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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-25
Ryan Dailey ◽  
Aniesh Chawla ◽  
Andrew Liu ◽  
Sripath Mishra ◽  
Ling Zhang ◽  

Reduction in the cost of Network Cameras along with a rise in connectivity enables entities all around the world to deploy vast arrays of camera networks. Network cameras offer real-time visual data that can be used for studying traffic patterns, emergency response, security, and other applications. Although many sources of Network Camera data are available, collecting the data remains difficult due to variations in programming interface and website structures. Previous solutions rely on manually parsing the target website, taking many hours to complete. We create a general and automated solution for aggregating Network Camera data spread across thousands of uniquely structured web pages. We analyze heterogeneous web page structures and identify common characteristics among 73 sample Network Camera websites (each website has multiple web pages). These characteristics are then used to build an automated camera discovery module that crawls and aggregates Network Camera data. Our system successfully extracts 57,364 Network Cameras from 237,257 unique web pages.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 604
Carlos A. M. Correia ◽  
Fabio A. A. Andrade ◽  
Agnar Sivertsen ◽  
Ihannah Pinto Guedes ◽  
Milena Faria Pinto ◽  

Optical image sensors are the most common remote sensing data acquisition devices present in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). In this context, assigning a location in a geographic frame of reference to the acquired image is a necessary task in the majority of the applications. This process is denominated direct georeferencing when ground control points are not used. Despite it applies simple mathematical fundamentals, the complete direct georeferencing process involves much information, such as camera sensor characteristics, mounting measurements, attitude and position of the UAS, among others. In addition, there are many rotations and translations between the different reference frames, among many other details, which makes the whole process a considerable complex operation. Another problem is that manufacturers and software tools may use different reference frames posing additional difficulty when implementing the direct georeferencing. As this information is spread among many sources, researchers may face difficulties on having a complete vision of the method. In fact, there is absolutely no paper in the literature that explain this process in a comprehensive way. In order to supply this implicit demand, this paper presents a comprehensive method for direct georeferencing of aerial images acquired by cameras mounted on UAS, where all required information, mathematical operations and implementation steps are explained in detail. Finally, in order to show the practical use of the method and to prove its accuracy, both simulated and real flights were performed, where objects of the acquired images were georeferenced.

2022 ◽  
Mei Bai ◽  
Zoe Loh ◽  
David W. T. Griffith ◽  
Debra Turner ◽  
Richard Eckard ◽  

Abstract. The accumulation of gases into our atmosphere is a growing global concern that requires considerable quantification of the emission rates and mitigate the accumulation of gases in the atmosphere, especially the greenhouse gases (GHG). In agriculture there are many sources of GHG that require attention in order to develop practical mitigation strategies. Measuring these GHG sources often rely on highly technical instrumentation originally designed for applications outside of the emissions research in agriculture. Although the open-path laser (OPL) and open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopic techniques are used in agricultural research currently, insight into their contributing error to emissions research has not been the focus of these studies. The objective of this study was to assess the applicability and performance (accuracy and precision) of OPL and OP-FTIR spectroscopic techniques for measuring gas concentration from agricultural sources. We measured the mixing ratios of trace gases methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ammonia (NH3), downwind of point and area sources with known release rates. The OP-FTIR provided the best performance regarding stability of drift in stable conditions. The CH4 OPL accurately detected the low background (free-air) level of CH4; however, the NH3 OPL was unable to detect the background values < 10 ppbv.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Loris Belcastro ◽  
Riccardo Cantini ◽  
Fabrizio Marozzo ◽  
Alessio Orsino ◽  
Domenico Talia ◽  

AbstractIn the age of the Internet of Things and social media platforms, huge amounts of digital data are generated by and collected from many sources, including sensors, mobile devices, wearable trackers and security cameras. This data, commonly referred to as Big Data, is challenging current storage, processing, and analysis capabilities. New models, languages, systems and algorithms continue to be developed to effectively collect, store, analyze and learn from Big Data. Most of the recent surveys provide a global analysis of the tools that are used in the main phases of Big Data management (generation, acquisition, storage, querying and visualization of data). Differently, this work analyzes and reviews parallel and distributed paradigms, languages and systems used today to analyze and learn from Big Data on scalable computers. In particular, we provide an in-depth analysis of the properties of the main parallel programming paradigms (MapReduce, workflow, BSP, message passing, and SQL-like) and, through programming examples, we describe the most used systems for Big Data analysis (e.g., Hadoop, Spark, and Storm). Furthermore, we discuss and compare the different systems by highlighting the main features of each of them, their diffusion (community of developers and users) and the main advantages and disadvantages of using them to implement Big Data analysis applications. The final goal of this work is to help designers and developers in identifying and selecting the best/appropriate programming solution based on their skills, hardware availability, application domains and purposes, and also considering the support provided by the developer community.

2022 ◽  
Vol 51 (2) ◽  
pp. 267-280
Ulfah Hidayati ◽  
Pratiwi Wahyu Widiarti ◽  
Eko Prasetyo Nugroho

This research aims to examine disaster communication performed by the community of Turgo, Purwobinangun, Pakem. Sleman. The research was conducted utilizing a qualitative method, and the data were collected through interviews and Focus Group Discussions. The research objects include the community members living in Turgo consisting of teenagers, adults, the elderly, the search and rescue (SAR) team, and village heads. The research results show that the people living in Turgo utilize many sources of information in accessing disaster information, including surveillance and reconnaissance posts (wastai posts), social media, interpersonal communication, and group communication. The information is delivered through Whatsapp Group, Youtube, Twitter, Instagram, direct/ face-to-face communication, traditional bamboo slit drum (kentongan), motorcycle horns, and speakers. In addition, the resident's response is very positive in responding to any call/order from the authorities. In other words, no citizen rejected the call given. Also, opinion leaders do not have a significant role in disaster communication. The SAR team has a higher position than the opinion leader as they know the conditions in the field better 

Ethnohistory ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 69 (1) ◽  
pp. 81-100
Katarzyna Granicka

Abstract There are many sources that allowed scholars to study the nature and functions of polygamous marriages of the Nahua nobility. Very few studies, however, focus on the marital relations of the Nahua commoners. This article presents exploratory research into various kinds of marriages of the macehualtin—polygamy, sororate, and levirate. Based on the available material (early censuses, inquisitorial records, sixteenth-century accounts) it discusses the functions that these types of unions played in Nahua society. Moreover, it reflects on the effects that the Christianization and prohibition of such marriages had on Nahua society. The Nahuas could either reshape their communities, by adjusting to the new rules, or continue their precolonial practices in hiding. Either way, the imposed Christianization can be analyzed through the notion of the cultural trauma, which occurred when the Nahuas were forced to reshape their communities to adjust to the new rules.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 434
Rize Rahmi ◽  
Sawirman Sawirman ◽  
Aslinda Aslinda

In this research, the authors compared the framing strategy used by the ANTARA media and TEMPO media for the issue of the ratification of the Omnibus Law on Job Creation. This research was conducted descriptively with comparative qualitative approach. A qualitative document procedure was applied in collecting the data. Fairclough's framework of Critical Discourse Analysis and the framing analysis model by Pan and Kosicki (1993) were combined to analyze the data. The result of the data analysis is presented in the table and the interpretation form. The result shows that TEMPO's framing strategy is more clearly defined, while ANTARA's strategy is less clear. In building a negative or positive representation, TEMPO Media tries to present information supported by many sources. Then, the use of images in TEMPO news supports the truth of information, while the use of images in ANTARA media improves the quality of information sources. The five news stories from ANTARA media selected in this study always use the face image of the selected informant as a source of news information. AbstrakPada penelitian ini, penulis membandingkan strategi pembingkaian yang digunakan media ANTARA dan TEMPO dalam membingkai isu pengesahan Omnibus Law Cipta Kerja. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara deskriptif dengan pendekatan komparatif kualitiatif. Prosedur dokumen kualitatif diterapkan dalam pengumpulan data. Kerangka analisis wacana kritis Fairclough dan model analisis pembingkaian oleh Pan dan Kosicki (1993) digabungkan untuk menganalisis data. Hasil analisis data disajikan dalam bentuk tabel dan interpretasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa strategi pembingkaian TEMPO lebih jelas, sedangkan strategi ANTARA kurang jelas. Dalam membangun representasi negatif atau positif, TEMPO mencoba menghadirkan informasi yang didukung oleh banyak sumber. Kemudian, penggunaan gambar dalam berita TEMPO mendukung kebenaran informasi, sedangkan penggunaan gambar di media ANTARA meningkatkan kualitas sumber informasi. Kelima berita dari media ANTARA yang dipilih dalam penelitian ini selalu menggunakan foto sumber informasi yang terpilih pada berita.

Oleksandr Muzychko

The purpose of this article is to study the activities of Ivan Mitrofanovich Lutsenko (1863–1919) about his activities, which were aimed at popularizing the history of the Ukrainian Cossacks, the struggle for the spread of the Cossack worldview and spiritual values. I seek to deepen the study of this issue, based on previous research. The corresponding image of I. Lutsenko was reflected in the first essays-memoirs about him, the authors of which were his friends. G. Zlenko, T. Vintskovsky, V. Lobodaev and others wrote about I. Lutsenko as an adherent of the Cossack idea. I. Lutsenko was born in Poltava region in a family that probably had Cossack roots. In 1908, the first Cossack text by I. Lutsenko was published in the Kyiv newspaper Rada, which had not yet been taken into account by his biographers, including us. The Odessa doctor's note was devoted to the issue of P. Polubotko's treasures, which was relevant in Ukraine in the early twentieth century and then in the 1990s. The thesis about the purpose of these treasures caused doubts in I. Lutsenko, but instead he denied the opinion of D. Yavornytsky that this story is a fabrication. The apogee of the realization of these ideas precisely because of the idea of the revival of the Cossack ethos fell on the period of the Great War and the Ukrainian Revolution of 1917–1921. Many sources and memoirs reflect the contribution of I. Lutsenko during the Ukrainian revolution in the formation of detachments of free Cossacks. I. Lutsenko zealously undertook to implement the decision of the General Cossack Council on the organization of free Cossacks, especially in the regions that still "breathed" the Cossack history and traditions: Katerynoslav, Poltava, Kherson. I. Lutsenko founded and headed the section of free Cossacks at the Odesa Ukrainian Military Council. I. Lutsenko's efforts aimed at forming the neo-Cossack idea and movement were also embodied in his writing of a number of articles on relevant topics, which were published in the Odesa editions of 1917–1918. The basis of the conceptual vision of the doctor of the Ukrainian Cossacks was antiquity and longevity, confidence that historical traditions are the foundation of modernity. He traces the origins of the Cossacks to the times of Russia, the prince's wife and the viche tradition. I. Lutsenko portrayed the social system of the Zaporizhzhya Sich in absolutely ideal tones as the embodiment of the socialist and democratic ideals that humanity dreams of. I. Lutsenko's belief in the success of the revival of the Cossacks was based on his belief in the organic nature of this idea for the Ukrainian people and its immortality. I. Lutsenko considered the hope of external support instead of belief in the strength of his own people to be a tragic historical mistake of Ukrainians. Thus, we can conclude that in general I. Lutsenko's activity was the development of populist traditions of perception of the Cossacks, but in the extreme conditions of the revolution he was one of the few people in the south of Ukraine who modernized this tradition, laid the foundation for the future state vision of the Cossack phenomenon.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 32
Yao Yao ◽  
Zhenbing Sun ◽  
Xiaobao Li ◽  
Zhengjie Tang ◽  
Xiaoping Li ◽  

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) can be derived from a variety of cellulosic materials and is widely used in petroleum mining, construction, paper making, and packaging. CMCs can be derived from many sources with the final properties reflecting the characteristics of the original lignocellulosic matrix as well as the subsequent separation steps that affect the degree of carboxy methyl substitution on the cellulose hydroxyls. While a large percentage of CMCs is derived from wood pulp, many other plant sources may produce more attractive properties for specific applications. The effects of five plant sources on the resulting properties of CMC and CMC/sodium alginate/glycerol composite films were studied. The degree of substitution and resulting tensile strength in leaf-derived CMC was from 0.87 to 0.89 and from 15.81 to 16.35 MPa, respectively, while the degree of substitution and resulting tensile strength in wooden materials-derived CMC were from 1.08 to 1.17 and from 26.08 to 28.97 MPa, respectively. Thus, the degree of substitution and resulting tensile strength tended to be 20% lower in leaf-derived CMCs compared to those prepared from wood or bamboo. Microstructures of bamboo cellulose, bamboo CMC powder, and bamboo leaf CMC composites’ films all differed from pine-derived material, but plant source had no noticeable effect on the X-ray diffraction characteristics, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra, or pyrolysis properties of CMC or composites films. The results highlighted the potential for using plant source as a tool for varying CMC properties for specific applications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
Robert J. Laumbach ◽  
Kevin R. Cromar

Unhealthy levels of air pollution are breathed by billions of people worldwide, and air pollution is the leading environmental cause of death and disability globally. Efforts to reduce air pollution at its many sources have had limited success, and in many areas of the world, poor air quality continues to worsen. Personal interventions to reduce exposure to air pollution include avoiding sources, staying indoors, filtering indoor air, using face masks, and limiting physical activity when and where air pollution levels are elevated. The effectiveness of these interventions varies widely with circumstances and conditions of use. Compared with upstream reduction or control of emissions, personal interventions place burdens and risk of adverse unintended consequences on individuals. We review evidence regarding the balance of benefits and potential harms of personal interventions for reducing exposure to outdoor air pollution, which merit careful consideration before making public health recommendations with regard to who should use personal interventions and where, when, and how they should be used. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health, Volume 43 is April 2022. Please see for revised estimates.

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