Abstract This paper presents a numerical study about the effects of chloride-induced corrosion on the service life of structures. A two-dimensional geometrically nonlinear mechanical model based on Finite Element Method (FEM) was developed for reinforced concrete structures. The corrosion initiation stage was evaluated by Fick's diffusion laws. The corrosion propagation was carried out by deterministic models based on Faraday's law. Pitting corrosion was simulated in the reinforcements by pit elements, distributed longitudinally on the steel rebars, which degrade the physical properties over time. The service life was determined by the crack width.Two parametric analyses were performed. In the first analysis, five models were created with a variablecover thickness and water/cement ratio (w/c). In the second analysis, the reduction in yield stress due to corrosion was considered.The results showed that the concrete cover thicknessand the w/c ratio significantly influence the service life. The reduction of the cover thickness from 30 mm to 25 mm resulted in 21.26% reduction in service life, whilethe increase in the w/c ratio from 0.50 to 0.55 caused 32.98% reduction in service life of the structural element analyzed.
Carbon steel pipelines used in the oil and gas industry can be susceptible to the combined presence of deposits and microorganisms, which can result in a complex phenomenon, recently termed under-deposit microbial corrosion (UDMC). UDMC and its inhibition in CO2 ambiance were investigated in real-time using a multi-electrode array (MEA) system and surface profilometry analysis. Maps from corrosion rates, galvanic currents, and corrosion potentials recorded at each microelectrode allowed the visualization of local corrosion events on the steel surface. A marine bacterium Enterobacter roggenkampii, an iron-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing microorganism, generated iron deposits on the surface that resulted in pitting corrosion under anaerobic conditions. Areas under deposits displayed anodic behavior, more negative potentials, higher corrosion rates, and pitting compared to areas outside deposits. In the presence of the organic film-forming corrosion inhibitor, 2-Mercaptopyrimidine, the marine bacterium induced local breakdown of the protective inhibitor film and subsequent pitting corrosion of carbon steel. The ability of the MEA system to locally measure self-corrosion processes, galvanic effects and, corrosion potentials across the surface demonstrated its suitability to detect, evaluate and monitor the UDMC process as well as the efficiency of corrosion inhibitors to prevent this corrosion phenomenon. This research highlights the importance of incorporating the microbial component to corrosion inhibitors evaluation to ensure chemical effectiveness in the likely scenario of deposit formation and microbial contamination in oil and gas production equipment.
This work investigates how the crystallographic features of additive manufactured (AM) microstructures impact the pitting corrosion process through computational simulations of phase field models. Crystallographic influence is explored by introducing orientation dependencies into the corrosion potentials and elastic constants of the model through microstructural data provided from AM 316L samples. Comparisons of evolved pit morphologies and stress responses are made to a standard homogeneous, semi-circular model to better highlight how the complexity of AM microstructures affects pit evolution and stress concentrations. The results illustrate that AM-informed modeling cases produce larger, deeper pits with numerous locations of elevated stress concentrations along the pit front.
Effects of actual marine atmospheric precorrosion and prefatigue on the fatigue property of 7085-T7452 aluminum alloy were investigated by using the methods of marine atmospheric outdoor exposure tests and constant amplitude axial fatigue tests. Marine atmospheric corrosion morphologies, fatigue life, and fatigue fractography were analyzed. After three months of outdoor exposure, both pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion (IGC) occurred, while the latter was the dominant marine atmospheric corrosion mode. Marine atmospheric precorrosion could result in a dramatical decrease in the fatigue life of the as-received 7085-T7452 aluminum alloy, while selective prefatigue can improve the total fatigue life of the precorroded specimen. The mechanism of the actual marine atmospheric corrosion and its effects on the fatigue life of the 7085-T7452 aluminum alloy were also discussed.
The effect of aging on the resistance to pitting corrosion of ultrafine-grained 7475 aluminium (Al) alloy processed by hydrostatic extrusion (HE) is studied. Differences in the microstructure were investigated using secondary electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Corrosion tests were performed in 0.1 M NaCl, and characterization of corroded surface was performed. The results of this work show that the pitting susceptibility of ultra-fine grained 7475Al is related to the distribution of MgZn2 precipitates. After HE, the formation of An ultrafine-grained microstructure at the grain boundaries of ultrafine grains is observed, while subsequent aging results in the formation of MgZn2 precipitates in the grain interior. Grain refinement increases susceptibility to localized attack, while the subsequent aging improves the overall corrosion resistance and limits the propagation of corrosion attack.
This work is aimed at improving the understanding of the localized corrosion of carbon steel in ethanolic solutions. The role of ethanol dehydration, chloride, and oxygen level in the pitting behaviour of carbon steel in ethanolic environments in the presence of supporting electrolytes was investigated. Open Circuit Potential measurement, Cyclic Potentiodynamic Polarization and Potentiostatic testing were conducted on specimens exposed to ethanolic environments prepared from pure dehydrated ethanol to study the pitting behaviour of carbon steel. Corrosion and passivation potentials significantly reduce due to the change in the cathodic reaction and the decrease in passivation kinetics under de-aerated conditions. SEM and EDX examination indicated that no pitting corrosion is observed without chlorides, and chloride significantly destabilizes the surface film resulting in decreases of both corrosion potential and passivation potential. A decrease in the dissolved oxygen in the solution reduces but does not eliminate the pitting susceptibility. Iron oxide is identified as the significant corrosion product at different water and oxygen content. Therefore, ethanol aeration can be a proper method to increase pitting corrosion resistance in ethanolic solutions.