severity of malaria in children infected with Plasmodium falciparum, a Babesia-related parasite. We also discuss the potential use of TI in conjunction with recombinant BCG vaccines expressing Babesia immunogens. In conclusion, by concentrating on human and bovine babesiosis, herein we intend to raise awareness of BCG TI as a strategy to efficiently control Babesia infection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Xuexiang Lin ◽  
Xiao-Yu Liu ◽  
Bo Zhang ◽  
Ai-Qing Qin ◽  
Kwok-Min Hui ◽  

AbstractCurrent methods used for diagnosis of acute infection of pathogens rely on detection of nucleic acids, antigens, or certain classes of antibodies such as IgM. Here we report a virus enzyme assay as an alternative to these methods for detection of acute viral infection. In this method, we used a luciferin derivative as the substrate for detection of the enzyme activity of influenza viral neuraminidase as a means for diagnosis of influenza. The resulting commercial test, the qFLU Dx Test, uses a different supply chain that does not compete with those for the current tests. The assay reagents were formulated as a master mix that accommodated both the neuraminidase and luciferase reactions, thereby enabling rapid and prolonged production of stable light signal in the presence of influenza virus in the sample. The assay was evaluated using depository throat swab specimens. As expected, the assay exhibited similar detection rates for all influenza types and subtypes except for A(H7N9), which exhibited lower detection rate due to lower viral titer in the specimens. When throat swab specimens were diluted with the sample buffer of the test kit and tested with the qFLU Dx Test. The sensitivity and specificity were 82.41% (95% confidence interval: 79.66–85.84%) and 95.39% (95% confidence interval: 94.32–96.46%), respectively, for these diluted specimens in comparison to a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The uniqueness of the qFLU Dx Test as an enzymatic assay makes it highly complementary with currently available methods.

2022 ◽  
Elizabeth N. Mutubuki ◽  
Tessa van der Maaden ◽  
Ka Yin Leung ◽  
Albert Wong ◽  
Anna D. Tulen ◽  

Background: A substantial proportion of individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) report persisting symptoms weeks and months following acute infection. Estimates on prevalence vary due to differences in study designs, populations, heterogeneity of symptoms and the way symptoms are measured. Common symptoms include fatigue, cognitive impairment and dyspnea. However, knowledge regarding the nature and risk factors for developing persisting symptoms is still limited. Hence in this study we aim to determine the prevalence, severity, risk factors and impact on quality of life of persisting symptoms in the first year following acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: The LongCOVID-study is both a prospective and retrospective cohort study with a one year follow up. Participants aged 5 years and above with self-reported positive or negative tests for SARS-CoV-2 will be included in the study. The primary outcome is the prevalence and severity of persistent symptoms in participants that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared to controls. Symptom severity will be assessed for fatigue using the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS subscale fatigue severity), pain (Rand-36/SF-36 subscale bodily pain), dyspnea (Medical Research Council (mMRC)) and cognitive impairment using the Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ). Secondary outcomes include loss of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and risk factors for persisting symptoms following infection with SARS-CoV-2. Discussion: A better understanding regarding the nature of persisting symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infection will enable better diagnosis, management and will consequently minimize negative consequences on quality of life. Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, post COVID-19 condition, LongCovid, prevalence, HRQoL, risk factors

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Bruce K. Patterson ◽  
Edgar B. Francisco ◽  
Ram Yogendra ◽  
Emily Long ◽  
Amruta Pise ◽  

The recent COVID-19 pandemic is a treatment challenge in the acute infection stage but the recognition of chronic COVID-19 symptoms termed post-acute sequelae SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) may affect up to 30% of all infected individuals. The underlying mechanism and source of this distinct immunologic condition three months or more after initial infection remains elusive. Here, we investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein in 46 individuals. We analyzed T-cell, B-cell, and monocytic subsets in both severe COVID-19 patients and in patients with post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC). The levels of both intermediate (CD14+, CD16+) and non-classical monocyte (CD14Lo, CD16+) were significantly elevated in PASC patients up to 15 months post-acute infection compared to healthy controls (P=0.002 and P=0.01, respectively). A statistically significant number of non-classical monocytes contained SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein in both severe (P=0.004) and PASC patients (P=0.02) out to 15 months post-infection. Non-classical monocytes were sorted from PASC patients using flow cytometric sorting and the SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Cells from 4 out of 11 severe COVID-19 patients and 1 out of 26 PASC patients contained ddPCR+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells, however, only fragmented SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in PASC patients. No full length sequences were identified, and no sequences that could account for the observed S1 protein were identified in any patient. That non-classical monocytes may be a source of inflammation in PASC warrants further study.

Reza Gheitasi ◽  
Fariba Keramat ◽  
Sara Khosravi ◽  
Mehrdad Hajilooi ◽  
Mathias W. Pletz ◽  

ObjectiveBrucellosis is a common bacterial zoonotic infection, and greater than half a million new cases are diagnosed annually. This study investigates the expression of Th2 and Th17 immunity-related factors (Th2-LCR lncRNA, IL-25, TRAF3IP2, and IL-17RB) in different stages of Brucella infections.Material and MethodsIn total, 99 brucellosis patients were divided into three groups (acute = first infection before treatment, relapse = before treatment, and treated = after treatment for 6–8 weeks with doxycycline and rifampin). Thirty-three healthy volunteers represented the control group. Gene expression levels were assessed by quantitative amplification in reference to the 18S rRNA gene and statistically evaluated.ResultsNo significant differences in the expression of these genes were observed between the control group and patients after completion of antibiotic treatment. Compared to these two groups, only Th2-LCR lncRNA and TRAF3IP2 were significantly more highly expressed in the acute group. Th2-LCR lncRNA was also significantly elevated in the relapse group. TRAF3IP2 expression was additionally significantly increased in the acute group compared to the relapse group.ConclusionIL-25 and IL-17RB failed to differentiate between the infected and noninfected groups. TRAF3IP2 and Th2-LCR lncRNA might be good indicators of brucellosis during the acute phase, but the expression levels varied strongly among patients. To verify the suitability of these factors as an indicator for brucellosis, acute infection or relapse should be investigated in further studies on larger cohorts with well-defined inclusion criteria.

2022 ◽  
Paul Kuodi ◽  
Yanay Gorelik ◽  
Hiba Zayyad ◽  
Ofir Wertheim ◽  
Karine Beiruti Wiegler ◽  

Background: Long COVID is a post-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection syndrome characterised by not recovering for several weeks or months following the acute episode. The effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against long-term symptoms of COVID19 is not well understood. We determined whether vaccination was associated with reporting long-term symptoms post-SARS-CoV-2 infection by comparing, among individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, those who were vaccinated to those who were not, in terms of self-reported long-term symptoms. Methods: We invited individuals who were PCR tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection at participating hospitals between March 2020-June 2021 to fill an online questionnaire that included baseline demographics, details of their acute episode and information about symptoms they were currently experiencing. Using binomial regression, we compared vaccinated individuals with those unvaccinated in terms of self-reported symptoms post-acute infection. Results: Of 951 previously infected individuals who filled the survey 637(67%) were vaccinated. The most commonly reported symptoms were; fatigue (22%), headache (20%), weakness (13%), and persistent muscle pain (10%). After adjusting for follow-up time and baseline symptoms, fully vaccinated (2 or more doses) individuals were less likely than unvaccinated individuals to report any of these symptoms by 64%, 54%, 57%, and 68% respectively, (Risk ratios 0.36, 0.46, 0.43, 0.32, p<0.04 in the listed sequence). Conclusions: Vaccination with at least two doses of COVID-19 vaccine was associated with a substantial decrease in reporting the most common post-acute COVID19 symptoms. Our results suggest that, in addition to reducing the risk of acute illness, COVID-19 vaccination may have a protective effect against long COVID.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1010179
Clinton O. Ogega ◽  
Nicole E. Skinner ◽  
Andrew I. Flyak ◽  
Kaitlyn E. Clark ◽  
Nathan L. Board ◽  

Antibodies targeting the hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E2 are associated with delayed disease progression, and these antibodies can also facilitate spontaneous clearance of infection in some individuals. However, many infected people demonstrate low titer and delayed anti-E2 antibody responses. Since a goal of HCV vaccine development is induction of high titers of anti-E2 antibodies, it is important to define the mechanisms underlying these suboptimal antibody responses. By staining lymphocytes with a cocktail of soluble E2 (sE2) glycoproteins, we detected HCV E2-specific (sE2+) B cells directly ex vivo at multiple acute infection timepoints in 29 HCV-infected subjects with a wide range of anti-E2 IgG titers, including 17 persistently infected subjects and 12 subjects with spontaneous clearance of infection. We performed multi-dimensional flow cytometric analysis of sE2+ and E2-nonspecific (sE2-) class-switched B cells (csBC). In sE2+ csBC from both persistence and clearance subjects, frequencies of resting memory B cells (rMBC) were reduced, frequencies of activated MBC (actMBC) and tissue-like MBC (tlMBC) were increased, and expression of FCRL5, an IgG receptor, was significantly upregulated. Across all subjects, plasma anti-E2 IgG levels were positively correlated with frequencies of sE2+ rMBC and sE2+ actMBC, while anti-E2 IgG levels were negatively correlated with levels of FCRL5 expression on sE2+ rMBC and PD-1 expression on sE2+ actMBC. Upregulation of FCRL5 on sE2+ rMBC and upregulation of PD-1 on sE2+ actMBC may limit anti-E2 antibody production in vivo. Strategies that limit upregulation of these molecules could potentially generate higher titers of protective antibodies against HCV or other pathogens.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Andrea Streng ◽  
Christiane Prifert ◽  
Benedikt Weissbrich ◽  
Andreas Sauerbrei ◽  
Andi Krumbholz ◽  

Abstract Background Influenza virus infections in immunologically naïve children (primary infection) may be more severe than in children with re-infections who are already immunologically primed. We compared frequency and severity of influenza virus primary and re-infections in pre-school children requiring outpatient treatment. Methods Influenza-unvaccinated children 1–5 years of age presenting at pediatric practices with febrile acute respiratory infection < 48 h after symptom onset were enrolled in a prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter surveillance study (2013–2015). Influenza types/subtypes were PCR-confirmed from oropharyngeal swabs. Influenza type/subtype-specific IgG antibodies serving as surrogate markers for immunological priming were determined using ELISA/hemagglutination inhibition assays. The acute influenza disease was defined as primary infection/re-infection by the absence/presence of influenza type-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and, in a second approach, by the absence/presence of subtype-specific IgG. Socio-demographic and clinical data were also recorded. Results Of 217 influenza infections, 178 were due to influenza A (87 [49%] primary infections, 91 [51%] re-infections) and 39 were due to influenza B (38 [97%] primary infections, one [3%] re-infection). Children with “influenza A primary infections” showed fever with respiratory symptoms for a shorter period than children with “influenza A re-infections” (median 3 vs. 4 days; age-adjusted p = 0.03); other disease characteristics were similar. If primary infections and re-infections were defined based on influenza A subtypes, 122 (87%) primary infections (78 “A(H3N2) primary infections”, 44 “A(H1N1)pdm09 primary infections”) and 18 (13%) re-infections could be classified (14 “A(H3N2) re-infections” and 4 “A(H1N1)pdm09 re-infections”). Per subtype, primary infections and re-infections were of similar disease severity. Children with re-infections defined on the subtype level usually had non-protective IgG titers against the subtype of their acute infection (16 of 18; 89%). Some patients infected by one of the influenza A subtypes showed protective IgG titers (≥ 1:40) against the other influenza A subtype (32/140; 23%). Conclusions Pre-school children with acute influenza A primary infections and re-infections presented with similar frequency in pediatric practices. Contrary to expectation, severity of acute “influenza A primary infections” and “influenza A re-infections” were similar. Most “influenza A re-infections” defined on the type level turned out to be primary infections when defined based on the subtype. On the subtype level, re-infections were rare and of similar disease severity as primary infections of the same subtype. Subtype level re-infections were usually associated with low IgG levels for the specific subtype of the acute infection, suggesting only short-time humoral immunity induced by previous infection by this subtype. Overall, the results indicated recurring influenza virus infections in this age group and no or only limited heterosubtypic antibody-mediated cross-protection.

2022 ◽  
pp. 19-22
Leonard Powell, DO, MS, CMD. ◽  
Chad Richmond ◽  
Danielle Cooley

Giardiasis is an acute infection caused by Giardia lamblia, which produces profuse secretory diarrhea that can lead to dehydration and electrolyte derangement. Musculoskeletal manifestations resulting because of giardiasis occur due to prolonged inflammation and viscero-somatic reflexes of the pathophysiology for this disease process. By treating the parasitic infection with an antiparasitic agent, as well as treating the somatic dysfunctions with osteopathic manipulative treatment, analgesics and a home exercise program, the patient in the following article experienced an uneventful course of treatment and a complete recovery including resolution of the pain.

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