dietary components
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L. A. Godoi ◽  
B. C. Silva ◽  
G. A. P. Souza ◽  
B. C. Lage ◽  
D. Zanetti ◽  

Abstract This study aims to determine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) content of early-weaned calves; and the influence of flint maize processing methods on intake, total tract nutrient digestibilities and performance of Nellore heifer calves. Fifteen early-weaned Nellore female calves (4 ± 0.5 months; 108 ± 13.1 kg) were used. In phase 1, animals were fed one of the following diets for 112 days: 130, 145 or 160 g CP/kg dry matter (DM). In phase 2, animals received one of the two diets for 84 days: 0.60 dry ground maize grain, 0.30 whole-plant maize silage plus 0.10 mineral-protein supplement or 0.90 snaplage plus 0.10 mineral-protein supplement. In phase 1, intake and digestibility of dietary components were not affected (P > 0.05) by increasing dietary CP content. Daily total urinary nitrogen (N) and urinary urea N increased (P < 0.05) in response to increasing dietary CP content. Animal performance was not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary CP content. In phase 2, maize processing methods did not affect (P > 0.05) intake and digestibility of dietary components as well as animal performance, carcase characteristics and carcase composition. Therefore, based on the current experimental condition, we conclude that dietary CP concentrations of 130 g/kg DM can be indicated for early-weaned Nellore calves. However, more studies are recommended to validate this result and to evaluate concentrations below 130 g CP/kg DM for early-weaned Nellore calves. Moreover, snaplage could be used as an exclusive fibre and energy source for finishing cattle in feedlot.

Biomedicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 41 (4) ◽  
pp. 714-719
Jyotirmayee Bahinipati ◽  
Rajlaxmi Sarangi ◽  
Sanjukta Mishra ◽  
Srikrushna Mahapatra

Individual’s genetic makeup best describes the properties regarding its growth and development. It is stored and passed on to generations and is in dynamic equilibrium with the environmental and other non-living factors. The most predominant environmental stimuli are diet/nutrition.  Diet/nutrition interacts and modulates varying underlying molecular mechanisms central to various physiological functions basically at three different levels: genome, proteome, and metabolome. Advances in genomic studies are paving the way to the development of scientific insights into nutritional sciences. Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics are closely associated but two different areas of nutritional research. Both the fields involved the study of the implication between nutrition, metabolism, and genetic mechanism. The primary goal is to pinpoint nutrient-dependent health characteristics and nutrition dependent diseases. Another important area connected to these sciences concerns food composition and performance of quality assessment by studying proteomics and metabolic pathways. Nutrigenomics explains how the nutrients influences or effects the expression of the, while the response of different gene variants to nutrients or different dietary components is called Nutrigenetics. A personalized based diet can help us to know the right nutrient to take or avoid those who may potentially harm overall health. The goals are intended to alter or decrease the impact of hostile dietary changes that have occurred in since past in the developed world and more recently in the developing countries.

2021 ◽  
Agata Rolnik ◽  
Bartosz Skalski ◽  
Jerzy Zuchowski ◽  
Anna Stochmal ◽  
Beata Olas

Abstract Blood platelets play a crucial role in hemostasis, the process responsible for keeping blood flowing in the circulatory system. However, unnecessary platelet activation can lead to aggregation at the site of atherosclerotic plaque rapture and the formation of a thrombus, which promotes atherothrombotic diseases. Various dietary components, such as phenolic compounds, are known to demonstrate antiplatelet and anticoagulant properties, and it is possible that these could form an important element in the prophylaxis and therapy of cardiovascular diseases. Our present study examines the biological activity of isorhamnetin (compound 1) and two isorhamnetin derivatives, compound 2 (3-O-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside) and compound 3 (3-O-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-(3”’-isovaleryl)-rhamnoside), isolated from the phenolic fraction of sea buckthorn fruit, against human washed blood platelets and human whole blood in vitro. The anti-platelet and anticoagulant potential was determined using (A) flow cytometry, (B) the thrombus-formation analysis system (T-TAS) and (C) colorimetry. The tested flavonoids demonstrated anticoagulant and anti-platelet potential, including anti-adhesive activity, with these effects being more intense in compound 2 than isorhamnetin. Compound 2 inhibited GPIIb/IIIa and P-selectin expression on blood platelets from whole blood, and demonstrated anti-adhesion properties in washed blood platelets and anti-coagulant potential in whole blood, measured by T-TAS.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Christian S. Antoniussen ◽  
Henrik H. Rasmussen ◽  
Mette Holst ◽  
Charlotte Lauridsen

Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic and recurring inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract encompassing ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Although the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease remains to be fully elucidated, environmental factors such as diet are believed to play a pivotal role in the onset and management of inflammatory bowel disease. Diet is thought to play an essential role in intestinal inflammation due to its regulatory effects on the microbiota, gut immune system, and epithelial barrier function. Although the evidence remains insufficient to draw firm conclusions on the role of specific dietary components in gastrointestinal diseases, studies have suggested that a Western diet with high intakes of total fats, omega-6 fatty acids, and meat have been associated with intestinal inflammation and relapse of inflammatory bowel disease. In contrast to a Western diet, plant-based diets often result in a reduced intake of total fats and meats and an increased intake of plant fibers which may contribute to reduced intestinal inflammation. This review critically examines the influence of plant-based dietary components on the clinical disease course of inflammatory bowel disease. Furthermore, this review discusses the benefits and possible limitations of plant-derived dietary components in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease while addressing the principal type of disease and the anatomic site of inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. Finally, this review points out important directions for future research on the role of diet in inflammatory bowel disease. A better understanding of the role of diet and intestinal inflammation may pave the way for novel dietary interventions and specific foods- or food supplements, which can support the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4345
José A. Cañas ◽  
Rafael Núñez ◽  
Anyith Cruz-Amaya ◽  
Francisca Gómez ◽  
María J. Torres ◽  

Food allergy (FA) is an increasing problem worldwide and, over recent years, its prevalence is rising in developed countries. Nowadays, the immunological and cellular processes that occur in the allergic reactions are not fully understood, which hampers the development of in vitro diagnostic tools and further treatment options. Moreover, allergic diseases could be reinforced by environmental exposure and genetic modifications. Gene expression can be controlled by different epigenetic mechanisms like DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs. In addition, several environmental factors such as dietary components (vitamin D, butyrate, folic acid) are able to regulate this epigenetic mechanism. All these factors produce modifications in immune genes that could alter the development and function of immune cells, and therefore the etiology of the disease. Furthermore, these epigenetic mechanisms have also an influence on immunomodulation, which could explain sustained responsiveness or unresponsiveness during immunotherapy due to epigenetic modifications in key genes that induce tolerance in several FA. Thus, in this review we focus on the different epigenetic mechanisms that occur in FA and on the influence of several dietary components in these gene modifications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 213 (10) ◽  
pp. 40-47
G Kosovskiy ◽  
Elena Kolesnik ◽  
Dmitriy Popov

Abstract. The purpose of this work is to approve a device for studying the microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract of mammals. The study of the quantitative and qualitative composition of the digestive tract microbiota is one of the promising directions in metagenomics. Knowledge obtained about the organization of microbiocenosis genome, the determination of species composition and study of metabolic relationships between its representatives not only expand the understanding of its role in the process of evolution, speciation and breeding but also provide a scientifically substantiated basis for targeting changes in the microbiome to form a phenotype (optimization of feed bioconversion, increasing overall resistance, etc.). Scientific novelty. For the first time, the main characteristics of cellulolytic bacteria isolated from the chyme of the rabbit cecum were isolated, cultured and described through a chronic fistula. Methods. In order to carry out research aimed to study mammalian microbiome and its correction, the need arises to develop methods of obtaining microbiome samples from experimental animals. To obtain access to the chyme of the cecum in 7 rabbits for up to 3 months the chronic fistulas developed in Scientific Research Institute of Fur-Bearing Animal Breeding and Rabbit Breeding n. a. V. A. Afanas’ev were installed. No negative manifestations were observed in the animals after installation of the fistulas, no changes in appetite were detected, and complete healing of the skin wound was determined on the 9th day. Diagnostic laparotomies performed 3 months after fistula placement revealed no pathological processes in any of the studied animals. Results. Characteristics of cellulolytic bacteria of the rabbit cecum Butirivibrio fibrisolvens and Ruminococcus flavefaciens were studied. Data on their enzymatic effects on dietary components, fermentation products, digestion and formation of organic substances and chemical compounds are presented.

2021 ◽  
Basista Rabina Sharma ◽  
Ravindra P. Veeranna

Research so far indicates that gut microbiome and diet interactions influence obesity, diabetes, host immunity, and brain function. The ability of athletes to perform to optimum for a more extended time, as well as the ability to resist, withstand, recover from, and have immunity to fatigue, injury depends on the genetic factor, age, sex, training history, psychological factors, mode, intensity and frequency of training and their interactions with the external dietary components. However, recent evidence indicates that the gut microbiome may also potentially influence the development of endurance in response to the type and composition of the external diet, including several food supplements. Thus, the gut microbiome has become another target in the athlete’s pursuit of optimal performance. This chapter discusses the effect of exercise on the gut microbiome, the interplay between dietary components and supplements on the gut microbiome, and its impact on endurance performance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Julia T. Stadler ◽  
Gunther Marsche

Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with increasing incidence. A cornerstone of cardiovascular disease prevention is lifestyle modification through dietary changes to influence various risk factors such as obesity, hypertension and diabetes. The effects of diet on cardiovascular health are complex. Some dietary components and metabolites directly affect the composition and structure of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and increase anti-inflammatory and vasoprotective properties. HDLs are composed of distinct subpopulations of particles of varying size and composition that have several dynamic and context-dependent functions. The identification of potential dietary components that improve HDL functionality is currently an important research goal. One of the best-studied diets for cardiovascular health is the Mediterranean diet, consisting of fish, olive oil, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes/nuts, and moderate consumption of alcohol, most commonly red wine. The Mediterranean diet, especially when supplemented with extra virgin olive oil rich in phenolic compounds, has been shown to markedly improve metrics of HDL functionality and reduce the burden, or even prevent the development of cardiovascular disease. Particularly, the phenolic compounds of extra virgin olive oil seem to exert the significant positive effects on HDL function. Moreover, supplementation of anthocyanins as well as antioxidants such as lycopene or the omega−3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid improve parameters of HDL function. In this review, we aim to highlight recent discoveries on beneficial dietary patterns as well as nutritional components and their effects on cardiovascular health, focusing on HDL function.

2021 ◽  
pp. 089826432110468
Yeon Jin Choi ◽  
Jennifer A. Ailshire ◽  
Jung Ki Kim ◽  
Eileen M. Crimmins

Objectives: Using comprehensive measures of biological risk, this study aims to investigate the relationship between intake of individual dietary components, overall diet quality, and biological dysregulation. Methods: We analyzed nationally representative data from 3734 older adults who participated in the Health and Retirement Study Venous Blood Study in 2016 and Health Care and Nutrition Survey in 2013. Results: Eleven out of 13 individual dietary components were associated with lower biological risk. Respondents with poor/suboptimal quality diet had higher biological risk than those with good quality diet. Discussion: Findings from this study emphasize the importance of healthy eating in improving health of older adults. Encouraging intake of fruits, greens and beans, whole grains, and fatty acids, while limiting consumption of sodium, added sugar, and saturated fat would improve overall diet quality and contribute to the prevention of chronic diseases and morbidity.

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