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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
M. Hussain ◽  
I. Liaqat ◽  
N. M. Ali ◽  
N. Arshad ◽  
U. Hanif ◽  
...  

Abstract Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), a native earthworm of Pakistan and Southeast Asia, has wide utilization in vermicomposting and bioremediation process. In this study, P. posthuma coelomic fluid (PCF) and body paste (PBP) was evaluated as antibacterial agent against ampicillin (AMP) resistant five Gram positive and four Gram negative clinical isolates. The antibacterial effect of different doses (i.e. 25-100 µg/ml) of PCF and PBP along with AMP and azithromycin (AZM) (negative and positive controls, respectively) were observed through disc diffusion and micro-dilution methods. All nine clinical isolates were noticed as AMP resistant and AZM sensitive. Antibacterial effects of PCF and PBP were dose dependent and zone of inhibitions (ZI) against all clinical isolates were between 23.4 ± 0.92 to 0 ± 00 mm. The sensitivity profile of PCF and PBP against clinical isolates was noticed as 44.44 and 55.56%, respectively. Both PCF and PBP showed bacteriostatic (BTS) action against S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Moreover, the cumulative BTS potential of PCF and PBP against all isolates was 66.67 and 55.56%, respectively. The MICs of PCF and PBP were ranged from 50-200 µg/ml against selected isolates. The bacterial growth curves indicated that PCF and PBP inhibited the growth of all isolates at their specific MIC concentrations. However, PBP has better antibacterial potential compared to PCF against selected isolates. Therefore, it is concluded that both PCF and PBP of P. posthuma possess antibacterial and BTS potential against ampicillin resistant clinical isolates. This organism might be considered as a second choice of antibacterial agents and can further be utilized in pharmaceutical industries for novel drug manufacturing by prospecting bioactive potential agents.


Author(s):  
Shubham Shitole

Abstract: For the past few years, there has been a considerable research on the basis of Novel drug delivery system, using particulate vesicle systems as such drug carriers for small and large molecules. Nanoparticles, Liposomes, Microspheres, Niosomes, Pronisomes, Ethosomes, Proliposomes have been used as drug carrier in vesicle drug delivery system. Nanotechnology refers to the creation and utilization of materials whose constituents exist at the nanoscale; and, by convention, be up to 100 nm in size.. Nanoparticles are being used for diverse purposes, from medical treatments, using in various branches of industry production such as solar and oxide fuel batteries for energy storage, to wide incorporation into diverse materials of everyday use such as cosmetics or clothes, optical devices, catalytic, bactericidal, electronic, sensor technology, biological labelling and treatment of some cancers. Various polymers have been used in the formation of Nanoparticles. Nanoparticles have been improving the therapeutic effect of drugs and minimize the side effects. Basically, Nanoparticles have been prepared by using various techniques as such dispersion of preformed polymers, polymerization of monomers and ionic gelation or coacervation of hydrophilic polymer. Nanoparticles have been evaluated by using parameters of drug entrapment efficiency, particle shape, drug release study. Keywords: Nanoparticles, Drug, novel, delivery


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 836
Author(s):  
Melissa Jones ◽  
Corina Mihaela Ionescu ◽  
Daniel Walker ◽  
Susbin Raj Wagle ◽  
Bozica Kovacevic ◽  
...  

Biguanides, particularly the widely prescribed drug metformin, have been marketed for many decades and have well-established absorption profiles. They are commonly administered via the oral route and, despite variation in oral uptake, remain commonly prescribed for diabetes mellitus, typically type 2. Studies over the last decade have focused on the design and development of advanced oral delivery dosage forms using bio nano technologies and novel drug carrier systems. Such studies have demonstrated significantly enhanced delivery and safety of biguanides using nanocapsules. Enhanced delivery and safety have widened the potential applications of biguanides not only in diabetes but also in other disorders. Hence, this review aimed to explore biguanides’ pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmaceutical applications in diabetes, as well as in other disorders.


Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 113
Author(s):  
Jamie Medley ◽  
Aaron Goff ◽  
Paulo J. G. Bettencourt ◽  
Madelaine Dare ◽  
Liam Cole ◽  
...  

New strategies are required to reduce the worldwide burden of tuberculosis. Intracellular survival and replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after macrophage phagocytosis is a fundamental step in the complex host–pathogen interactions that lead to granuloma formation and disease. Greater understanding of how the bacterium survives and thrives in these environments will inform novel drug and vaccine discovery programs. Here, we use in-depth RNA sequencing of Mycobacterium bovis BCG from human THP-1 macrophages to describe the mycobacterial adaptations to the intracellular environment. We identify 329 significantly differentially regulated genes, highlighting cholesterol catabolism, the methylcitrate cycle and iron homeostasis as important for mycobacteria inside macrophages. Examination of multi-functional gene families revealed that 35 PE/PPE genes and five cytochrome P450 genes were upregulated 24 h after infection, highlighting pathways of potential significance. Comparison of the intracellular transcriptome to gene essentiality and immunogenicity studies identified 15 potential targets that are both required for intracellular survival and induced on infection, and eight upregulated genes that have been demonstrated to be immunogenic in TB patients. Further insight into these new and established targets will support drug and vaccine development efforts.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chu-Qiao Gao ◽  
Yuan-Ke Zhou ◽  
Xiao-Hong Xin ◽  
Hui Min ◽  
Pu-Feng Du

Drug repositioning provides a promising and efficient strategy to discover potential associations between drugs and diseases. Many systematic computational drug-repositioning methods have been introduced, which are based on various similarities of drugs and diseases. In this work, we proposed a new computational model, DDA-SKF (drug–disease associations prediction using similarity kernels fusion), which can predict novel drug indications by utilizing similarity kernel fusion (SKF) and Laplacian regularized least squares (LapRLS) algorithms. DDA-SKF integrated multiple similarities of drugs and diseases. The prediction performances of DDA-SKF are better, or at least comparable, to all state-of-the-art methods. The DDA-SKF can work without sufficient similarity information between drug indications. This allows us to predict new purpose for orphan drugs. The source code and benchmarking datasets are deposited in a GitHub repository (https://github.com/GCQ2119216031/DDA-SKF).


Author(s):  
Noor Yousif Albassam ◽  
Amenah Mohammed ◽  
Suhair Murtada

Purpose:To evaluate knowledge, practice and attitude of community pharmacists in Basra regarding modified release dosage forms which are widely used for many therapeutic purposes in pharmacy practice. Methods:The current study was conducted among certified pharmacists in Basra governorate- south of Iraq. Data collection was carried out by a questionnaire. Results:A total number of 175 community pharmacists responded to the questionnaire. The majority worked in OTC based dispensing pharmacies located in the center of the city. Most respondents missed K1 and were unable to state the difference between different types of modified products. There was a major positive agreement towards medical representatives' rule in promoting the prescribing of modified release products by physicians. Avoiding crushing and breaking of solid oral modified release drugs were identified by the majority of participants. Correlation analysis showed a 22.8 correlation coefficient between knowledge and attitude which was statistically significant. Males showed statistically significant higher knowledge and practice scores than females. Conclusions:The conduction of a brief educational program would be very beneficial in bringing basic theoretical knowledge with practicing points of interest and promote a more positive attitude toward this unique class of novel drug delivery system.


Author(s):  
Wassihun Wedajo Aragaw ◽  
Nicole Cotroneo ◽  
Suzanne Stokes ◽  
Michael Pucci ◽  
Ian Critchley ◽  
...  

Clinical emergence of resistance to new antibiotics affects their utility. Characterization of in vitro resistance is a first step in the profiling of resistance properties of novel drug candidates.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jeremy J. Yang ◽  
Christopher R. Gessner ◽  
Joel L. Duerksen ◽  
Daniel Biber ◽  
Jessica L. Binder ◽  
...  

Abstract Background LINCS, "Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures", and IDG, "Illuminating the Druggable Genome", are both NIH projects and consortia that have generated rich datasets for the study of the molecular basis of human health and disease. LINCS L1000 expression signatures provide unbiased systems/omics experimental evidence. IDG provides compiled and curated knowledge for illumination and prioritization of novel drug target hypotheses. Together, these resources can support a powerful new approach to identifying novel drug targets for complex diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), which continues to inflict severe harm on human health, and resist traditional research approaches. Results Integrating LINCS and IDG, we built the Knowledge Graph Analytics Platform (KGAP) to support an important use case: identification and prioritization of drug target hypotheses for associated diseases. The KGAP approach includes strong semantics interpretable by domain scientists and a robust, high performance implementation of a graph database and related analytical methods. Illustrating the value of our approach, we investigated results from queries relevant to PD. Approved PD drug indications from IDG’s resource DrugCentral were used as starting points for evidence paths exploring chemogenomic space via LINCS expression signatures for associated genes, evaluated as target hypotheses by integration with IDG. The KG-analytic scoring function was validated against a gold standard dataset of genes associated with PD as elucidated, published mechanism-of-action drug targets, also from DrugCentral. IDG's resource TIN-X was used to rank and filter KGAP results for novel PD targets, and one, SYNGR3 (Synaptogyrin-3), was manually investigated further as a case study and plausible new drug target for PD. Conclusions The synergy of LINCS and IDG, via KG methods, empowers graph analytics methods for the investigation of the molecular basis of complex diseases, and specifically for identification and prioritization of novel drug targets. The KGAP approach enables downstream applications via integration with resources similarly aligned with modern KG methodology. The generality of the approach indicates that KGAP is applicable to many disease areas, in addition to PD, the focus of this paper.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 339
Author(s):  
Aleksandra Turek-Jakubowska ◽  
Janusz Dębski ◽  
Maciej Jakubowski ◽  
Ewa Szahidewicz-Krupska ◽  
Jakub Gawryś ◽  
...  

(1) Background: The aim of this dynamic-LC/MS-human-serum-proteomic-study was to identify potential proteins-candidates for biomarkers of acute ischemic stroke, their changes during acute phase of stroke and to define potential novel drug-targets. (2) Methods: A total of 32 patients (29–80 years) with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled to the study. The control group constituted 29 demographically-matched volunteers. Subjects with stroke presented clinical symptoms lasting no longer than 24 h, confirmed by neurological-examination and/or new cerebral ischemia visualized in the CT scans (computed tomography). The analysis of plasma proteome was performed using LC-MS (liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry). (3) Results: Ten proteins with significantly different serum concentrations between groups volunteers were: complement-factor-B, apolipoprotein-A-I, fibronectin, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, alpha-1B-glycoprotein, heat-shock-cognate-71kDa protein/heat-shock-related-70kDa-protein-2, thymidine phosphorylase-2, cytoplasmic-tryptophan-tRNA-ligase, ficolin-2, beta-Ala-His-dipeptidase. (4) Conclusions: This is the first dynamic LC-MS study performed on a clinical model which differentiates serum proteome of patients in acute phase of ischemic stroke in time series and compares to control group. Listed proteins should be considered as risk factors, markers of ischemic stroke or potential therapeutic targets. Further clinical validation might define their exact role in differential diagnostics, monitoring the course of the ischemic stroke or specifying them as novel drug targets.


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