Active Ingredients
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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 28-33
M. Ranggawati ◽  
I. I. Arief ◽  
Z. Wulandari

Whey produced from cheese processing can be used as non-food products such as sunscreen by fermenting using Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Adding active ingredients such as red fruit oil which contains carotenoids can increase the effectiveness of sunscreen. This study aims to determine the formulation of fermented whey and red fruit oil usage in sunscreen. The study began with the production of fermented whey and sunscreen formulations with ratios of 0, 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 (fermented whey: red fruit oil). Furthermore, observe the organoleptic, antioxidant, SPF, pH, and homogeneity value. Adding fermented whey and red fruit oil showed no significant effect (P>0.05) onthe organoleptic test of aroma, but significantly (P<0.05) on color and texture. The antioxidant activity value test showed significantly different results (P<0.05) with IC50 values classified as moderate to high.Determination of the SPF value of sunscreen showed significantly different results  (P<0.05), but this value was classified as low protection. Although there was no significant effect on pH testing (P>0.05), the pH of sunscreen cream indicated that it was suitable for topical application. All samples showed homogeneous results and there were no coarse particles or separation between the oil and water phases. The best sunscreen formulation is 1:1 cream with the highest SPF value of 6.86 and strong antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 56.15 g/mL. Fermented whey and red fruit oil usage as active ingredients are more effective in increasing the protection of the cream against UV rays and free radicals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (2) ◽  
pp. 2019
Manoj Pandurang Wagh ◽  
Yashwant Aher ◽  
Anit Mandalik

The present study deals with the appropriateness of the coagulation process using natural coagulant Moringa oleifera seed. Natural coagulants are useful for the treatment of wastewater because of its sustainability, cost-effectiveness, non-toxicity and lesser quantity of sludge formation. M. oleifera seed having a chemical composition of polypeptides having 6 amino acids like arginine acid, methionine acid, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, threonine, and histidine. M. oleifera is also known as a cationic polyelectrolyte and having molecular weight 6,000 to16,000 Dalton. The main objective of research work is the application of the M. oleifera seed as a natural adsorbent to treat synthetic dairy wastewater. The effects of pH, agitation time, the dose of sorbent and efficacy of M. oleifera seeds kernel for turbidity removal was assessed. M. oleifera seed eliminates turbidity 95 % and colour 94 % using 0.22 gm pod powder, and 0.2 L of 1.0 g/L synthetic dairy wastewater. Naturally dried M. oleifera seeds remove turbidity 95 %, sundried seeds remove turbidity 52 % and oven-dried seeds 45 %. As naturally dried M. oleifera pod having more surface area for adsorption and inter-particulate bridging which extract the extra active ingredients.  pH range between 5 and 8 is more suitable to degrade the turbidity and colour. It is concluded that in the presence of an aqueous soluble cationic coagulant protein has great potential to remove the turbidity and colour of wastewater. HIGHLIGHTS oleifera seed having a chemical composition of polypeptides having 6 amino acids like arginine acid, methionine acid, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, threonine, and histidine oleifera seeds consist of crude fiber, lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. It also contains amino functional groups (R-NH3), carboxyl group (C=O), and fiber carbonaceous. The functional group present in M. oleifera seeds is dissociated during the adsorption process at various pH oleifera has good property of coagulation-flocculation (C-F) The effectiveness of naturally dried seed kernel is more effective than other seed kernels GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT

Ousmane Dembélé ◽  
Seydou Moussa Coulibaly ◽  
Jacques Dakouo ◽  
Benoît Y Koumaré

Background and Objectives: In a world marked by the spread of counterfeiting and substandard drugs, often without active ingredients or falsified active ingredients, greater vigilance by pharmaceutical regulatory authorities is necessary. The National Health Laboratory (LNS), in accordance with its mission, takes samples throughout the country in order to ensure their quality control. Methods: Samples were taken in certain regions and the district of Bamako and analyzed according to the standards of the United State Pharmacopoeia (USP), British Pharmacopoeia (BP) and International Pharmacopoeia (IP)by identification and assay methods. Products that do not meet the required specifications described by these pharmacopoeias are declared non-compliant. Results: This allowed us to analyze a total of 617 samples with 11 cases of non-compliance for a rate of 2%. The causes of the non-conformities were due to the absence of an active ingredient, an under-dosage of the active ingredient and technical and regulatory defects. Conclusion: After one year of activity, our results showed that out of a total of 617 drug samples collected and analyzed, 606 were compliant with a rate of 98% against 11 cases of non-compliance or 2% (p ≤ 0,05). The causes of the non-compliance were due to the absence of an active ingredient, an under-dosage of the active ingredient and technical and regulatory defects.                     Peer Review History: Received: 20 November 2021; Revised: 18 December; Accepted: 31 December, Available online: 15 January 2022 Academic Editor: Dr. Asia Selman Abdullah, Pharmacy institute, University of Basrah, Iraq, [email protected] UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency.  Received file:                Reviewer's Comments: Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 5.5/10 Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.0/10 Reviewers: Dr. Govind Vyas, Compliance & Regulatory Officer Inva-Tech Pharmaceuticals LLC, New-Jersey, USA, [email protected] Dr. Muhammad Zahid Iqbal, AIMST University, Malaysia, [email protected] Dr. Bilge Ahsen KARA, Ankara Gazi Mustafa Kemal Hospital, Turkey, [email protected] Dr. Mohammad Bayan, Faculty of Pharmacy, Philadelphia University, P.O. Box: 1 Philadelphia University 19392 Jordan, [email protected] Similar Articles: ASSESSMENT OF COMMUNITY PHARMACIST AWARENESS ON ADVERSE DRUG REACTION (ADR) AND PHARMACOVIGILANCE REPORTING SYSTEM IN KHARTOUM LOCALITY, SUDAN THE EFFICIENCY OF INEFFICIENCY: MEDICINE DISTRIBUTION IN SUDAN

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xin Feng ◽  
Yuelin Bi ◽  
Jiaqi Wang ◽  
Tianyi Li ◽  
Gengyuan Yu ◽  

Background: Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po Decoction (ZZHPD), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, is clinically used to treat insomnia and depression. The analysis strategy based on the concept of co-decoction of TCM is helpful to analyse the effective substances of TCM formula in depth.Aim of the study: This manuscript intends to take ZZHPD as a model sample to explore the phenomenon of co-decoction of complex formula in the combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technology, data analysis, and molecular docking.Materials and methods: In the current research, an innovative LC-MS method has been established to study the active ingredients in ZZHPD, and to identify the ingredients absorbed into the blood and brain tissues of mice. And molecular docking was used to study the binding pattern and affinities of known compounds of the brain tissue toward insomnia related proteins.Results: Based on new processing methods and analysis strategies, 106 chemical components were identified in ZZHPD, including 28 blood components and 18 brain components. Then, by comparing the different compounds in the co-decoction and single decoction, it was surprisingly found that 125 new ingredients were produced during the co-decoction, 2 of which were absorbed into the blood and 1 of which was absorbed into brain tissue. Ultimately, molecular docking studies showed that 18 brain components of ZZHPD had favourable binding conformation and affinity with GABA, serotonin and melatonin receptors. The docking results of GABRA1 with naringenin and hesperidin, HCRTR1 with naringenin-7-O-glucoside, poncirenin and genipin 1-gentiobioside, and luteolin with SLC6A4, GLO1, MAOB and MTNR1A may clarify the mechanism of action of ZZHPD in treating insomnia and depression.Conclusion: Our study may provide new ideas for further exploring the effective substances in ZZHPD.

2022 ◽  
Nabil A. Ibrahim ◽  
Basma M. Eid ◽  
El-Amir M. Emam

AbstractA green facile nano-finishing route was developed to impart high antibacterial efficacy, UV-protection, self-cleaning and anti-wrinkle functions to cotton/wool and viscose/wool blends using TiO2, and/or Ag-NPs, as active ingredients, along with citric acid and/or succinic acid/ SHP as ester-crosslinking/fixing systems. The data so obtained demonstrated that outstanding durable functional properties can be achieved using the following formulation: TiO2/Ag-NPs (20 g/L each), citric acid/SHP (50 g/L/30 g/L) and the pad- dry microwave fixation at 1300 W for 5 min. SEM and EDX analysis for selected samples as well mode of interactions among the nominated finishing ingredients and the treated substrates were also investigated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Jingxuan Zhou ◽  
Nanhai Zhang ◽  
Liang Zhao ◽  
Mohamed Mohamed Soliman ◽  
Wei Wu ◽  

Honey-processed Astragalus (HPA) is a mixture of Astragalus and honey, which is a processed product of Chinese medicine. It has the active ingredients of Astragalus and the unique effects of honey. However, the mechanism of HPA for improving alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is not clear. The purpose of this study is to explore the ameliorating effect and mechanism of HPA (4 and 8 g/kg bw) on alcoholic liver injury. Two doses of HPA were orally administered to alcohol-treated mice for four weeks. The results showed that HPA could effectively reduce triglycerides (TG) by 59% and free fat acid (FFA) and total cholesterol (TC) in serum and hepatic were reduced by least 25.9%. HPA could cause a decrease in serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from 0.145 mM to 0.117 mM, and the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was increased. After alcohol-treated mice were supplemented with HPA, antioxidant markers (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)), liver function index (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)), proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β)), and liver tissue were all significantly improved. This is related to the fact that HPA can promote the expression of oxidative stress-related genes and inhibit the expression of inflammation-related genes. In addition, HPA could also regulate the disturbance of the intestinal microflora. In general, HPA could significantly improve the accumulation of serum and liver lipids caused by alcohol and the imbalance of intestinal flora in mice. It could also improve liver function, oxidative stress, and inflammation.

2022 ◽  
Su-Ya Ma ◽  
Xu Wang ◽  
Jing Shi

Abstract Along with cognitive deficit, behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) is another characteration of Alzheimer's disease that hamper clinical management and exacerbate burden for caregivers. However, therapeutic management of BPSD remains challenging. HuanglianJiedu decoction (HLJDD), a traditional Chinese prescription which contains Coptidis rhizome(Huang lian), Scutellariae radix (Huang-qin), Phellodendri chinrnsis cortex (Huang-bai) and Gardeniae fructus (Zhi-zi), is applied to treat BPSD. So elucidating the herbs’ disease-matched pharmacological mechanisms underlying HLJDD, further put forward each herbs’ disease-matched combination are critical to the application of HLJDD. In this study, network pharmacology was used to determine the targets and biological processes regulated by HLJDD in the treatment of BPSD. Moreover, molecular docking was utilized to evaluate the binding activity between the herbs' main active ingredients and neurotransmitter receptors. The results showed that the KEGG signaling pathway of HLJDD in treating BPSD mainly lies in TNF signaling pathway and AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications. Scutellariae radix and Phellodendri chinrnsis cortex exhibited better anti-BPSD effects when compared to Coptidis rhizoma and Gardeniae fructus. Scutellariae radix exhibited superior anti-neuroinflammation functions, with better blood vessel regulation effects. Phellodendri chinrnsis cortex showed a higher binding affinity to the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (HTR2A). Coptidis rhizoma and Gardeniae fructus were better in neuronal signaling. In conclusion, for treating BPSD, Scutellariae radix and Phellodendri chinrnsis cortex are the principal herbs while Coptidis rhizoma and Gardeniae fructus are the ancillary herbs. Beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, chelerythrine, campesterol and berberine are the potential effective ingredients in treating BPSD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. 10
Katey Warran ◽  
Alexandra Burton ◽  
Daisy Fancourt

Background: There is a scarcity of research concerning what it is about arts engagement that may activate causal mechanisms leading to effects on health and wellbeing outcomes: their active ingredients. Further, the limited studies that do exist have tended to be relevant to specific contexts and types of art forms. The aim of this study was to carry out a comprehensive mapping of potential active ingredients, construct a shared language, and propose a framework and toolkit to support the design, implementation, and evaluation of arts in health activities.  Methods: Drawing upon Rapid Appraisal techniques and collaborating with 64 participants, we engaged in a three-phase process: 1) a scoping review to inform the development of an initial framework; 2) consultation on the initial framework; and 3) analysis and construction of the INNATE framework.   Results: The study identified 139 potential active ingredients within the overarching categories of project, people, and contexts. Project components relate directly to the content of the arts activity itself, intrinsic to what the activity is. The people category denotes how people interact through engagement with the activity and who is involved in this interaction, including activity facilitation. Contexts relates to the activity setting comprising the aggregate of place(s), things, and surroundings. Aligning with complexity science, Ingredients may overlap, interconnect, or feed into one another to prompt mechanisms, and may not be experienced as distinct by participants.   Conclusions: Our mapping exercise is the most extensive to date. In relation to arts in health activities, the INNATE framework can support with: design and implementation, such as co-producing an intervention to meet the needs of a particular population; evaluation, such as facilitating the comparison of different interventions and their efficacy; and replication, scalability, and sustainability through enabling detailed reporting and specific articulation of what an arts in health activity entails.

2022 ◽  
luyun xia ◽  
Zheng Luo ◽  
Haiyan Zhu ◽  
Yu-qin Tang ◽  
Lili Huang ◽  

Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most prevalent chronic liver disease in the world, has yet to identify a particular medicine for treatment. Danggui Shaoyao San (DSS), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, has steadily been employed to treat NAFLD in recent years. Methods The active ingredients of the DSS were screened from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP), and the candidate targets of the ingredients were collected through the PharmMapper platform. NAFLD-related targets were acquired from NCBI, DisGeNet, Genecards databases. Venn diagram was used to identify possible DSS drug strategies in the treatment of NAFLD. Active ingredients - potential therapeutic targets network constructed in Cytoscape. The STRING database provides PPI networks. Metascape was used to evaluate targets using Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Finally, molecular docking simulations were performed using Pymol 2.4.0, AutoDuck Tools 1.5.6 and LigPlot 2.2.4 software to assess the affinity of key ingredients and targets. Results 51 compounds were screened in the DSS, including paeoniflorin, poric acid A and poric acid B. There are a total of 38 cross-targets between herbs and NAFLD. PPI network analysis identified AKT1, ALB, PPARG, and CASP3 as priority targets. GO analysis focused on vesicle lumen, nutrition levels, and nitrous-oxide synthase regulator activity. DSS may have therapeutic benefits via the pathways in cancer,foxo signaling pathway,IL-17 signaling pathway, Th17 cell differentiation, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway according to KEGG analysis. Sitosterol and β- sitosterol were proven to be true promising compounds with excellent affinity in the final molecular docking. Conclusions DSS entails a number of components, targets, and routes, and it provides novel therapy and preventative alternatives for NAFLD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xu Zeng ◽  
Jiaxue Li ◽  
Xinkai Lyu ◽  
Juan Chen ◽  
Xiaomei Chen ◽  

Codonopsis pilosula has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years, where it has been used to treat anaemia, fatigue, a weak spleen, and stomach problems, among other ailments. The roots of C. pilosula are considered medicinal, while the aerial parts are always directly discarded after harvest in autumn or winter. Some studies have shown that the stems and leaves of C. pilosula also contain a variety of active metabolites, including saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, and polysaccharides. To efficiently utilise resources, waste products from C. pilosula leaves and stems were analysed by untargeted metabolomics and chemometrics. A total of 1508 metabolites were detected and annotated, of which 463 were identified as differentially expressed metabolites (DEMs). These DEMs were grouped into classes, such as carboxylic acids and derivatives, steroids, organic oxygen compounds, fatty acyls, prenol lipids, and flavonoids. Metabolic profiling of C. pilosula tissues showed that the contents of polyacetylenes, polyenes, flavonoids, some alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, and organic acids were higher in stems and leaves, whereas the contents of the main lignans and some alkaloids were more enriched in roots. Moreover, C. pilosula stems and leaves also contained a lobetyolin, syringin and atractylenolide III, which were detected by LC-MS/MS and HPLC-UV. The extracts of C. pilosula aerial parts also showed stronger antioxidant properties than roots. C. pilosula stems and leaves were rich in active ingredients and might have great value for development and utilisation.

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