This paper presents an attempt to obtain technically valuable lightweight aggregate produced from a mixture of fluidized bed fly ash and post-mining residues. The motivation to take up this study is a problem with the reasonable utilization of huge amounts of ashes produced by power plants in Poland. The ashes still produced and those stored in heaps amount to a tonnage of millions, and new ways to utilize them are desired. A real lack of mineral aggregates (non-renewable resources) demands the search for alternative materials. Using the industrial ashes as aggregates is a possible solution to the two above-mentioned problems. The aim of the study was to produce the lightweight aggregate components and to assess them in terms of their physical and mechanical properties. The components were prepared by mixing, granulation, and sintering at the temperature of over 1170 °C. Evaluation of physical parameters was based on parameters such as bulk density and water absorption. The study of mechanical properties was carried out on the basis of aggregates’ resistance to crushing. The obtained results revealed that using a mixture of the combustion and post-mining residues in the production of a lightweight aggregate is beneficial and results in the formation of a porous and durable structure. The measured resistance to the crushing of the produced aggregates varied from 5.9 MPa to 7.5 MPa. They also showed a high freeze-thaw resistance and good resistance to aggressive environments (bases, acids, salt). The registered properties indicate that the aggregates meet the basic requirements for materials used in construction and road-building. This study has a scientific and didactic value in that it describes the step-by-step process of planning and implementing the production of synthetic mineral aggregates.
Many methods for evaluating the aquifer’s vulnerability to pollution have been developed in the past four decades by using geographic information system (GIS) tools. However, even if the aquifer vulnerability concept is well defined and the methods have been constantly tested and compared, the problem of the choice of the best “standard” method remains. To meet these objectives, aquifer vulnerability maps are of crucial importance. The choice of method depends on several factors, including the scale of the project, the hydrogeological characteristics of the area, and data availability. Among the many methods, the AVI (Aquifer Vulnerability Index) method has been widely used as it considers only two physical parameters. The AVI Index represents the hydraulic resistance of an aquifer to vertical flow, as a ratio between the thickness of each sedimentary unit above the uppermost aquifer (D, length), and the estimated hydraulic conductivity (K, length/time) of each of these layers. The AVI Index has a time dimension and is divided into five classes. In order to avoid a widespread presence of the higher vulnerability classes, especially in shallow aquifers, the AVI classification has been modified using statistical methods. The study reports the application of the modified AVI method for groundwater pollution vulnerability, in three different areas of southern Italy, highlighting the limitations of the method in alluvial aquifers and the differences with other methods.
AbstractThe capillary interactions are prominent for a micro-sized particle at the steel—slag interface. In this study, the dynamics of a spherical particle interacting with the steel—slag interface is numerically investigated using the volume of fluid method in combination with the overset grid technique to account for particle motion. The simulations have shown the particle’s separation process at the interface and successfully captured the formation and continuous evolution of a meniscus in the course of particle motion. A sensitivity analysis on the effect of different physical parameters in the steel—slag—particle system is also conducted. The result indicates that the wettability of particle with the slag phase is the main factor affecting particle separation behavior (trapped at the interface or fully separated into slag). Higher interfacial tension of fluid interface and smaller particle size can speed up the particle motion but have less effect on the equilibrium position for particle staying at the interface. In comparison, particle density shows a minor influence when the motion is dominated by the capillary effect. By taking account of the effect of meniscus and capillary forces on a particle, this study provides a more accurate simulation of particle motion in the vicinity of the steel—slag interface and enables further investigation of more complex situations.
AbstractCustomizable, portable, battery-operated, wireless platforms for interfacing high-sensitivity nanoscale sensors are a means to improve spatiotemporal measurement coverage of physical parameters. Such a platform can enable the expansion of IoT for environmental and lifestyle applications. Here we report a platform capable of acquiring currents ranging from 1.5 nA to 7.2 µA full-scale with 20-bit resolution and variable sampling rates of up to 3.125 kSPS. In addition, it features a bipolar voltage programmable in the range of −10 V to +5 V with a 3.65 mV resolution. A Finite State Machine steers the system by executing a set of embedded functions. The FSM allows for dynamic, customized adjustments of the nanosensor bias, including elevated bias schemes for self-heating, measurement range, bandwidth, sampling rate, and measurement time intervals. Furthermore, it enables data logging on external memory (SD card) and data transmission over a Bluetooth low energy connection. The average power consumption of the platform is 64.5 mW for a measurement protocol of three samples per second, including a BLE advertisement of a 0 dBm transmission power. A state-of-the-art (SoA) application of the platform performance using a CNT nanosensor, exposed to NO2 gas concentrations from 200 ppb down to 1 ppb, has been demonstrated. Although sensor signals are measured for NO2 concentrations of 1 ppb, the 3σ limit of detection (LOD) of 23 ppb is determined (1σ: 7 ppb) in slope detection mode, including the sensor signal variations in repeated measurements. The platform’s wide current range and high versatility make it suitable for signal acquisition from resistive nanosensors such as silicon nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other 2D materials. Along with its overall low power consumption, the proposed platform is highly suitable for various sensing applications within the context of IoT.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the simultaneous flow of Casson Williamson non Newtonian fluids in a vertical porous medium under the influence of variable thermos-physical parameters.
The model equations are a set of partial differential equations (PDEs). These PDEs were transformed into a non-dimensionless form using suitable non-dimensional quantities. The transformed equations were solved numerically using an iterative method called spectral relaxation techniques. The spectral relaxation technique is an iterative method that uses the Gauss-Seidel approach in discretizing and linearizing the set of equations.
It was found out in the study that a considerable number of variable viscosity parameter leads to decrease in the velocity and temperature profiles. Increase in the variable thermal conductivity parameter degenerates the velocity as well as temperature profiles. Hence, the variable thermo-physical parameters greatly influence the non-Newtonian fluids flow.
This study considered the simultaneous flow of Casson-Williamson non-Newtonian fluids by considering the fluid thermal properties to vary within the fluid layers. To the best of the author’s knowledge, such study has not been considered in literature.
Most traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) during military deployment or training are clinically “mild” and frequently caused by non-impact blast exposures. Experimental models were developed to reproduce the biological consequences of high-intensity blasts causing moderate to severe brain injuries. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of low-intensity blast (LIB)-induced neurological deficits have been understudied. This review provides perspectives on primary blast-induced mild TBI models and discusses translational aspects of LIB exposures as defined by standardized physical parameters including overpressure, impulse, and shock wave velocity. Our mouse LIB-exposure model, which reproduces deployment-related scenarios of open-field blast (OFB), caused neurobehavioral changes, including reduced exploratory activities, elevated anxiety-like levels, impaired nesting behavior, and compromised spatial reference learning and memory. These functional impairments associate with subcellular and ultrastructural neuropathological changes, such as myelinated axonal damage, synaptic alterations, and mitochondrial abnormalities occurring in the absence of gross- or cellular damage. Biochemically, we observed dysfunctional mitochondrial pathways that led to elevated oxidative stress, impaired fission-fusion dynamics, diminished mitophagy, decreased oxidative phosphorylation, and compensated cell respiration-relevant enzyme activity. LIB also induced increased levels of total tau, phosphorylated tau, and amyloid β peptide, suggesting initiation of signaling cascades leading to neurodegeneration. We also compare translational aspects of OFB findings to alternative blast injury models. By scoping relevant recent research findings, we provide recommendations for future preclinical studies to better reflect military-operational and clinical realities. Overall, better alignment of preclinical models with clinical observations and experience related to military injuries will facilitate development of more precise diagnosis, clinical evaluation, treatment, and rehabilitation.
Thin film sensors are used to monitor environmental conditions by measuring the physical parameters. By using thin film technology, the sensors are capable of conducting precise measurements. Moreover, the measurements are stable and dependable. Furthermore, inexpensive sensor devices can be produced. In this paper, thin film technology for the design and fabrication of sensors that are used in various applications is reviewed. Further, the applications of thin film sensors in the fields of biomedical, energy harvesting, optical, and corrosion applications are also presented. From the review, the future research needs and future perspectives are identified and discussed.
In the present paper, an MHD three-dimensional non-Newtonian fluid flow over a porous stretching/shrinking sheet in the presence of mass transpiration and thermal radiation is examined. This problem mainly focusses on an analytical solution; graphene water is immersed in the flow of a fluid to enhance the thermal efficiency. The given non-linear PDEs are mapped into ODEs via suitable transformations, then the solution is obtained in terms of incomplete gamma function. The momentum equation is analyzed, and to derive the mass transpiration analytically, this mass transpiration is used in the heat transfer analysis and to find the analytical results with a Biot number. Physical significance parameters, including volume fraction, skin friction, mass transpiration, and thermal radiation, can be analyzed with the help of graphical representations. We indicate the unique solution at stretching sheet and multiple solution at shrinking sheet. The physical scenario can be understood with the help of different physical parameters, namely a Biot number, magnetic parameter, inverse Darcy number, Prandtl number, and thermal radiation; these physical parameters control the analytical results. Graphene nanoparticles are used to analyze the present study, and the value of the Prandtl number is fixed to 6.2. The graphical representations help to discuss the results of the present work. This problem is used in many industrial applications such as Polymer extrusion, paper production, metal cooling, glass blowing, etc. At the end of this work, we found that the velocity and temperature profile increases with the increasing values of the viscoelastic parameter and solid volume fraction; additionally, efficiency is increased for higher values of thermal radiation.
Osmotic pressure can break the fluid balance between intracellular and extracellular solutions. In hypo-osmotic solution, water molecules, which transfer into the cell and burst, are driven by the concentrations difference of solute across the semi-permeable membrane. The complicated dynamic processes of the intermittent burst have been previously observed. However, the underlying physical mechanism has yet to be thoroughly explored and analyzed. Here, the intermittent release of inclusion in giant unilamellar vesicles was investigated quantitatively, applying the combination of experimental and theoretical methods in the hypo-osmotic medium. Experimentally, we adopted highly sensitive EMCCD to acquire intermittent dynamic images. Notably, the component of the vesicle phospholipids affected the stretch velocity, and the prepared solution of the vesicle adjusted the release time. Theoretically, we chose equations numerical simulations to quantify the dynamic process in phases and explored the influence of physical parameters such as bilayer permeability and solution viscosity on the process. It was concluded that the time taken to achieve the balance of giant unilamellar vesicles was highly dependent on the structure of the lipid molecular. The pore lifetime was strongly related with the internal solution environment of giant unilamellar vesicles. The vesicle prepared in viscous solution accessed visualized long-lived pore. Furthermore, the line tension was measured quantitatively by the release velocity of inclusion, which was in the same order of magnitude as the theoretical simulation. In all, the experimental values well matched the theoretical values. Our investigation clarified the physical regulatory mechanism of intermittent pore formation and inclusion release, which had an important reference for the development of novel technologies such as gene therapy based on transmembrane transport as well as controlled drug delivery based on liposomes.