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2022 ◽  
Vol 127 ◽  
pp. 108529
Saurabh R. Sinha ◽  
Jui-Chen Yang ◽  
Matthew J. Wallace ◽  
Kiran Grover ◽  
F. Reed Johnson ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 280-284
Putri Aliya Ahadini ◽  
Muhamad Bagus Wira Utama ◽  
Adhyatma Ismu Reihan ◽  
Reny I’tishom

Mental disorders are one of the health disorders that contribute to high rates of disability and mortality worldwide. The current therapeutic modalities used to treat mental disorders are medical and psychological approaches, but it becomes problematic in some conditions, such as drug-resistant mental disorders. Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC) technology can be used as an alternative to overcome this problem. This technology uses radio waves which are guaranteed to be non-invasive and do not cause side effects. This technology enables neuromodulation effects by maximizing cell polarity and optimizing endogenous bioelectric activity. Of course, the REAC's mechanism as a neuromodulator and being a non-invasive technology is safe to use. It allows REAC to be used as an adjuvant therapy to reduce symptoms of several mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, phobias, and stress.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
Rui Yang ◽  
Fang Li ◽  
Wei Wei Mao ◽  
Xin Wei ◽  
Xinzhu Liu ◽  

Introduction: The incidence of postneurosurgical Acinetobacter baumannii ventriculitis/meningitis, primarily due to drug-resistant strains, has increased considerably in recent years. However, limited therapeutic options are available because most antibiotics poorly penetrate the blood-brain barrier, especially in pediatric patients. Case Presentation: A five-year-old boy developed ventriculitis due to extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii (XDRAB) after bilateral frontal external ventricular drainage for spontaneous intraventricular hemorrhage. The boy was safely and successfully treated with intraventricular (IVT)/intrathecal (ITH) polymyxin B together with intravenous tigecycline plus cefoperazone/sulbactam. Conclusions: In the present case, postneurosurgical XDRAB ventriculitis was closely associated with intraventricular hemorrhage and the placement of external ventricular drainage. IVT/ITH polymyxin B combined with intravenous tigecycline and cefoperazone sulbactam could be a therapeutic option against XDRAB ventriculitis in children.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 213
Sabrina Cherubini ◽  
Mariagrazia Perilli ◽  
Anna Maria Azzini ◽  
Evelina Tacconelli ◽  
Laura Maccacaro ◽  

Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are important reservoirs of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria which colonize patients transferred from the hospital, or they may emerge in the facility as a result of mutation or gene transfer. In the present study, we characterized, from a molecular point of view, 43 E. coli strains collected from residents of LTCFs in Northern Italy. The most common lineage found was ST131, followed by sporadic presence of ST12, ST69, ST48, ST95, ST410 and ST1193. All strains were incubators of several virulence factors, with iss, sat, iha and senB being found in 84%, 72%, 63% and 51% of E. coli, respectively. Thirty of the ST131 analyzed were of the O25b:H4 serotype and H30 subclone. The ST131 isolates were found to be mainly associated with IncF plasmids, CTX-M-1, CTX-M-3, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-27 and gyrA/parC/parE mutations. Metallo-β-lactamases were not found in ST131, whereas KPC-3 carbapenemase was found only in two ST131 and one ST1193. In conclusion, we confirmed the spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes in E. coli ST131 isolated from colonized residents living inside LTCFs. The ST131 represents an incubator of fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and other antibiotic resistance genes in addition to different virulence factors.

Sarah Batson ◽  
Rohit Shankar ◽  
Joan Conry ◽  
Jane Boggs ◽  
Rodney Radtke ◽  

AbstractVagus nerve stimulation (VNS) Therapy® is an adjunctive neurostimulation treatment for people with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) who are unwilling to undergo resective surgery, have had unsuccessful surgery or are unsuitable for surgery. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to determine the treatment effects of VNS Therapy as an adjunct to anti-seizure medications (ASMs) for the management of adults with DRE. A literature search was performed in August 2020 of the Medline®, Medline® Epub Ahead of Print, Embase, and the Cochrane library databases. Outcomes examined included reduction in seizure frequency, seizure freedom, ASM load, discontinuations, and serious adverse events (SAEs). Comparators included best medical practice, ASMs, low-stimulation or sham VNS Therapy. Four RCTs and six comparative observational studies were identified for inclusion. Against comparators, individuals treated with VNS had a significantly better odds of experiencing a ≥ 50% reduction in seizure frequency (OR: 2.27 [95% CI 1.47, 3.51]; p = 0.0002), a ≥ 75% reduction in seizure frequency (OR: 3.56 [95% CI 1.59, 7.98]; p = 0.002) and a reduced risk for increased ASM load (risk ratio: 0.36 [95% CI 0.21, 0.62]; p = 0.0002). There was no difference in the odds of discontinuation or the rate of SAEs between VNS versus comparators. This meta-analysis demonstrated the benefits of VNS Therapy in people with DRE, which included improvement in seizure frequency without an increase in the rate of SAEs or discontinuations, thereby supporting the consideration of VNS Therapy for people who are not responding to ASMs and those unsuitable or unwilling to undergo surgery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
Kendra R. Vann ◽  
Dhananjaya Pal ◽  
Audrey L. Smith ◽  
Namood-e Sahar ◽  
Maddeboina Krishnaiah ◽  

AbstractMantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a subtype of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma characterized by poor prognosis. The complexity of MCL pathogenesis arises from aberrant activities of diverse signaling pathways, including BTK, PI3K–AKT–mTOR and MYC-BRD4. Here, we report that MCL-related signaling pathways can be altered by a single small molecule inhibitor, SRX3305. Binding and kinase activities along with resonance changes in NMR experiments reveal that SRX3305 targets both bromodomains of BRD4 and is highly potent in inhibition of the PI3K isoforms α, γ and δ, as well as BTK and the drug-resistant BTK mutant. Preclinical investigations herein reveal that SRX3305 perturbs the cell cycle, promotes apoptosis in MCL cell lines and shows dose dependent anti-proliferative activity in both MCL and drug-resistant MCL cells. Our findings underscore the effectiveness of novel multi-action small molecule inhibitors for potential treatment of MCL.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 947
Sanya Sureram ◽  
Irene Arduino ◽  
Reiko Ueoka ◽  
Massimo Rittà ◽  
Rachele Francese ◽  

Herpesviruses are highly prevalent in the human population, and frequent reactivations occur throughout life. Despite antiviral drugs against herpetic infections, the increasing appearance of drug-resistant viral strains and their adverse effects prompt the research of novel antiherpetic drugs for treating lesions. Peptides obtained from natural sources have recently become of particular interest for antiviral therapy applications. In this work, we investigated the antiviral activity of the peptide A-3302-B, isolated from a marine bacterium, Micromonospora sp., strain MAG 9-7, against herpes simplex virus type 1, type 2, and human cytomegalovirus. Results showed that the peptide exerted a specific inhibitory activity against HSV-2 with an EC50 value of 14 μM. Specific antiviral assays were performed to investigate the mechanism of action of A-3302-B. We demonstrated that the peptide did not affect the expression of viral proteins, but it inhibited the late events of the HSV-2 replicative cycle. In detail, it reduced the cell-to-cell virus spread and the transmission of the extracellular free virus by preventing the egress of HSV-2 progeny from the infected cells. The dual antiviral and previously reported anti-inflammatory activities of A-3302-B, and its effect against an acyclovir-resistant HSV-2 strain are attractive features for developing a therapeutic to reduce the transmission of HSV-2 infections.

2022 ◽  
Kokab Jabeen ◽  
Sidrah Saleem ◽  
Faiqa Arshad ◽  
Zill-e-Huma ◽  
Shah Jahan ◽  

Abstract Typhoid fever is a significant health problem in developing countries like Pakistan. Salmonella Typhi the causative agent of typhoid has developed resistant to almost all recommended antibiotics. Emergence of resistance to third generation cephalosporins has further complicated the situation and such strains are called as extensively drug resistant (XDR) Salmonella Typhi. Currently only available options are azithromycin and cabapenems. Recently few reports of azithromycin resistance have emerged from countries like Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Nepal. As azithromycin is the only oral option available to treat XDR Typhoid, development of resistance may change treatment strategy altogether from out patient management to hospitalization of every patient. This may increase the burden on already weak health care system of countries like Pakistan. So there is dire need to look for the alternative treatment options. Manuka honey is well known for its therapeutic potential against wide range of bacteria including Salmonella Typhimurium. In this study 3 azithromycin resistant isolates were isolated and identified using disc diffusion, E-test and broth micro dilution methods and antibacterial activity, MIC and MBC of manuka honey was performed by agar well diffusion assay and broth micro dilution assay respectively. Manuka honey manifested significant antibacterial activity against all test isolates with zone of inhibition ranging from 7.3mm to 7.5mm, MIC and MBC values were between 10 to 15% v/v Here, we conclude that Manuka honey possess potent antibacterial activity and might be used as an alternative treatment option against azithromycin resistant XDR Typhid. However, further clinical trials are mandatory to validate our initial findings.

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