functional study
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PLoS Genetics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1010015
Cécile Ribot ◽  
Cédric Soler ◽  
Aymeric Chartier ◽  
Sandy Al Hayek ◽  
Rima Naït-Saïdi ◽  

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a late-onset disorder characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of specific muscles. OPMD is due to extension of a polyalanine tract in poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). Aggregation of the mutant protein in muscle nuclei is a hallmark of the disease. Previous transcriptomic analyses revealed the consistent deregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in OPMD animal models and patients, suggesting a role of this deregulation in OPMD pathogenesis. Subsequent studies proposed that UPS contribution to OPMD involved PABPN1 aggregation. Here, we use a Drosophila model of OPMD to address the functional importance of UPS deregulation in OPMD. Through genome-wide and targeted genetic screens we identify a large number of UPS components that are involved in OPMD. Half dosage of UPS genes reduces OPMD muscle defects suggesting a pathological increase of UPS activity in the disease. Quantification of proteasome activity confirms stronger activity in OPMD muscles, associated with degradation of myofibrillar proteins. Importantly, improvement of muscle structure and function in the presence of UPS mutants does not correlate with the levels of PABPN1 aggregation, but is linked to decreased degradation of muscle proteins. Oral treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 is beneficial to the OPMD Drosophila model, improving muscle function although PABPN1 aggregation is enhanced. This functional study reveals the importance of increased UPS activity that underlies muscle atrophy in OPMD. It also provides a proof-of-concept that inhibitors of proteasome activity might be an attractive pharmacological approach for OPMD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Md. Rakibul Islam ◽  
Mohammad Khursheed Alam ◽  
Bikash Kumar Paul ◽  
Deepika Koundal ◽  
Atef Zaguia ◽  

Esophageal carcinoma (EsC) is a member of the cancer group that occurs in the esophagus; globally, it is known as one of the fatal malignancies. In this study, we used gene expression analysis to identify molecular biomarkers to propose therapeutic targets for the development of novel drugs. We consider EsC associated four different microarray datasets from the gene expression omnibus database. Statistical analysis is performed using R language and identified a total of 1083 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in which 380 are overexpressed and 703 are underexpressed. The functional study is performed with the identified DEGs to screen significant Gene Ontology (GO) terms and associated pathways using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery repository (DAVID). The analysis revealed that the overexpressed DEGs are principally connected with the protein export, axon guidance pathway, and the downexpressed DEGs are principally connected with the L13a-mediated translational silencing of ceruloplasmin expression, formation of a pool of free 40S subunits pathway. The STRING database used to collect protein-protein interaction (PPI) network information and visualize it with the Cytoscape software. We found 10 hub genes from the PPI network considering three methods in which the interleukin 6 (IL6) gene is the top in all methods. From the PPI, we found that identified clusters are associated with the complex I biogenesis, ubiquitination and proteasome degradation, signaling by interleukins, and Notch-HLH transcription pathway. The identified biomarkers and pathways may play an important role in the future for developing drugs for the EsC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Manyun Guo ◽  
Yucheng Ma ◽  
Wanyuan Liu ◽  
Zuyi Yuan

AbstractNucleocapsid protein (NC) in the group-specific antigen (gag) of retrovirus is essential in the interactions of most retroviral gag proteins with RNAs. Computational method to predict NCs would benefit subsequent structure analysis and functional study on them. However, no computational method to predict the exact locations of NCs in retroviruses has been proposed yet. The wide range of length variation of NCs also increases the difficulties. In this paper, a computational method to identify NCs in retroviruses is proposed. All available retrovirus sequences with NC annotations were collected from NCBI. Models based on random forest (RF) and weighted support vector machine (WSVM) were built to predict initiation and termination sites of NCs. Factor analysis scales of generalized amino acid information along with position weight matrix were utilized to generate the feature space. Homology based gene prediction methods were also compared and integrated to bring out better predicting performance. Candidate initiation and termination sites predicted were then combined and screened according to their intervals, decision values and alignment scores. All available gag sequences without NC annotations were scanned with the model to detect putative NCs. Geometric means of sensitivity and specificity generated from prediction of initiation and termination sites under fivefold cross-validation are 0.9900 and 0.9548 respectively. 90.91% of all the collected retrovirus sequences with NC annotations could be predicted totally correct by the model combining WSVM, RF and simple alignment. The composite model performs better than the simplex ones. 235 putative NCs in unannotated gags were detected by the model. Our prediction method performs well on NC recognition and could also be expanded to solve other gene prediction problems, especially those whose training samples have large length variations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Rameshwar K. Dongare ◽  
Shaukatali N. Inamdar ◽  
Radhakrishnan M. Tigote

Herein, we report the density functional study of benzoyl thiourea derivatives linked to morpholine and piperidine to evaluate their antifungal activity. Overall six compounds BTP 1-3 and BTM 4-6 were optimized with DFT using the B3LYP method with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The molecular geometry, bond lengths, bond angles, atomic charges and HOMO-LUMO energy gap have been investigated. The structural parameters have been compared with the reported experimental results and structure- antifungal activity relationship is explored in details. The calculated results from DFT were discussed using all Quantum chemical parameters of the compounds. Introduction: Benzoyl thiourea derivatives linked with morpholine and piperidine were reported to have good antifungal activity. Objective: To find the correlations between the quantum chemical calculations and the antifungal activity for the benzoyl thiourea derivatives linked with morpholine and piperidine. Method: Optimization was carried out with DFT using B3LYP method utilizing 6-31G(d,p) basis set. Results: A good correlation between the quantum chemical calculations and the antifungal activity for the benzoyl thiourea derivatives linked with morpholine and piperidine was found. Conclusion: The DFT study of benzoyl thiourea derivatives linked to morpholine and piperidine was evaluated for their antifungal activity and it showed good correlations of activity with the quantum chemical parameters.

Neurology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 10.1212/WNL.0000000000013300
Vincenzo Provitera ◽  
Valeria Iodice ◽  
Fiore Manganelli ◽  
Stefania Mozzillo ◽  
Giuseppe Caporaso ◽  

Background and Objectives:Sudomotor impairment has been recognized as a key feature in differentiating Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian type (MSA-P) with the latter been characterized by diffuse anhidrosis in prospective study including patients in late stage of disease.We aimed to evaluate morphological and functional postganglionic sudomotor involvement in patients with new diagnosis MSA-P and PD to identify possible biomarkers that might be of help in differentiating the two conditions in early stage.Methods:One hundred patients with parkinsonism within 2 years from onset of motor symptoms were included in the study. At time of recruitment, questionnaires to assess non-motor, autonomic and small fiber symptoms were administered and patients underwent post-ganglionic sudomotor function assessment by the dynamic sweat test and punch skin biopsy from distal leg. Skin samples were processed for indirect immunofluorescence with a panel of antibodies including noradrenergic and cholinergic markers. The density of intraepidermal, sudomotor and pilomotor nerve fibers was measured on confocal images using dedicated software. A follow-up visit twelve months after recruitment was performed to confirm the diagnosis.Results:We recruited 57 patients with PD (M/F=36/21; age 63.5±9.4years) and 43 patients with MSA-P (M/F=27/16; age 62.3±9.0 years). Clinical scales and questionnaires showed a more severe clinical picture in MSA-P compared to PD patients. Sweating output and intraepidermal, pilomotor and sudomotor nerve densities, compared to controls, were lower in both groups but with a greater impairment in MSA-P patients. Pilomotor and sudomotor nerve density correlated with sweating function and with non-motor clinical symptoms. A composite sudomotor parameter defined as the arithmetic product of sweat production multiplied by the density of sudomotor fibers, efficiently separated the two populations, the receiver operating characteristics showing an area under the curve of 0.83.Discussion:Dynamic sweat test and the quantification of cutaneous autonomic nerves provided to be a sensitive morpho-functional approach to assess postganglionic component of the sudomotor pathway, revealing a more severe involvement in MSA-P than in PD early in the disease course. This approach can be applied to early differentiate the two conditions.Classification of Evidence:This study provides Class II evidence that post ganglionic sudomotor morpho-functional assessment accurately distinguish PD from MSA-P patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Xiang Gao ◽  
Xu-Kai Ma ◽  
Xiang Li ◽  
Guo-Wei Li ◽  
Chu-Xiao Liu ◽  

AbstractMany circular RNAs (circRNAs) are produced from back-splicing of exons of precursor mRNAs and are generally co-expressed with cognate linear RNAs. Methods for circRNA-specific knockout are lacking, largely due to sequence overlaps between forms. Here, we use base editors (BEs) for circRNA depletion. By targeting splice sites involved in both back-splicing and canonical splicing, BEs can repress circular and linear RNAs. Targeting sites predominantly for circRNA biogenesis, BEs could efficiently repress the production of circular but not linear RNAs. As hundreds of exons are predominantly back-spliced to produce circRNAs, this provides an efficient method to deplete circRNAs for functional study.

Idrissa Dieng ◽  
Amadou Diallo ◽  
Mignane Ndiaye ◽  
Moussa Moise Diagne ◽  
Safietou Sankhe ◽  

To assess the genetic diversity of circulating dengue virus 2 in Senegal in 2018 we performed molecular characterization by complete genome sequencing and performing phylogenetic analysis. Sequenced strains belong to Cosmopolitan genotype of DENV-2 we observed intra-genotype variability leading to a divergence in two clades with differential geographic distribution. We report two variants namely; the “Northern variant” harbouring three nonsynonymous mutations (V1183M, R1405K, P2266T) located respectively on NS2A, NS2B and NS4A and the “Western variant” with two nonsynonymous mutations (V1185E, V3214E) located respectively in the NS2A gene and the NS5 gene. Findings calls for in depth in vitro and functional study to elucidate the impact of observed mutations on viral fitness, spread, epidemiology and disease outcome.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Yao Tang ◽  
Huijia Li ◽  
Chunxin Liu ◽  
Yuqing He ◽  
Hexuan Wang ◽  

Abstract Background Leaves, which are the most important organs of plants, can not only fix carbon sources through photosynthesis, but also absorb nutrients through transpiration. Leaf development directly determines the growth, flowering and fruiting of plants. There are many factors that affect leaf development, such as the growth environment, gene expression, and hormone synthesis. In this study, tomatoes were used to study the role of the transcription factor Solanum lycopersicum salt-related MYB1-like (SlSRM1-like) in the development of tomato leaves. Results Loss-of-function of the SlSRM1-like gene mediated by clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) resulted in abnormal tomato leaf morphology, including thinner leaves, wrinkled edges, raised veins, disordered edge veins, and left and right asymmetry. An analysis of the transcription levels of genes related to leaf development revealed that the expression of these genes was significantly altered in the SlSRM1-like mutants (SlSRM1-like-Ms). Moreover, the SlSRM1-like gene was expressed at higher transcription levels in young tissues than in old tissues, and its expression was also induced in response to auxin. In addition, the transcription levels of genes related to the auxin pathway, which regulates tomato growth and development, were severely affected in the SlSRM1-like-Ms. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the SlSRM1-like gene functions in the regulation of tomato leaf development through the auxin-related pathway. Conclusions In this study, we successfully knocked out the SlSRM1-like gene in the tomato variety Ailsa Craig using CRISPR technology and found that knockout of the SlSRM1-like gene resulted in abnormal development of tomato leaves. Further research indicated that SlSRM1-like regulated tomato leaf development through auxin-related pathways. The results provide an important reference for the functional study of other SRM1-like genes in plants and provide new insights into the regulation of leaf development in tomato and other plants.

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