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Author(s):  
Kirollos Wagdy Bandry ◽  
Hisham Abou-Taleb ◽  
Gehan S. Seifeldein ◽  
Mohamad Gaber Taha ◽  
Omran Khodary Qenawy

Abstract Background Postmenstrual spotting has recently been related to a discontinuation of the myometrium at the site of a previous cesarean section called "CS scar niche". There was no consensus regarding the gold standard method for the assessment of the niche. Recently, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown promise in the evaluation of the niche. Our study aims to assess the role of MRI in the evaluation of the CS scar niche characters and its association with post-menstrual spotting. Results A total of 65 patients with CS niche were prospectively included in this study and subdivided into two groups, according to presence or absence of postmenstrual spotting (Group A; 34 patients with postmenstrual spotting and Group B; 31 patients without spotting). All patients were examined using a 1.5 T MRI unit. CS scar niche volume was significantly higher among women with post-menstrual spotting (0.57 ± 0.07 vs. 0.07 ± 0.05 (cm3); P < 0.001). Also, women with post-menstrual spotting have significantly higher scar length (9.38 ± 3.06 vs. 5.02 ± 2.10 (mm); P < 0.001), scar depth (6.95 ± 3.16 vs. 3.23 ± 0.99 (mm); P < 0.001), scar width (15.78 ± 3.94 vs. 9.87 ± 1.84 (mm); P < 0.001) in comparison to those without post-menstrual spotting. Scar depth (> 7.4 mm) had 81% sensitivity and 97% specificity for prediction of post-menstrual spotting with overall accuracy was 88.7%. While scar width (> 12.8 mm) had 71% sensitivity and 97% specificity for prediction of post-menstrual spotting with overall accuracy was 83.3%. Scar volume (> 0.15 cm3) had 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity for prediction of post-menstrual spotting with overall accuracy was 98.4%. Conclusion MRI measures (CS scar volume, depth, and width) are predictors for postmenstrual spotting in patients with CS scar niche, and scar volume is the most powerful predictor.


Author(s):  
Nathan Lee Young ◽  
Jean-Michel Lemieux ◽  
Laura Mony ◽  
Alexandra Germain ◽  
Pascal Locat ◽  
...  

Vibrating wire piezometers provide a number of advantages over the traditional hydraulic piezometer design. There are currently many methods and configurations for installing vibrating-wire piezometers, the most common being: single piezometers in sand packs (SP), multilevel piezometers in sand packs (MLSP), and fully-grouted multilevel piezometers using either bentonite (FGB) or cement-bentonite grout (FGCB). This study assesses the performance of these four different installation methods at a field site possessing complex stratigraphy, including glacial and marine sediments. To accomplish this objective, pore pressure data recorded between December 2017 and July 2019 were analyzed. Data indicate that SP, MLSP, and FGB piezometers performed most reliably, based on the fact that piezometers installed at the same depth with these methods recorded similar pressure variations that were coherent with the hydrogeological setting. Of the two fully-grouted installations using cement-bentonite grout, one installation failed completely due to a hydraulic short circuit, likely caused by preferential flow occurring along the wires of the embedded instruments. The lack of a standard method for mixing cement-bentonite grout at the time of construction likely contributed to the failure of the FGCB installations, as the grout mixture used in this study was likely too viscous to provide a suitable seal.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (2) ◽  
pp. 129-155
Author(s):  
د مصطفى أحمد قمر الدين عبد الله

The study deals with the impact of current and capital public  spending  on unemployment in Sudan during the period (1992-2018), and the importance of the study, from the fact that it deals with topics of great scientific and practical importance, and the aim of the study to know the nature of public spending in the current and capital aspects, the nature of unemployment, in addition to an alysing the relationship between these variables, and the problem of  study was that there is a steady  increase  in Current and capital  public  spending during the study period and therefore the unemployment situation in Sudan did not improve,  as the study used the descriptive and analytical approach, in addition to the standard method to know the relationship between the variables studied, and the study reached many results, the most important of which is: that there is a expulsionrelation ship with statistical significance Between current spending and the unemployment rate, there is also a morally inverse relationship between capital spending and the unemployment rate. The most important recommendations recommended by the study are to increase capital spending and direct this spending in creating and expanding the scope of productive projects, as well as to spend on vocational training centers and develop them and to transfer the experience of the countries that preceded Sudan in this area, which contributes to reducing the unemployment rate


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Carolina Averta ◽  
Elettra Mancuso ◽  
Rosangela Spiga ◽  
Sofia Miceli ◽  
Elena Succurro ◽  
...  

Background: The association of circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels with cardiovascular risk and arterial stiffness has been reportedly demonstrated, although the causal involvement of ADMA in the pathogenesis of these conditions is still debated. Dimethylaminohydrolase 2 (DDAH2) is the enzyme responsible for ADMA hydrolysis in the vasculature, and carriers of the polymorphism rs9267551 C in the 5′-UTR of DDAH2 have been reported to have higher DDAH2 expression and reduced levels of serum ADMA.Approach and Results: We genotyped rs9267551 in 633 adults of European ancestry and measured their carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), the gold-standard method to estimate arterial stiffness. cfPWV resulted significantly lower in rs9267551 C allele carriers (Δ = −1.12 m/s, P &lt; 0.01) after correction for age, sex and BMI, and a univariate regression showed that the presence of rs9267551 C variant was negatively associated with cfPWV (β = −0.110, P &lt; 0.01). In a multivariable regression model, subjects carrying the rs9267551 C allele manifested significantly lower cfPWV than GG carriers (β = −0.098, P = 0.01) independently from several potential confounders. We measured circulating ADMA levels in a subset of 344 subjects. A mediation analysis revealed that the effect of DDAH2 rs9267551 genotype on cfPWV was mediated by the variation in ADMA levels.Conclusions: These evidences hint that the presence of rs9267551 C allele may explain, at least in part, a reduction in vessel rigidity as measured by cfPWV, and support the attribution of a causative role to ADMA in the pathogenesis of arterial stiffness.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tanja Golke ◽  
Patrick Mucher ◽  
Patricia Schmidt ◽  
Astrid Radakovics ◽  
Manuela Repl ◽  
...  

Background: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) are a versatile material for clinical routine as well as for research projects. However, their isolation via density gradient centrifugation is still time-consuming. When samples are taken beyond usual laboratory handling times, it may sometimes be necessary to pause the isolation process. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of delays up to 48 hours after the density gradient centrifugation on PBMC yield, purity and viability. Methods: PBMCs were isolated from samples of 20 donors, either with BD Vacutainer CPT tubes (CPT) or with the standard Ficoll method. Isolation was paused after initial density gradient centrifugation for 0, 24, or 48 hours. PBMC yield, purity and viability were compared. Results: The yield did not change significantly over time when CPT were used (55%/52%/47%), but did after isolation with the standard method (62%/40%[p<0.0001]/53%[p<0.01]). Purity was only affected if CPT were used (95%/93%[p=n.s./92%[p<0.05] vs. 97% for all time points with standard method). Whereas viable PBMCs decreased steadily for CPT isolates (62%/51%[p<0.001]/36%[p<0.0001]), after standard Ficoll gradient isolation, cell apoptosis was more pronounced already after 24h delay, and viability did not further decrease after 48h (64%/44%[p<0.0001]/40%[p<0.0001]). Conclusions: In conclusion, our data suggests that post-centrifugation delays of up to 48h might have only a minor effect on cell yield and purity. However, at the same time, a relevant decrease in cell viability was observed, which could be partially compensated by the use of CPT if the isolation was resumed latest the day after blood withdrawal.


Author(s):  
Michael Merry ◽  
Patricia Jean Riddle ◽  
Jim Warren

Abstract Background Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is commonly used for comparing models and humans; however, the exact analytical techniques vary and some are flawed. Objectives The aim of the study is to identify common flaws in ROC analysis for human versus model performance, and address them. Methods We review current use and identify common errors. We also review the ROC analysis literature for more appropriate techniques. Results We identify concerns in three techniques: (1) using mean human sensitivity and specificity; (2) assuming humans can be approximated by ROCs; and (3) matching sensitivity and specificity. We identify a technique from Provost et al using dominance tables and cost-prevalence gradients that can be adapted to address these concerns. Conclusion Dominance tables and cost-prevalence gradients provide far greater detail when comparing performances of models and humans, and address common failings in other approaches. This should be the standard method for such analyses moving forward.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Author(s):  
Bo Liu ◽  
Chen Chen ◽  
Liang Tang ◽  
Zhisong Chen ◽  
Cheng Cao

The work of rural residential land consolidation is related to several aspects, such as optimization of the structure of rural layout and improvement of the ecological environment in rural areas. Therefore, the work of rural residential land consolidation must be carried out rationally and effectively on the basis of scientific estimation of the real potential of rural residential land consolidation. However, according to the existing estimation method of the consolidation potential of rural residential land, it ignores the willingness of farmers who are closely related to it and cannot meet the current requirements of rural residential consolidation. Under the background of rural revitalization and based on the new requirements of standardizing rural land improvement work, this study organically combines rural residential land consolidation and the protection of farmers’ land rights and interest from the perspective of farmers’ wishes. The research uses a multimethod integrated approach (the per-capita construction land standard method, per-household construction land standard method, and town system planning method) to measure theoretical potential of the rural residential land consolidation and constructs a correction index system in two dimensions: natural conditions and economic feasibility. And then, this study further optimizes the correction index system from the perspective of farmers’ willingness. Finally, the feasibility of the estimation method is verified by a case. The research will initiate new ideas for estimating land consolidation potential in residential areas and provide references for the work and the special plan of rural residential land consolidation in various localities.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 370-373
Author(s):  
Sheikh Mahvesh ◽  
◽  
Nidhi Gupta ◽  
Ritu Bhagat ◽  
◽  
...  

Introduction: Predonation assessment of haemoglobin in blood donors is important to avoid unnecessary rejection of potential blood donors. Compared to the conventional screening methods for haemoglobin assessment the method to be used in blood banks needs to be rapid, sensitive and accurate for both low and high haemoglobin values. Materials and methods: This was a prospective study conducted in blood bank of GMC Doda w.e.f 1st April 2020 to 31st March 2021. Finger prick samples were taken from 1214 potential blood donors and hemoglobin was estimated using HemoCue Hb 201+. Also venous samples of potential blood donors were obtained and run on automated haematologyanalysers. The values were compared. Male donors with haemoglobin in the range of 12.5g/dl -18.5g/dl and females with hemoglobin in the range of 12.5g/dl -16.5g/dl were considered fit for donation. Results: We analyzed that haemoglobin levels measured by HemoCue Hb 201+ were higher than those measured by automated haematologyanalyser. We found a significant correlation between the standard method and HemoCue Hb 201+ for haemoglobin levels less than 12.5 g/dL. However the correlation was found to be less for high haemoglobin levels >18.5g/dl. Sixty percent of donors, who had haemoglobin levels higher than upper limit were unnecessarily rejected accounting for high deferral rate. Conclusion: We concluded that HemoCue Hb 201+ was suitable for screening for low haemoglobin in blood donors. Male predominance among blood donors and topography of this particular area accounts for donors with haemoglobin values near upper limit which were falsely deferred on the basis of HemoCue Hb 201+. Also testing with this method was found to be expensive, so it was recommended that qualitative methods should be used for primary screening among blood donors and accurate quantitative methods to be used only when qualitative methods fail.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Yahya Khan ◽  
Ali Algarni ◽  
Aisha Fayomi ◽  
Abdullah M. Almarashi

Hackers reveal sensitive information from encrypted conversations as the globe has become one community. As a result, steganography and cryptography are used together to safeguard sensitive data more effectively than previous approaches and newly developed algorithms. A double-secure algorithm for text steganography (DSTS) is the safest approach compared to the paragraph hiding method (PHM) and capital alphabet shape encoding (CASE) method. In this context, the paragraph hiding method uses ASCII coding, which is not a standard method, and the CASE method has a security issue that if someone understands its applicability, it can be easily attacked. DSTS algorithm overcomes its limitations by using UTF-16 coding and enhances the security of CASE with a one-time pad (OTP). The one-time pad is a theoretically unbreakable cryptographic method. Still, it is not feasible for long messages, however, it is usable for short messages such as a password or intelligence agency’s more secure messages. DSTS degrades the average hiding capacity in a PHM from 2.06% to 1% due to UTF-16 coding. Using the UTF-8 method, the authors have improved MDSTS and the CMPHM by 6.49% and 7.76% hiding capacity, which outperforms in existing procedures; in the CMPHM, there is one reason for the improvement in hiding capacity is using the LZW compression method. CMHPM algorithm optimization standard deviation is less than that of the HPM, DSTS, and MDSTS, ultimately increasing speed.


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