Broth Microdilution Method
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Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1492
Moonsuk Bae ◽  
Taeeun Kim ◽  
Joung Ha Park ◽  
Seongman Bae ◽  
Heungsup Sung ◽  

β-lactam–avibactam combinations have been proposed as carbapenem-sparing therapies, but little data exist on their in vitro activities in infections with high bacterial inocula. We investigated the in vitro efficacies and the inoculum effects of ceftazidime–avibactam and aztreonam–avibactam against extended-spectrum β-lactam-resistant Enterobacterales blood isolates. A total of 228 non-repetitive extended-spectrum β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae blood isolates were prospectively collected in a tertiary center. In vitro susceptibilities to ceftazidime, aztreonam, meropenem, ceftazidime–avibactam, and aztreonam–avibactam were evaluated by broth microdilution method using standard and high inocula. An inoculum effect was defined as an eightfold or greater increase in MIC when tested with the high inoculum. Of the 228 isolates, 99% were susceptible to ceftazidime–avibactam and 99% had low aztreonam–avibactam MICs (≤8 mg/L). Ceftazidime–avibactam and aztreonam–avibactam exhibited good in vitro activities; MIC50/MIC90 values were 0.5/2 mg/L, 0.125/0.5 mg/L, and ≤0.03/0.25 mg/L, respectively, and aztreonam–avibactam was more active than ceftazidime–avibactam. The frequencies of the inoculum effect with ceftazidime–avibactam and aztreonam–avibactam were lower than with meropenem (14% vs. 38%, p < 0.001 and 30% vs. 38%, p = 0.03, respectively). The β-lactam-avibactam combinations could be useful as carbapenem-sparing strategies, and aztreonam–avibactam has the better in vitro activity but is more subject to the inoculum effect than ceftazidime–avibactam.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Vivian Caso Coelho ◽  
Samara D’Ajuda Pereira Neves ◽  
Mauro Cintra Giudice ◽  
Gil Benard ◽  
Marta Heloisa Lopes ◽  

Abstract Background Nocardia species are ubiquitous in natural environments and can cause nocardiosis. In the present study, the use of Resazurin salt and Spectrophotometry were proposed as alternative methods to reduce subjectivity in the interpretation of susceptibility results to antimicrobials by the broth microdilution method for Nocardia spp. Results The susceptibility of Nocardia spp. isolates to Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin, Minocycline and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole was evaluated by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determinations by the broth microdilution method. To verify cellular growth, the colour-changing dye Resazurin was applied, the Optical Densities were measured on a spectrophotometer, and both were compared to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) Gold Standard method (visual MIC determination). Percentages of essential and categorical agreements and interpretative categorical errors were calculated within each method (intra-reading) and between them (inter-reading). The Gold Standard visual reading demonstrated 100% of essential and categorical intra-reading agreements for Amikacin, and there was no error when compared with the alternative methods. For Ciprofloxacin, the comparison between the Gold Standard and the Spectrophotometric reading showed 91.5% of essential agreement. In the categorical intra-reading analysis for Minocycline, there were 88.1 and 91.7% in the Gold Standard and in the Spectrophotometric readings, respectively, and 86.4% of concordance between them. High rates of categorical agreement were also observed on the Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole analyses, with 93.7% for the Gold Standard, 84.9% for the Resazurin readings, and 80.5% between them. Conclusions The alternative methods with Resazurin and Spectrophotometric readings showed high agreement rates with the Gold Standard.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Ândrea Celestino de Souza ◽  
Luciano Z. Goldani ◽  
Eliane Würdig Roesch ◽  
Larissa Lutz ◽  
Patricia Orlandi Barth ◽  

Determination of the susceptibility profile of isolates of Candida from blood culture bottles is extremely important for correctly guiding patient pharmacotherapy. The aim of this study was to compare the results of analysis of Candida isolated directly from blood culture bottles by the VITEK MS MALDI-TOF identification system and the fluconazole disk diffusion assay with those of standard identification methods. Testing directly from the bottle allowed results 24 to 48 hours quicker than the standard method. There was a categorical agreement of 51.64% (47 of 91 samples) between the results of analysis directly from the bottle and analysis by the standard method. Regarding species identification, there was 96.15% agreement for Candida parapsilosis (25 of 26 samples). Categorical agreement between the rapid and standard disk diffusion methods was 95%, and the agreement between the rapid disk diffusion method and the broth microdilution method was 97%. Only minor errors in the rapid method were observed: 3 (5%) in the standard disk diffusion method and 2 (3%) in the broth microdilution method. Our study concluded that the rapid disk diffusion method for fluconazole is a fast, easy, reproducible, and consistent method. Its timely implementation for testing antifungal agents in the clinical microbiology laboratory can help reduce profile release times, thus helping to determine the most appropriate antifungal treatment.

Wen Wang ◽  
Shifeng Huang ◽  
Chunhong Zou ◽  
Yanhui Ding ◽  
Huijuan Wang ◽  

ObjectivesTo assess the efficacy of aztreonam-avibactam-auranofin (ATM-AVI-AUR) against a collection of 88 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) clinical isolates and 6 in vitro selected ATM-AVI-resistant CPE with CMY-16 Tyr150Ser and Asn346His mutants or transformants.MethodsMICs of imipenem, ceftazidime-avibact8am (CAZ-AVI), ATM-AVI, CAZ-AVI-AUR and ATM-AVI-AUR were determined via the broth microdilution method. Genetic background and carbapenemase genes were determined by PCR and Sanger sequencing.ResultsAUR alone showed little antibacterial activity with AUR MICs were greater than 64 μg/mL for all the 88 clinical CPE isolates. The addition of AUR (16 μg/mL) resulted in an 3-folding dilutions MIC reduction of ATM-AVI MIC50 (0.5 to 0.0625 μg/mL) and a 2-folding dilutions MIC reduction of MIC90 (1 to 0.25 μg/mL) against all 88 clinical CPE isolates, respectively. Notably, the reduced ATM-AVI MIC values were mainly found in MBL-producers, and the MIC50 and MIC90 reduced by 2-folding dilutions (0.25 to 0.0625 μg/mL) and 3-folding dilutions (2 to 0.25 μg/mL) respectively by AUR among the 51 MBL-producers. By contrast, the addition of AUR did not showed significant effects on ATM-AVI MIC50 (0.0625 μg/mL) and MIC90 (0.125 μg/mL) among single KPC-producers. Interestingly, the addition of AUR restored the ATM-AVI susceptibility against the 6 in vitro selected ATM-AVI-resistant CMY-16 Tyr150Ser and Asn346His mutants or transfromants, with the MICs reduced from ≥32 μg/mL (32-&gt;256 μg/mL) to ≤8 μg/mL (0.0625-8 μg/mL).ConclusionsOur results demonstrated that AUR potentiated the activities of CAZ-AVI and ATM-AVI against MBL-producing isolates in vitro. Importantly, AUR restored the ATM-AVI activity against ATM-AVI resistant mutant strains. As a clinically approved drug, AUR might be repurposed in combination with ATM-AVI to treat infections caused by highly resistant MBL-producing Enterobacterales.

Helio S. Sader ◽  
Cecilia G. Carvalhaes ◽  
Dee Shortridge ◽  
Mariana Castanheira

Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were consecutively collected from patients with pneumonia in 29 medical centers in 2020 and susceptibility tested by broth microdilution method. Ceftazidime-avibactam (95.5% susceptible), imipenem-relebactam (94.3% susceptible), and ceftolozane-tazobactam (93.3% susceptible) were the most active compounds after colistin (99.5% susceptible). Susceptibility rates for the β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations (BL/BLIs) varied against isolates resistant to piperacillin-tazobactam, meropenem, imipenem, and/or ceftazidime. Ceftazidime-avibactam was the most active BL/BLI against resistant subsets from Western Europe, whereas imipenem-relebactam was slightly more active than other BL/BLIs against resistant subsets from Eastern Europe. Susceptibility rates were markedly lower in Eastern Europe than Western Europe.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0256225
Xueping Huang ◽  
Yuan Liu ◽  
Zhihui Lin ◽  
Baihe Wu ◽  
Gaohui Nong ◽  

Aim To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of commonly used antibiotics against Helicobacter Pylori (H. pylori) in South China and compare their resistance rates by using EUCAST breakpoints and other breakpoints. Methods Patients who had not previously received H. pylori treatment in clinical centers in South China were enrolled in this study from 2017 to 2020. Gastric biopsies were obtained for H. pylori culture. The MICs of amoxicillin (AMX), clarithromycin (CLA), metronidazole (MTZ), levofloxacin (LEV), tetracycline (TET) and furazolidone (FZD) were tested by broth microdilution method and assessed by two different breakpoints. ATCC43504 standard strain served as a control. Results A total of 208 H. pylori strains were isolated from patients’ biopsy samples. The MICs of AMX, CLA, MTZ, LEV, TET and FZD for H. pylori were 0.0156-256mg/L (MIC50 0.125mg/L, MIC90 4mg/L), 0.0156- >256 mg/L (MIC50 0.0312mg/L, MIC90 64mg/L), 0.0156- >256mg/L (MIC50 8mg/L, MIC90 256mg/L), 0.0156-256mg/L (MIC50 0.25mg/L, MIC90 16mg/L), 0.0156-256mg/L (MIC50 0.0625mg/L, MIC90 4mg/L), and 0.0156- >256mg/L (MIC50 0.0312mg/L, MIC90 2mg/L), respectively. The MICs of AMX, CLA, MTZ, LEV, TET and FZD for ATCC43504 strain were 0.25mg/L, 0.0625mg/L, 64mg/L, 0.5mg/L, 1mg/L and 0.25mg/L, respectively. The resistance rate of FZD was 11.05%. The overall resistance rates according to EUCAST breakpoints and other breakpoints were 57.21% and 14.90% for AMX (p<0.001), 38.94% and 38.94% for CLA (p = 1), 39.42% and 50.96% for MTZ (p<0.001), 12.98% and 10.58% for TET (p = 0.025), 35.10% and 35.10% for LEV (p = 1), respectively. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that AMX, FZD, and TET, but not MTZ, CLR or LEV, showed good anti-H. pylori activity in vitro in South China. When different breakpoints were used, similar results were found with CLA, and LEV, but not with AMX, MTZ, or TET.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Abdelazeem M. Algammal ◽  
Hany R. Hashem ◽  
Amenah S. Al-otaibi ◽  
Khyreyah J. Alfifi ◽  
Esraa M. El-dawody ◽  

Abstract Background Avian tuberculosis is a chronic and zoonotic disease that affects a wide variety of birds, mammals, and humans. This study aimed to estimate the frequency of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium in some domestic birds based on molecular diagnosis, antibiogram profile, and PCR-based detection of inhA, rpoB, rpsL, and otrB antibiotic resistance-related genes. Methods A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from small flocks of house-reared domestic birds at Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. The collected samples were processed and subjected to the bacteriological examination. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the recovered isolates was performed using the broth microdilution method for the detection of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The genetic detection of the IS901confirmatory gene, inhA, rpoB, rpsL, and otrB genes was carried out using PCR. Results The frequency of M. avium subsp. avium was 4.1% (5/120); 10% (4/40) in ducks, and 2.5% (1/10) in geese. The identification of the recovered isolates was confirmed using PCR, where all the tested isolates were positive for IS901confirmatory gene. The results of the broth microdilution method revealed that most of the recovered isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR) to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, oxytetracycline, and doxycycline, and harbored the inhA, rpoB, rpsL, and otrB genes. Conclusion In brief, to the best of our knowledge this is the first report that emphasized the emergence of avian tuberculosis in house-reared domestic birds in Egypt. The emergence of MDR- M. avium subsp. avium is considered a public health threat. Emerging MDR-M. avium subsp. avium in domestic birds are commonly harbored the IS901, inhA, rpoB, rpsL, and otrB genes. Azithromycin and clofazimine revealed a promising in-vitro antibacterial activity against M. avium subsp. avium.

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