Antimicrobial Susceptibility
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2021 ◽  
Vol 55 (4) ◽  
pp. 465-479
Nilay Özel Kaya ◽  
İnan Usta ◽  
Zeynep Özlem Demirçay ◽  
Nurver Ülger Toprak

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Tariq Ali ◽  
Kamran ◽  
Abdur Raziq ◽  
Inamullah Wazir ◽  
Rafi Ullah ◽  

Mastitis is the most prevalent disease of dairy animals, imparting huge economic losses to the dairy industry. There is always a dire need to monitor the prevalence of mastitis, its bacteriology, and evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibilities for mastitis control and prevention. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate: (i) the prevalence of mastitis in cattle and buffaloes; (ii) identification of bacteria associated with mastitis; (iii) antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates. Milk samples (n = 1,566) from cattle (n = 1,096) and buffaloes (n = 470) were processed for detection of mastitis using the California mastitis test in the year 2018–19. A total of 633 mastitic milk samples were further processed for bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the disc diffusion method. Overall, the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis was 17 and 57% in both species. Clinical mastitis was higher in cattle (20%) compared to buffaloes (11%), whereas subclinical was higher in buffaloes (66%) than cattle (53%). Besides, month-wise prevalence was higher in hot and humid months in both species. Staphylococci spp. (34%) were the most predominant bacterial isolates from mastitic milk, followed by Escherichia coli (19.4%), Streptococci spp. (9%), and Klebsiella spp. (8%). Most of the bacteria were susceptible to gentamicin (92%) and enrofloxacin (88%), when a panel of 16 different antimicrobials was tested. Nevertheless, most of the isolates were resistant to sulphamethoxazole (99%), lincomycin (98%), oxytetracycline (89%), ampicillin (86%), and doxycycline (85%). This study concludes a high prevalence of mastitis caused by Staphylococcal spp. in cattle and buffaloes belonging to the northwest of Pakistan, and gentamicin and enrofloxacin might be appropriate antimicrobial agents in the treatment of bovine mastitis.

Yves Longtin ◽  
Philippe Gervais ◽  
David H Birnie ◽  
Jia Wang ◽  
Marco Alings ◽  

Abstract Background The Prevention of Arrhythmia Device Infection Trial (PADIT) investigated whether intensification of perioperative prophylaxis could prevent cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections. Compared with a single dose of cefazolin, the peri-operative administration of cefazolin, vancomycin, bacitracin and cephalexin did not significantly decrease the risk of infection. Our objective is to compare the microbiology of infections between study arms in PADIT. Methods Post-hoc analysis. Differences between study arms in the microbiology of infections were assessed at the level of individual patients and at the level of microorganisms using the Fisher’s exact test. Results Overall, 209 microorganisms were reported from 177 patients. The most common microorganisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS, 82/209; 39.2%) and S. aureus (75/209; 35.9%). There was a significantly lower proportion of CoNS in the incremental arm compared with the standard arm (30.1% vs. 46.6%, p=0.04). However, there was no significant difference between study arms in the frequency of recovery of other microorganisms. In terms of antimicrobial susceptibility, 26.5% of microorganisms were resistant to cefazolin. CoNS were more likely to be cefazolin-resistant in the incremental arm (52.2% vs. 26.8%, respectively; p=0.05). However, there was no difference between study arms in terms of infections in which the main pathogen was sensitive to cefazolin (77.8% vs. 64.3%; p=0.10) or vancomycin (90.8% vs. 90.2%; p=0.90). Conclusions Intensification of the prophylaxis led to significant changes in the microbiology of infections, despite the absence of a decrease in the overall risk of infections. These findings provide important insight on the physiopathology of CIED infections.

2021 ◽  
Abdikhaliq Hussein Ali ◽  
Dawit Yihdego Reda ◽  
Moges Desta Ormago

Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and associated factors of urinary tract infection (UTI) among pregnant women attending Hargeisa Group Hospital (HGH), Hargeisa, Somaliland. A cross-sectional study was conducted at HGH, Hargeisa, Somaliland and participants were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected from 422 participants and cultured and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined for the isolates. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were utilized to identify the independent risk factors for UTI The prevalence of UTI was 16.4 % (95% CI: 13.3–19.9). The predominant bacteria isolate was E. coli (43.5%). Gram negative bacteria were resistant to ampicillin (96%) and tetracycline (71.4%) and Gram-positive bacteria were also resistant to ampicillin (90%), tetracycline (55%). Multidrug resistance was observed in 89.9% of bacterial isolated. No formal education participants were 3.18 times, previous history of catheterization had 3.22 times and previous history of UTI had 3.73 times more likely to develop UTI than their counterparts respectively. Culture and susceptibility test is vital for appropriate management of UTI in the study area.

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