AbstractThe purpose of this work was to compare the effect of electron and X-ray irradiation on microbiological content and volatile organic compounds in chilled turkey meat. Dose ranges which significantly suppress the pathogenic microflora while maintaining the organoleptic properties of the turkey meat are different for electron and X-ray irradiation. According to the study it is recommended to treat chilled turkey using X-ray irradiation with the dose ranging from 0.5 to 0.75 kGy, while in electron irradiation permissible doses should be within 0.25–1 kGy. Three main groups of volatile compounds: alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes—were found in irradiated and non-irradiated samples of turkey meat. It was found that the total amount of aldehydes, which are responsible for the formation of a specific odor of irradiated meat products, increases exponentially with the increase in the absorbed dose for both types of irradiation. It was established that acetone can be used as a potential marker of the fact of exposure of low-fat meat products to ionizing radiation.
Herein, we report the density functional study of benzoyl thiourea derivatives linked to morpholine and piperidine to evaluate their antifungal activity. Overall six compounds BTP 1-3 and BTM 4-6 were optimized with DFT using the B3LYP method with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The molecular geometry, bond lengths, bond angles, atomic charges and HOMO-LUMO energy gap have been investigated. The structural parameters have been compared with the reported experimental results and structure- antifungal activity relationship is explored in details. The calculated results from DFT were discussed using all Quantum chemical parameters of the compounds.
Introduction: Benzoyl thiourea derivatives linked with morpholine and piperidine were reported to have good antifungal activity.
Objective: To find the correlations between the quantum chemical calculations and the antifungal activity for the benzoyl thiourea derivatives linked with morpholine and piperidine.
Method: Optimization was carried out with DFT using B3LYP method utilizing 6-31G(d,p) basis set.
Results: A good correlation between the quantum chemical calculations and the antifungal activity for the benzoyl thiourea derivatives linked
with morpholine and piperidine was found.
Conclusion: The DFT study of benzoyl thiourea derivatives linked to morpholine and piperidine was evaluated for their antifungal activity and it showed good correlations of activity with the quantum chemical parameters.
Soil amendments from peats, brown coals and composts produced from segregated biodegradable waste or biomass from fallow land can increase soil fertility and improve soil productivity. The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of using willow (Salix viminalis L.) biomass composts as a substrate component in horticulture. The objects of the research were composts produced from willow carried out in a pile under aerobic conditions. The addition of hay and mineral nitrogen (Nmin) was used to improve process efficiency. In order to verify the type and determine fertilizing value, basic chemical parameters were analyzed (pH, total contents of C, N and P) and a pot experiment was established to analyze the germination and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Changes in pH, an increase in total nitrogen content (TN), phosphorus (TP) and a decrease in TOC was observed in the investigated samples. Results of the experiment showed that the highest yield was obtained from the pots with the mixture of willow, hay and Nmin. Matured composts significantly stimulated the germination and growth of the test plants. It can be concluded that the addition of hay and Nmin significantly improved composting process and increased the fertilizing value of the investigated composts.
The properties of piezoelectric materials due to the effect of electrical, mechanical, thermal, radiation, and chemical parameters are systematized. On the basis of Maxwell's relations (obtained from expressions for thermodynamic functions) and the application of the system analysis methodology, it made it possible to develop an analytical model of the relationship between the parameters and properties of piezoelectrics in the form of a system of equations. The results of the metrological analysis of an analytical model, which made it possible to identify the sources of additional errors in the measurement of parameters, to derive formulas for their calculation, which in turn contributes to an increase in the accuracy of measurements of the piezoelectrics parameters and products based on them, are presented.
В последние годы все большее внимание уделяется разработке продукции, обогащенной растительными компонентами. Целью данной работы являлось исследование влияния смесей из порошков растительного происхождения на свойства теста и качество готовых изделий (булочной мелочи). В рецептуру изделий добавляли растительные смеси: № 1 - порошок облепихи, жимолости, мелкоплодных яблок и порошок из жмыха тыквы, № 2 - порошок облепихи и мелкоплодных яблок в количестве 10, 15 и 20 % от массы муки по сухому веществу. Смеси составляли из компонентов, взятых в равных количествах. Сравнительная оценка пищевой ценности смесей показала, что в смеси № 1 выше количество пищевых волокон, кальция и фосфора относительно смеси № 2. В смеси № 2 преобладает количество белков, жиров, органических кислот, калия, натрия, марганца и железа. По содержанию витаминов преимущество на стороне смеси № 2, за исключением витаминов В и В. Установили повышение кислотности теста с внесением растительных смесей, что указывает на интенсификацию процесса брожения. Исследование качества готовых изделий показало, что при соответствии физико-химических показателей требованиям технической документации, при дозировках смесей выше 10 % отмечали значительное потемнение цвета изделий, появление растительного привкуса, а в изделиях с добавлением смеси №1 неприятное послевкусие. Наиболее рациональной для производства хлебобулочных изделий повышенной пищевой ценности для здорового питания признана рецептура с использованием растительной смеси № 2 из порошков облепихи и мелкоплодных яблок в количестве 10 % к массе муки.
In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the development of products enriched with plant components. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of mixtures of powders of vegetable origin on the properties of dough and the quality of finished products (bakery trifles). Vegetable mixtures were added to the recipe of the products: No. 1 - sea buckthorn powder, honeysuckle, small-fruited apples and pumpkin cake powder; No. 2 - sea buckthorn powder and small-fruited apples, in the amount of 10, 15 and 20 % of the flour weight by dry matter. The mixtures were made up of components taken in equal quantities. A comparative assessment of the nutritional value of the mixtures showed that the amount of dietary fiber, calcium and phosphorus in mixture No. 1 is higher, relative to mixture No. 2. The mixture No. 2 is dominated by the amount of proteins, fats, organic acids, potassium, sodium, manganese and iron. In terms of vitamin content, the advantage is on the side of mixture No. 2, with the exception of vitamins B and B. An increase in the acidity of the dough was established, with the introduction of vegetable mixtures, which indicates an intensification of the fermentation process. The study of the quality of finished products showed that when the physico-chemical parameters meet the requirements of technical documentation, at dosages of mixtures above 10%, a significant darkening of the color of the products, the appearance of a vegetable taste, and in products with the addition of mixture No. 1, an unpleasant aftertaste was noted. The most rational recipe for the production of bakery products of increased nutritional value for a healthy diet is recognized, using a vegetable mixture No. 2 of sea buckthorn powders and small-fruited apples in an amount of 10 % by weight of flour.
Molnár János Cave (MJC) is the only underwater cave and the only active one in the Buda Thermal Karst system (BTK). At MJC, there is a large amount of water that can be considered as a possible source of drinking water. We evaluated the physical and chemical parameters of the cave water to understand natural and possible anthropogenic interference in water quality. Therefore, measurements of temperature and chemical compositions were performed for dripwaters and water from the cave conduits over a four-year period and compared to historical data. Statistical analysis of the produced data revealed yearly changes as well seasonal periodicity in the component ion concentrations. In the case of dripwaters, we observed a periodicity that revealed information about the origin of the dripwater. For the first time, we had identified seasonal variations in conduit waters. Previous studies only analyzed water at the entrance of the cave. Then, this research focuses on the water from the newly discovered inner passages.
Transitional water environments represent very ecologically interesting areas, which provide various ecosystem services, both concerning biodiversity protection and sustainable fruition of resources. In this way, the evaluation of total carbon and its components, chlorophyll, and chemical and physical parameters is of fundamental importance to deepen the dynamics of these peculiar natural areas. Commercial interests linked to the biological resources of these areas are often not well exploited in relation to their sustainability, due to lack of knowledge. In this study, we investigated the distribution of total organic carbon, chlorophyll, and other related physical and chemical parameters in the natural Lagoon of Capo Peloro (Eastern Sicily), to deepen the knowledge on the carbon equilibrium of these transitional basins. Collected data showed different trends for all parameters, mainly related to different seasons and water exchanges with sea. The influences of primary production sources and farmed molluscs were not negligible and deserve to be further investigated in the future. The results obtained reveal good margins for the possibility of environmentally sustainable exploitation of natural resources in both basins, but at the same time, there is a need for a more detailed knowledge of anthropogenic impacts on the area.
Decades of geochemical monitoring at active crater lakes worldwide have confirmed that variations in major elements and physico-chemical parameters are useful to detect changes in volcanic activity. However, it is still arduous to identify precursors of single phreatic eruptions. During the unrest phase of 2009–2016, at least 679 phreatic eruptions occurred at the hyperacid and hypersaline crater lake Laguna Caliente of Poás volcano (Costa Rica). In this study, we investigate the temporal variations of Rare Earth Elements (REE) dissolved in Laguna Caliente in order to 1) scrutinize if they can be used as a new geochemical tool to monitor changes of phreatic activity at hyperacid crater lakes and 2) identify the geochemical processes responsible for the variations of REE concentrations in the lake. The total concentration of REE varies from 950 to 2,773 μg kg−1. (La/Pr)N-local rock ratios range from 0.93 to 1.35, and Light REE over Heavy REE (LREE/HREE)N-local rock ratios vary from 0.71 to 0.95. These same parameters vary in relation to significant changes in phreatic activity; in particular, the (La/Pr)N-local rock ratio increases as phreatic activity increases, while that of (LREE/HREE)N-local rock decreases when phreatic activity increases. REE concentrations and their ratios were compared with the variations of major elements and physico-chemical parameters of the lake. Calcium versus (La/Pr)N-local rock and versus (LREE/HREE)N-local rock ratios show different trends compared to the other major elements (Na, K, Mg, Al, Fe, SO4, and Cl). Moreover, a higher loss of Ca (up to 2,835 ppm) in lake water was found with respect to the loss of Al, K, and Na. This loss of Ca is argued to be due to gypsum precipitation, a process corroborated by the mass balance calculation simulating the precipitation of gypsum and the contemporaneous removal of REE from the lake water. The observed relations between REE, changes in phreatic activity, and the parameters commonly used for the monitoring of hyperacid volcanic lakes encourage investigating more on the temporal and cause-effect relationship between REE dynamics and changes in phreatic activity at crater lake-bearing volcanoes.