genome analysis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 61 ◽  
pp. 100922
Christopher Riccardi ◽  
Caterina D'Angelo ◽  
Marzia Calvanese ◽  
Annarita Ricciardelli ◽  
Maria Luisa Tutino ◽  

2022 ◽  
Tang Li ◽  
Yanbin Yin

Background: Large scale metagenome assembly and binning to generate metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) has become possible in the past five years. As a result, millions of MAGs have been produced and increasingly included in pan-genomics workflow. However, pan-genome analyses of MAGs may suffer from the known issues with MAGs: fragmentation, incompleteness, and contamination, due to mis-assembly and mis-binning. Here, we conducted a critical assessment of including MAGs in pan-genome analysis, by comparing pan-genome analysis results of complete bacterial genomes and simulated MAGs. Results: We found that incompleteness led to more significant core gene loss than fragmentation. Contamination had little effect on core genome size but had major influence on accessory genomes. The core gene loss remained when using different pan-genome analysis tools and when using a mixture of MAGs and complete genomes. Importantly, the core gene loss was partially alleviated by lowering the core gene threshold and using gene prediction algorithms that consider fragmented genes, but to a less degree when incompleteness was higher than 5%. The core gene loss also led to incorrect pan-genome functional predictions and inaccurate phylogenetic trees. Conclusions: We conclude that lowering core gene threshold and predicting genes in metagenome mode (as Anvio does with Prodigal) are necessary in pan-genome analysis of MAGs to alleviate the accuracy loss. Better quality control of MAGs and development of new pan-genome analysis tools specifically designed for MAGs are needed in future studies.

Xue Li Tan ◽  
Wei Yee Wee ◽  
Boon Chin Tan ◽  
Chee How Teo

Proper identification of strain is essential in understanding the ecology of a bacteria species. The classification of Pseudomonas nitroreducens is still being questioned and revised until now. The novel P. nitroreducens strains FY43 and FY47 used in this study have been reported to show a high level of tolerance to glyphosate. In this study, next-generation sequencing (NGS) and whole genome analysis were used to clarify the delineation of the species. Whole genome analysis showed that P. nitroreducens strains FY43 and FY47 shared high homology to five reference genomes of P. nitroreducens: strain B, Aramco J, NBRC 12694, DF05, and TX01. Phylogenomic and phylogenetic analysis (average nucleotide identity based on BLAST (ANIb), genome-to-genome distance (GGDC) analysis) showed that both P. nitroreducens strains FY43 and FY47 are Pseudomonas nitroreducens members. However, strains DF05 and TX01 were not correctly assigned at the species level for all the analyses. The P. nitroreducens strain DF05 and TX01 should be further investigated for their classification as the correct species classification is the prerequisite for future diversity studies.

Tengzhi Xu ◽  
Lei Lei ◽  
Xiangru Chen ◽  
Rongyu Li ◽  
Xiaomao Wu ◽  

Haiyan Long ◽  
Ya Hu ◽  
Yu Feng ◽  
Zhiyong Zong

Klebsiella oxytoca complex comprises nine closely-related species causing human infections. We curated genomes labeled Klebsiella (n=14,256) in GenBank and identified 588 belonging to the complex, which were examined for precise species, sequence types, K- and O-antigen types, virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes. The complex and Klebsiella pneumoniae share many K- and O-antigen types. Of the complex, K. oxytoca and Klebsiella michiganensis appear to carry more virulence genes and be more commonly associated with human infections.

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