corrective surgery
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Pan Hong ◽  
Ruikang Liu ◽  
Saroj Rai ◽  
Jin Li

Background: Cubitus varus deformity is a common complication of untreated elbow fractures in children. However, cubitus varus in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) children is a rare but challenging situation. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study discussing the correction of cubitus varus deformity in patient with OI.Case Presentation: Here we report a case of a 7-year-old OI girl with cubitus varus deformity due to a supracondylar fracture of humerus 3 year ago. The patient's parent gave a history of supracondylar fracture of left humerus in 2015. Without medical intervention, the patient was admitted into our institution for corrective surgery with the diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta and cubitus varus deformity in the left arm.Result: Medications including calcium, vitamin D and bisphosphonates were administered before the corrective surgery of cubitus varus, and a single locking plate was used to fixate the osteotomy. After the surgery, the appearance and range of motion (ROM) of the left arm was almost normal. Combined with gradual rehabilitation, the ROM of the left arm was normal without pain during daily use within the 1-year follow up. The hardware was removed as the nailing of the forearm fractures was performed at the same time. In the latest follow-up in September 2021, the appearance and ROM of the left arm was normal.Conclusion: Cubitus varus is a common deformity in children with elbow injuries, but it presents a challenging situation in compound fractures in OI patients. Locking plate combined with meticulous pharmacological intervention provides a good option for corrective surgery of cubitus varus in patients with OI.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Masayoshi Iwamae ◽  
Akira Matsumura ◽  
Takashi Namikawa ◽  
Masatoshi Hoshino ◽  
Yusuke Hori ◽  

Children ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 31
Speranța Schmitzer ◽  
Sorin-Dorin Haidu ◽  
Ioana Popteanu ◽  
Anca Angela Simionescu

Background: The congenital tarsal kink syndrome is a rare form of congenital upper eyelid entropion associated with cardiovascular, musculoskeletal or central nervous system disorders. This syndrome must be recognized and surgically treated as a perinatal emergency to avoid associated complications—corneal ulcer, corneal leucoma, secondary amblyopia and decreased vision among children. Methods: A literature review was conducted to clarify the diagnosis particularities and the corrective surgery options of the congenital entropion on the upper eyelid. Results: Four relevant studies were found by researching the Web of Science and PubMed databases up to November 2021 for “congenital tarsal kink syndrome” and “congenital upper eyelid entropion”. Conclusions: In this paper, we present a case of congenital unilateral entropion of the upper left eyelid in the context of a tarsal kink syndrome in a one-month old infant, manifested by the absence of eyelashes on the upper eyelid of the left eye, hyperlacrimation and conjunctival hyperemia. Essential in managing the upper eyelid entropion is protecting the cornea. Furthermore, correcting a tarsal kink is eminently surgical, choosing between open or closed procedures. Herein, we address the difficulty in the timely diagnosis of this uncommon condition and make formal recommendations based on all reported cases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 104-B (1) ◽  
pp. 103-111
Jie Li ◽  
Zongshan Hu ◽  
Zhikai Qian ◽  
Ziyang Tang ◽  
Yong Qiu ◽  

Aims The outcome following the development of neurological complications after corrective surgery for scoliosis varies from full recovery to a permanent deficit. This study aimed to assess the prognosis and recovery of major neurological deficits in these patients, and to determine the risk factors for non-recovery, at a minimum follow-up of two years. Methods A major neurological deficit was identified in 65 of 8,870 patients who underwent corrective surgery for scoliosis, including eight with complete paraplegia and 57 with incomplete paraplegia. There were 23 male and 42 female patients. Their mean age was 25.0 years (SD 16.3). The aetiology of the scoliosis was idiopathic (n = 6), congenital (n = 23), neuromuscular (n = 11), neurofibromatosis type 1 (n = 6), and others (n = 19). Neurological function was determined by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale at a mean follow-up of 45.4 months (SD 17.2). the patients were divided into those with recovery and those with no recovery according to the ASIA scale during follow-up. Results The incidence of major deficit was 0.73%. At six-month follow-up, 39 patients (60%) had complete recovery and ten (15.4%) had incomplete recovery; these percentages improved to 70.8% (46) and 16.9% (11) at follow-up of two years, respectively. Eight patients showed no recovery at the final follow-up. The cause of injury was mechanical in 39 patients and ischaemic in five. For 11 patients with misplaced implants and haematoma formation, nine had complete recovery. Fisher’s exact test showed a significant difference in the aetiology of the scoliosis (p = 0.007) and preoperative deficit (p = 0.016) between the recovery and non-recovery groups. A preoperative deficit was found to be significantly associated with non-recovery (odds ratio 8.5 (95% confidence interval 1.676 to 43.109); p = 0.010) in a multivariate regression model. Conclusion For patients with scoliosis who develop a major neurological deficit after corrective surgery, recovery (complete and incomplete) can be expected in 87.7%. The first three to six months is the time window for recovery. In patients with misplaced implants and haematoma formation, the prognosis is satisfactory with appropriate early intervention. Patients with a preoperative neurological deficit are at a significant risk of having a permanent deficit. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2022;104-B(1):103–111.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-4
Angie Carolina Carreño-Martínez ◽  
Victor Clemente Mendoza Rojas ◽  
Julian Arturo Gil Forero ◽  
Victor Hugo Figueroa ◽  
Gustavo Adolfo Contreras-García

Mixed gonadal dysgenesis is the most common chromosomal abnormality with ambiguous genitalia, defined as a 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. It can present with a normal male phenotype, ambiguous genitalia, or features of Turner syndrome. A 14-year-old patient was referred to the genetics clinic due to hypospadia, cryptorchidism, and aortic coarctation. During the physical examination, short stature, webbed neck, and Blashko lines on his back were noted. He had a previous karyotype reported as normal. However, due to an inadequate evolution and a low resolution on the previous test, a higher resolution karyotype was performed, identifying a mosaicism 45,X/46,XY. A multidisciplinary board examined the case, and follow-up with tumor markers was carried out to evaluate the presence of gonadoblastoma, one of the main complications in these patients. Treatment should be transdisciplinary and focused on the particular characteristics of each case. Other treatment alternatives include corrective surgery and hormonal therapy.

Spine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Owoicho Adogwa ◽  
James P. Caruso ◽  
Cody M. Eldridge ◽  
Ravinderjit Singh ◽  
Sai Chilakapati ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 107110072110522
Marc Merian ◽  
Achim Kaim

Background: Corrective surgery for flexible flatfoot deformity (FD) remains controversial, and one of the main reasons for this is the lack of standardized radiographic measurements to define an FD. Previously published radiographic parameters to differentiate between a foot with and without an FD do not have a commonly accepted and distinct threshold. Methods: The plantar fascia–talar head correlation (PTC) with its defined threshold was assessed by measuring the distance between the medial border of the plantar fascia and the center of the talar head (DPT) on conventional dorsoplantar and lateral weightbearing radiographs; the authors were blinded to the clinical diagnosis of the 189 patients’ first visits. Feet were sorted into groups with and without an FD based on their clinical examination. The effect of operative corrections of FD on the PTC was retrospectively evaluated on an additional 38 patients. Results: The sensitivity of the PTC was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.9-1) and specificity 0.96 (95% CI: 0.92-0.98), respectively, to identify an FD, consistent with the clinical examination. Thirty-five of 38 surgeries sufficiently corrected the FD and the PTC comparable to that in subjects without an FD. Three corrections with a residual FD did not adequately correct the PTC. Conclusion: The PTC is a reliable radiographic parameter with a distinct threshold that is sensitive and specific for the differentiation of feet with and without an FD including feet with and without residual FD after corrective surgery. The PTC is applicable to monitor the needed intraoperative amount of correction using simulated weightbearing fluoroscopy. Level of Evidence: Level III, diagnostic.

2021 ◽  
Tomoyuki Asada ◽  
Kousei Miura ◽  
Masao Koda ◽  
Hideki Kadone ◽  
Toru Funayama ◽  

Abstract PurposeTo investigate whether preoperative dynamic spinal alignment that worsened during gait as detected by three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis can be a predictive factor for proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) after corrective surgery for adult spinal deformity (ASD) with a minimum 1-year follow-up.MethodWe included 27 patients with ASD who underwent 3D gait analysis before corrective surgery and had >1-year follow-up. Dynamic spinal alignment parameters were obtained using a Nexus motion capture system (Vicon, Oxford, UK) with reflective markers. Spinal alignment was assessed in each region and pelvic alignment was assessed with surface markers. Patients were asked to walk for as long as possible around an oval walkway. We obtained the averaged dynamic parameters in the final lap and compared them between patients with PJK(+) and those with PJK(–).ResultsPJK occurred in 7 patients (26%). Preoperative angle between the thoracic spine and the pelvis was larger in patients with PJK(+) than in those with PJK(–) (32.3 ± 8.1 vs 18.7 ± 13.5, P = 0.020) with sufficient sample size. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified the angle between the thoracic spine and pelvis as an independent risk for PJK.ConclusionPreoperative thoracic kyphosis exacerbated by gait as determined in 3D gait analysis is a preoperative independent risk factor of PJK in patients undergoing ASD corrective surgery.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (22) ◽  
pp. 5296
Ahmed Farghal A. Mohammed ◽  
Michael Frick ◽  
Gunter Kerst ◽  
Nima Hatam ◽  
Mohamed-Adel F. Elgamal ◽  

Aortopathy is a known complication whose incidence is growing within the population of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) patients. Its pathology and relationship with other comorbidities remain unclear. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and predictors of proximal aortic dilatation after TOF repair. We retrospectively investigated all patients who underwent follow-up cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR; at least 4 years after TOF repair) between March 2004 and December 2019. The dimensions at the ascending aorta (AAo) and sinus of Valsalva (SoV) levels were measured. Aortic dilatation was defined as an internal aortic diameter that was >2 standard deviation of the previously published normal values. We included 77 patients (mean age 28.9 ± 10.5 years, 41.5% female, mean follow-up of 24.5 ± 8.1 years). AAo and SoV were dilated in 19 (24.6%) and 43 (55.8%) patients, respectively. Patients with dilated AAo and SoV were older during the corrective surgery (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively) and during CMR (p = 0.002 and 0.024, respectively) than patients without AAo and SoV dilatation. Patients of the dilated AAo group were more likely to have prior palliative shunt (p = 0.008), longer shunt duration (p = 0.005), and a higher degree of aortic valve regurgitation (AR) fraction (p < 0.001) and to undergo pulmonary (PVR) and/or aortic valve replacement (p < 0.001 and p = 0.013, respectively). PVR (p = 0.048, odds ratio = 6.413, and 95% CI = 1.013–40.619) and higher AR fraction (p = 0.031, odds ratio = 1.194, and 95% CI = 1.017–1.403) were independent predictors for AAo dilatation. Aortopathy is a common progressive complication that may require reintervention and lifelong follow-up. Our study shows that proximal aortic dilatation may be attributed to factors that increase the volume overload across the proximal aorta, including late corrective surgery and palliative shunt. We also found that PVR and higher AR fraction are independent predictors of AAo dilatation.

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