gait analysis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 65 (5) ◽  
pp. 101597
Author(s):  
Shams Ribault ◽  
Ahmed Adham ◽  
François Cotton ◽  
Lisette Arsenault ◽  
Ludovic Delporte ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 74 ◽  
pp. 103488
Author(s):  
A.J. FitzPatrick ◽  
G.W. Rodgers ◽  
J.W. Fernandez ◽  
G.J. Hooper

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-24
Author(s):  
Sizhe An ◽  
Yigit Tuncel ◽  
Toygun Basaklar ◽  
Gokul K. Krishnakumar ◽  
Ganapati Bhat ◽  
...  

Movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, affect more than 10 million people worldwide. Gait analysis is a critical step in the diagnosis and rehabilitation of these disorders. Specifically, step and stride lengths provide valuable insights into the gait quality and rehabilitation process. However, traditional approaches for estimating step length are not suitable for continuous daily monitoring since they rely on special mats and clinical environments. To address this limitation, this article presents a novel and practical step-length estimation technique using low-power wearable bend and inertial sensors. Experimental results show that the proposed model estimates step length with 5.49% mean absolute percentage error and provides accurate real-time feedback to the user.


2022 ◽  
pp. 9-18
Author(s):  
Luca Lonini ◽  
Yaejin Moon ◽  
Kyle Embry ◽  
R. James Cotton ◽  
Kelly McKenzie ◽  
...  

Recent advancements in deep learning have produced significant progress in markerless human pose estimation, making it possible to estimate human kinematics from single camera videos without the need for reflective markers and specialized labs equipped with motion capture systems. Such algorithms have the potential to enable the quantification of clinical metrics from videos recorded with a handheld camera. Here we used DeepLabCut, an open-source framework for markerless pose estimation, to fine-tune a deep network to track 5 body keypoints (hip, knee, ankle, heel, and toe) in 82 below-waist videos of 8 patients with stroke performing overground walking during clinical assessments. We trained the pose estimation model by labeling the keypoints in 2 frames per video and then trained a convolutional neural network to estimate 5 clinically relevant gait parameters (cadence, double support time, swing time, stance time, and walking speed) from the trajectory of these keypoints. These results were then compared to those obtained from a clinical system for gait analysis (GAITRite®, CIR Systems). Absolute accuracy (mean error) and precision (standard deviation of error) for swing, stance, and double support time were within 0.04 ± 0.11 s; Pearson’s correlation with the reference system was moderate for swing times (<i>r</i> = 0.4–0.66), but stronger for stance and double support time (<i>r</i> = 0.93–0.95). Cadence mean error was −0.25 steps/min ± 3.9 steps/min (<i>r</i> = 0.97), while walking speed mean error was −0.02 ± 0.11 m/s (<i>r</i> = 0.92). These preliminary results suggest that single camera videos and pose estimation models based on deep networks could be used to quantify clinically relevant gait metrics in individuals poststroke, even while using assistive devices in uncontrolled environments. Such development opens the door to applications for gait analysis both inside and outside of clinical settings, without the need of sophisticated equipment.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mickael Fonseca ◽  
Stéphane Armand ◽  
Raphaël Dumas ◽  
Fabien Leboeuf ◽  
Mariette Bergere ◽  
...  

Abstract Clinical gait analysis supports treatment decisions for patients with motor disorders. Measurement reproducibility is affected by extrinsic errors such as marker misplacement—considered the main factor in gait analysis variability. However, how marker placement affects output kinematics is not completely understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the Conventional Gait Model’s sensitivity to marker placement. Using a dataset of kinematics for 20 children, eight lower-limb markers were virtually displaced by 10 mm in all four planes, and all the displacement combinations were recalculated. Root-mean-square deviation angles were calculated for each simulation with respect to the original kinematics. The marker movements with the greatest impact were for the femoral and tibial wands together with the lateral femoral epicondyle marker when displaced in the anterior–posterior axis. When displaced alone, the femoral wand was responsible for a deviation of 7.3° (± 1.8°) in hip rotation. Transversal plane measurements were affected most, with around 40% of simulations resulting in an effect greater than the acceptable limit of 5°. This study also provided insight into which markers need to be placed very carefully to obtain more reliable gait data.


Author(s):  
Gunjan Patel ◽  
Rajani Mullerpatan ◽  
Bela Agarwal ◽  
Triveni Shetty ◽  
Rajdeep Ojha ◽  
...  

Wearable inertial sensor-based motion analysis systems are promising alternatives to standard camera-based motion capture systems for the measurement of gait parameters and joint kinematics. These wearable sensors, unlike camera-based gold standard systems, find usefulness in outdoor natural environment along with confined indoor laboratory-based environment due to miniature size and wireless data transmission. This study reports validation of our developed (i-Sens) wearable motion analysis system against standard motion capture system. Gait analysis was performed at self-selected speed on non-disabled volunteers in indoor ( n = 15) and outdoor ( n = 8) environments. Two i-Sens units were placed at the level of knee and hip along with passive markers (for indoor study only) for simultaneous 3D motion capture using a motion capture system. Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was computed for spatiotemporal parameters from the i-Sens system versus the motion capture system as a true reference. Mean and standard deviation of kinematic data for a gait cycle were plotted for both systems against normative data. Joint kinematics data were analyzed to compute the root mean squared error (RMSE) and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Kinematic plots indicate a high degree of accuracy of the i-Sens system with the reference system. Excellent positive correlation was observed between the two systems in terms of hip and knee joint angles (Indoor: hip 3.98° ± 1.03°, knee 6.48° ± 1.91°, Outdoor: hip 3.94° ± 0.78°, knee 5.82° ± 0.99°) with low RMSE. Reliability characteristics (defined using standard statistical thresholds of MAPE) of stride length, cadence, walking speed in both outdoor and indoor environment were well within the “Good” category. The i-Sens system has emerged as a potentially cost-effective, valid, accurate, and reliable alternative to expensive, standard motion capture systems for gait analysis. Further clinical trials using the i-Sens system are warranted on participants across different age groups.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jessica C. Böpple ◽  
Michael Tanner ◽  
Sarah Campos ◽  
Christian Fischer ◽  
Sebastian Müller ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Ankle fractures are common fractures in trauma surgery. Several studies have compared gait patterns between affected patients and control groups. However, no one used the Heidelberg Foot Measurement Method in combination with statistical parametric mapping of the entire gait cycle in this patient cohort. We sought to identify possible mobility deficits in the tibio-talar joint and medial arch in patients after ankle fractures as a sign of stiffness and pain that could result in a pathological gait pattern. We focused on the tibio-talar flexion as it is the main movement in the tibio-talar joint. Moreover, we examined the healing progress over time. Methods Fourteen patients with isolated ankle fractures were included prospectively. A gait analysis using the Heidelberg Foot Measurement Method was performed 9 and 26 weeks after surgery to analyse the tibio-talar dorsal flexion, the foot tibia dorsal flexion, the subtalar inversion and the medial arch as well as the cadence, the walking speed and the ground reaction force. The American Orthopedic Foot & Ankle Society ankle hindfoot score was used to obtain clinical data. Results were compared to those from 20 healthy participants. Furthermore, correlations between the American Orthopedic Foot & Ankle Society hindfoot score and the results of the gait analysis were evaluated. Results Statistical parametric mapping showed significant differences for the Foot Tibia Dorsal Flexion for patients after 9 weeks (53–75%: p = 0.001) and patients after 26 weeks (58–70%: p = 0.011) compared to healthy participants, respectively. Furthermore, significant differences regarding the tibio-talar dorsal flexion for patients 9 weeks after surgery (15–40%: p < 0.001; 56,5–70%: p = 0.007; 82–88%: p = 0.033; 97–98,5%: p = 0.048) as well as patients after 26 weeks (62,5–65%: p = 0.049) compared to healthy participants, respectively. There were no significant differences looking at the medial arch and the subtalar inversion. Moreover, significant differences regarding the ground reaction force were found for patients after 9 weeks (0–17%: p < 0.001; 21–37%: p < 0.001; 41–54%: p < 0.001; 60–64%: p = 0.013) as well as patients after 26 weeks (0–1,5%: p = 0.046; 5–15%: p < 0.001; 27–33%: p = 0.001; 45–49%: p = 0.005; 57–59%: p = 0.049) compared to healthy participants, respectively. In total, the range of motion in the tibio-talar joint and the medial arch was reduced in affected patients compared to healthy participants. Patients showed significant increase of the range of motion between 9 and 26 weeks. Conclusions This study shows, that patients affected by ankle fractures show limited mobility in the tibio-talar joint and the medial arch when compared to healthy participants. Even though the limitation of motion remains at least over a period of 26 weeks, a significant increase can be recognized over time. Furthermore, if we look at the absolute values, the patients’ values tend to get closer to those of the control group. Trial registration This study is registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00023379).


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Aditya Viswakumar ◽  
Venkateswaran Rajagopalan ◽  
Tathagata Ray ◽  
Pranitha Gottipati ◽  
Chandu Parimi

Gait analysis is used in many fields such as Medical Diagnostics, Osteopathic medicine, Comparative and Sports-related biomechanics, etc. The most commonly used system for capturing gait is the advanced video camera-based passive marker system such as VICON. However, such systems are expensive, and reflective markers on subjects can be intrusive and time-consuming. Moreover, the setup of markers for certain rehabilitation patients, such as people with stroke or spinal cord injuries, could be difficult. Recently, some markerless systems were introduced to overcome the challenges of marker-based systems. However, current markerless systems have low accuracy and pose other challenges in gait analysis with people in long clothing, hiding the gait kinematics. The present work attempts to make an affordable, easy-to-use, accurate gait analysis system while addressing all the mentioned issues. The system in this study uses images from a video taken with a smartphone camera (800 × 600 pixels at an average rate of 30 frames per second). The system uses OpenPose, a 2D real-time multi-person keypoint detection technique. The system learns to associate body parts with individuals in the image using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). This bottom-up system achieves high accuracy and real-time performance, regardless of the number of people in the image. The proposed system is called the “OpenPose based Markerless Gait Analysis System” (OMGait). Ankle, knee, and hip flexion/extension angle values were measured using OMGait in 16 healthy volunteers under different lighting and clothing conditions. The measured kinematic values were compared with a standard video camera based normative dataset and data from a markerless MS Kinect system. The mean absolute error value of the joint angles from the proposed system was less than 90 for different lighting conditions and less than 110 for different clothing conditions compared to the normative dataset. The proposed system is adequate in measuring the kinematic values of the ankle, knee, and hip. It also performs better than the markerless systems like MS Kinect that fail to measure the kinematics of ankle, knee, and hip joints under dark and bright light conditions and in subjects with long robe clothing.


10.2196/32724 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. e32724
Author(s):  
Moritz Kraus ◽  
Maximilian Michael Saller ◽  
Sebastian Felix Baumbach ◽  
Carl Neuerburg ◽  
Ulla Cordula Stumpf ◽  
...  

Background Assessment of the physical frailty of older patients is of great importance in many medical disciplines to be able to implement individualized therapies. For physical tests, time is usually used as the only objective measure. To record other objective factors, modern wearables offer great potential for generating valid data and integrating the data into medical decision-making. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the predictive value of insole data, which were collected during the Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG) test, to the benchmark standard questionnaire for sarcopenia (SARC-F: strength, assistance with walking, rising from a chair, climbing stairs, and falls) and physical assessment (TUG test) for evaluating physical frailty, defined by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), using machine learning algorithms. Methods This cross-sectional study included patients aged >60 years with independent ambulation and no mental or neurological impairment. A comprehensive set of parameters associated with physical frailty were assessed, including body composition, questionnaires (European Quality of Life 5-dimension [EQ 5D 5L], SARC-F), and physical performance tests (SPPB, TUG), along with digital sensor insole gait parameters collected during the TUG test. Physical frailty was defined as an SPPB score≤8. Advanced statistics, including random forest (RF) feature selection and machine learning algorithms (K-nearest neighbor [KNN] and RF) were used to compare the diagnostic value of these parameters to identify patients with physical frailty. Results Classified by the SPPB, 23 of the 57 eligible patients were defined as having physical frailty. Several gait parameters were significantly different between the two groups (with and without physical frailty). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of the TUG test was superior to that of the SARC-F (0.862 vs 0.639). The recursive feature elimination algorithm identified 9 parameters, 8 of which were digital insole gait parameters. Both the KNN and RF algorithms trained with these parameters resulted in excellent results (AUROC of 0.801 and 0.919, respectively). Conclusions A gait analysis based on machine learning algorithms using sensor soles is superior to the SARC-F and the TUG test to identify physical frailty in orthogeriatric patients.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Elsa J. Harris ◽  
I-Hung Khoo ◽  
Emel Demircan

We performed an electronic database search of published works from 2012 to mid-2021 that focus on human gait studies and apply machine learning techniques. We identified six key applications of machine learning using gait data: 1) Gait analysis where analyzing techniques and certain biomechanical analysis factors are improved by utilizing artificial intelligence algorithms, 2) Health and Wellness, with applications in gait monitoring for abnormal gait detection, recognition of human activities, fall detection and sports performance, 3) Human Pose Tracking using one-person or multi-person tracking and localization systems such as OpenPose, Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM), etc., 4) Gait-based biometrics with applications in person identification, authentication, and re-identification as well as gender and age recognition 5) “Smart gait” applications ranging from smart socks, shoes, and other wearables to smart homes and smart retail stores that incorporate continuous monitoring and control systems and 6) Animation that reconstructs human motion utilizing gait data, simulation and machine learning techniques. Our goal is to provide a single broad-based survey of the applications of machine learning technology in gait analysis and identify future areas of potential study and growth. We discuss the machine learning techniques that have been used with a focus on the tasks they perform, the problems they attempt to solve, and the trade-offs they navigate.


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