booster vaccination
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Xiaoqi Yu ◽  
Dong Wei ◽  
Wenxin Xu ◽  
Yulong Li ◽  
Xinxin Li ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Li Wei Ang ◽  
Qi Gao ◽  
Lin Cui ◽  
Aysha Farwin ◽  
Matthias Paul Han Sim Toh ◽  

Abstract Background Since the last local case of diphtheria in 1992, there had not been any case in Singapore until an autochthonous case was reported in 2017. This fatal diphtheria case of a migrant worker raised concerns about the potential re-emergence of locally transmitted toxigenic diphtheria in Singapore. We conducted a seroprevalence study to assess the immunity levels to diphtheria among migrant workers in Singapore. Methods Residual sera from migrant workers who hailed from Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and the Philippines were tested for anti-diphtheria toxoid immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. These migrant workers previously participated in a survey between 2016 and 2019 and had provided blood samples as part of the survey procedure. Results A total of 2176 migrant workers were included in the study. Their overall mean age was 27.1 years (standard deviation 5.0), range was 20–43 years. The proportion having at least basic protection against diphtheria (antitoxin titres ≥ 0.01 IU/ml) ranged from 77.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 72.8 – 82.3%) among migrant workers from Bangladesh to 96.7% (95% CI 92.5 – 98.6%) in those hailing from Malaysia. The proportion showing full protection (antitoxin titres ≥ 0.10 IU/ml) ranged from 10.1% (95% CI 6.5 – 15.4%) in Chinese workers to 23.0% (95% CI 17.1 – 30.3%) in Malaysian workers. There were no significant differences in the proportion with at least basic protection across birth cohorts, except for those from Bangladesh where the seroprevalence was significantly lower in younger migrant workers born after 1989. Conclusions The proportions having at least basic protection against diphtheria in migrant workers from five out of seven Asian countries (India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and the Philippines) were higher than 85%, the threshold for diphtheria herd immunity. Seroprevalence surveys should be conducted periodically to assess the level of immunity against diphtheria and other vaccine preventable diseases in migrant worker population, so that appropriate interventions such as booster vaccination can be implemented proactively to prevent sporadic outbreaks.

2022 ◽  
Arinjay Banerjee ◽  
Jocelyne Lew ◽  
Andrea Kroeker ◽  
Kaushal Baid ◽  
Patryk Aftanas ◽  

The omicron variant of concern (VOC) of SARS-CoV-2 was first reported in November 2021 in Botswana and South Africa. Omicron variant has evolved multiple mutations within the spike protein and the receptor binding domain (RBD), raising concerns of increased antibody evasion. Here, we isolated infectious omicron from a clinical specimen obtained in Canada. The neutralizing activity of sera from 65 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine recipients and convalescent individuals against clinical isolates of ancestral SARS-CoV-2, beta, delta, and omicron VOCs was assessed. Convalescent sera from unvaccinated individuals infected by the ancestral virus during the first wave of COVID-19 in Canada (July, 2020) demonstrated reduced neutralization against beta, delta and omicron VOCs. Convalescent sera from unvaccinated individuals infected by the delta variant (May-June, 2021) neutralized omicron to significantly lower levels compared to the delta variant. Sera from individuals that received three doses of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines demonstrated reduced neutralization of both delta and omicron variants relative to ancestral SARS-CoV-2. Sera from individuals that were naturally infected with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and subsequently received two doses of the Pfizer vaccine induced significantly higher neutralizing antibody levels against ancestral virus and all VOCs. Importantly, infection alone, either with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 or the delta variant was not sufficient to induce high neutralizing antibody titers against omicron. This data will inform current booster vaccination strategies and we highlight the need for additional studies to identify longevity of immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and optimal neutralizing antibody levels that are necessary to prevent infection and/or severe COVID-19.

2022 ◽  
pp. annrheumdis-2021-221558
Michael Bonelli ◽  
Daniel Mrak ◽  
Selma Tobudic ◽  
Daniela Sieghart ◽  
Maximilian Koblischke ◽  

ObjectivesSARS‐CoV‐2-induced COVID-19 has led to exponentially rising mortality, particularly in immunosuppressed patients, who inadequately respond to conventional COVID-19 vaccination.MethodsIn this blinded randomised clinical trial, we compare the efficacy and safety of an additional booster vaccination with a vector versus mRNA vaccine in non-seroconverted patients. We assigned 60 patients under rituximab treatment, who did not seroconvert after their primary mRNA vaccination with either BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna), to receive a third dose, either using the same mRNA or the vector vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford–AstraZeneca). Patients were stratified according to the presence of peripheral B cells. The primary efficacy endpoint was the difference in the SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroconversion rate between vector (heterologous) and mRNA (homologous) vaccinated patients by week 4. Key secondary endpoints included the overall seroconversion and cellular immune response; safety was assessed at week 1 and week 4.ResultsSeroconversion rates at week 4 were comparable between vector (6/27 patients, 22%) and mRNA (9/28, 32%) vaccines (p=0.6). Overall, 27% of patients seroconverted; specific T cell responses were observed in 20/20 (100%) vector versus 13/16 (81%) mRNA vaccinated patients. Newly induced humoral and/or cellular responses occurred in 9/11 (82%) patients. 3/37 (8%) of patients without and 12/18 (67%) of the patients with detectable peripheral B cells seroconverted. No serious adverse events, related to immunisation, were observed.ConclusionsThis enhanced humoral and/or cellular immune response supports an additional booster vaccination in non-seroconverted patients irrespective of a heterologous or homologous vaccination regimen.

2022 ◽  
Jacob Waxman ◽  
Maya Makov-Assif ◽  
Ben Reis ◽  
Doron Nezer ◽  
Ran Balicer ◽  

Abstract Introduction: With the COVID-19 pandemic ongoing, accurate assessment of population immunity and the effectiveness of booster and enhancer vaccines is critical. Methods We compare COVID-19-related hospitalization incidence rate ratios, adjusted for potential demographic, clinical and health-seeking-behavior confounders, in 2,412,755 individuals (235,552,274 person-days), across four exposures: 2 BNT162b2 doses, 5 or more months prior ("non-recent vaccine immunity"); 3 BNT162b2 doses (“boosted vaccine immunity”); previous COVID-19, with or without a subsequent BNT162b2 dose (“natural immunity” and “enhanced natural immunity” respectively). Results Compared with non-recent vaccine immunity, COVID-19-related hospitalization incidence rate ratios are 11% (9%-13%) for boosted vaccine immunity, 34% (23%-50%) for natural immunity and 25% (17%-39%) for enhanced natural immunity. Conclusion We demonstrate that natural immunity (enhanced or not) provides better protection against COVID-19-related hospitalization than non-recent vaccine immunity, but less protection than that attained from booster vaccination. Additionally, our results suggest that vaccinating individuals with natural immunity further enhances their protection.

Jung-Hyun Choi ◽  
Jaime Correia de Sousa ◽  
Monica Fletcher ◽  
Giovanni Gabutti ◽  
Lauriane Harrington ◽  

AbstractDespite the implementation of effective paediatric vaccination programmes, pertussis remains a global health problem. Disease epidemiology has changed over time, shifting towards the adolescent and adult populations. In adults, the true burden of pertussis is greatly underestimated and pertussis vaccine coverage rates are suboptimal, including individuals with chronic conditions. Here, we report the outcomes of a virtual international scientific workshop to assess the evidence on the burden of pertussis in older adults and identify potential solutions to improve uptake of pertussis vaccines. In adults, pertussis is underdiagnosed in part due to atypical or milder clinical presentation and the lack of testing and case confirmation. However, contemporary epidemiological data denoted an increase in the burden of pertussis among adolescents and adults. This might be related to a variety of reasons including the waning of immunity over time, the lack of booster vaccination, and the improved diagnostic methods that led to increased recognition of the disease in adults. Pertussis sequelae can be severe in older adults, particularly those with existing chronic medical conditions, and the vulnerability of these groups is further enhanced by low pertussis vaccine coverage. Possible measures to increase vaccine uptake include strengthening and harmonisation of immunisation guidelines, healthcare professionals taking a more active role in recommending pertussis vaccination, involvement of vaccination centres and pharmacies in the vaccination process, and improving knowledge of pertussis burden and vaccine efficacy among the general population.

2022 ◽  
Krishna Mohan Vadrevu ◽  
Brunda Ganneru ◽  
Siddharth Reddy ◽  
Harsh Jogdand ◽  
Raju Dugyala ◽  

Background: Neutralising antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been reported to decline within 6 months of vaccination, particularly against Variants of Concern (VOC). We assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of BBV152 administered 6 months after the second of a two-dose primary vaccination series. Methods: In an ongoing phase 2 trial ( NCT04471519) the protocol was amended after six months to re-consent and randomise 184 previously vaccinated participants to receive a third dose of vaccine or placebo on Day 215. The primary outcome was to measure neutralising antibody titres by plaque-reduction neutralisation test (PRNT50) four weeks after the booster; safety as serious adverse events (SAE) was the key secondary outcome. Findings: Four weeks after a second BBV152 vaccination geometric mean titres (GMTs) of neutralising antibodies were 197.0 PRNT50 (95% CI: 155.6,249.4); this level declined to 23.9 PRNT50 (14.0,40.6) six months later, with a seroconversion rate of 75.4% (95% CI: 68.4,81.6). Four weeks after booster vaccination the GMT increased on Day 243 to 746.6 PRNT50 (514.9,1081) compared with 100.7 PRNT50 (43.6,232.6) in the placebo group. Corresponding seroconversion rates were 98.7% (92.8,99.9) and 79.8% (69.6,87.8). Increased titres in the placebo group were attributed to natural infection as the study was conducted during the second wave of COVID-19 in India. PRNT50 titres against the SARS-CoV-2 variants increased Alpha (32.6 fold), Beta (161.0 fold), Delta (264.7 fold), and Delta plus (174.2 fold) after the booster vaccination. We found that vaccine induces both memory B and T cells with a distinct AIM+ specific CD4+T central and effector memory phenotype, including CD8+ TEMRA phenotype. Reactogenicity after vaccine and placebo was minimal and comparable, and no SAEs were reported. Interpretation: Six months after a two dose BBV152 vaccination series cell mediated immunity and neutralising antibodies to both homologous (D614G) and heterologous strains (Alpha, Beta, Delta and Delta plus) persisted above baseline, although the magnitude of the responses had declined. Neutralising antibodies against homologous and heterologous SARS-CoV-2 variants increased 19 to 97 fold after a third vaccination. Booster BBV152 vaccination is safe and may be necessary to ensure persistent immunity to prevent breakthrough infections.

2022 ◽  
Eva Schrezenmeier ◽  
Hector Rincon-Arevalo ◽  
Annika Jens ◽  
Ana-Luisa Stefanski ◽  
Charlotte Hammett ◽  

Transplant recipients exhibit an impaired protective immunity after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, potentially caused by mycophenolate (MPA) immunosuppression. Recent data from autoimmune patients suggest that temporary MPA hold might significantly improve booster vaccination outcomes. We applied a fourth dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine during temporary (5 weeks) MPA hold to 29 kidney transplant recipients, who had not mounted a humoral immune-response to previous vaccinations. Seroconversion until day 32 after vaccination was observed in 76% of patients, associated with acquisition of virus neutralizing capacity. Interestingly, 21/25 (84%) CNI-treated patients responded, but only 1/4 Belatacept-treated patients. In line with humoral responses, counts and relative frequencies of spike receptor binding domain (RBD) specific B cells were significantly increased on day 7 after vaccination, with an increase in RBD specific CD27++CD38+ plasmablasts. Whereas overall proportions of spike-reactive CD4+ T cells remained unaltered after the fourth dose, frequencies were positively correlated with specific IgG levels. Importantly, antigen-specific proliferating Ki67+ and in vivo activated PD1+ T cells significantly increased after re-vaccination during MPA hold, whereas cytokine production and memory differentiation remained unaffected. In summary, MPA hold was safe and augmented all arms of immunity during booster vaccination, suggesting its implementation in vaccination protocols for clinically stable transplant recipients.

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