Virulence Genes
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
L. Tooba ◽  
A. Shahzad ◽  
M. Zahid ◽  
R. Muhammad ◽  
I. Anam ◽  

Abstract Pakistan is an agricultural country and fisheries play a very important role in the economic development of the country. Different diseases are prevalent in Pakistani fish but information related to the causative agents is not well-known. Keeping in view the significance of bacterial pathogens as the causative agents of multiple fish diseases, the present study was conducted for identification, characterization and analysis of virulence genes of Aeromonas spp. isolated from diseased fishes. A total of fifty fish samples having multiple clinical indications were collected from different fish farms of district Kasur, Punjab Pakistan. For isolation of Aeromonas spp. samples were enriched and inoculated on Aeromonas isolation medium. Isolates were identified and characterized by different biochemical tests, Analytical Profile Index (API) 20E kit and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. All isolates were screened for three putative virulence genes including aerolysin (aer), haemolysin (hyl) and heat labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt). Seven isolates of Aeromonas (A.) hydrophila were retrieved and identified based on API 20E. These isolates were further confirmed as A. hydrophila on the basis of PCR assays. Three isolates were detected positive for the presence of virulence genes (alt and hyl). Whereas aerolysin (aer) gene was not present in any of A. hydrophila isolates. The present study confirmed A. hydrophila as the causative agent of epizootic ulcerative syndrome and motile Aeromonas septicemia in fish farms of district Kasur, Punjab Pakistan. Moreover, detection of two virulence genes (alt and hyl) in A. hydrophila isolates is a threat for fish consumers of study area.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Melissa A. Ramtahal ◽  
Anou M. Somboro ◽  
Daniel G. Amoako ◽  
Akebe L. K. Abia ◽  
Keith Perrett ◽  

The presence of the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella in the food supply chain poses a serious public health threat. This study describes the prevalence, susceptibility profiles, virulence patterns, and clonality of Salmonella from a poultry flock monitored over six weeks, using the farm-to-fork approach. Salmonella was isolated using selective media and confirmed to the genus and species level by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the invA and iroB genes, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined using Vitek-2 and the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method against a panel of 21 antibiotics recommended by the World Health Organisation Advisory Group on Integrated Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (WHO-AGISAR). Selected virulence genes were identified by conventional PCR, and clonality was determined using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR). Salmonella was present in 32.1% of the samples: on the farm (30.9%), at the abattoir (0.6%), and during house decontamination (0.6%). A total of 210 isolates contained the invA and iroB genes. Litter, faeces, and carcass rinsate isolates were classified as resistant to cefuroxime (45.2%), cefoxitin (1.9%), chloramphenicol (1.9%), nitrofurantoin (0.4%), pefloxacin (11.4%), and azithromycin (11%). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed among 3.8% of the isolates. All wastewater and 72.4% of carcass rinsate isolates were fully susceptible. All isolates harboured the misL, orfL, pipD, stn, spiC, hilA, and sopB virulence genes, while pefA, spvA, spvB, and spvC were absent. In addition, fliC was only present among the wastewater isolates. Various ERIC-PCR patterns were observed throughout the continuum with different subtypes, indicating the unrelated spread of Salmonella. This study concluded that poultry and the poultry environment serve as reservoirs for resistant and pathogenic Salmonella. However, there was no evidence of transmission along the farm-to-fork continuum.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 85
Samy Selim ◽  
Mohammed S. Almuhayawi ◽  
Shadi Ahmed Zakai ◽  
Ahmed Attia Salama ◽  
Mona Warrad

Plesiomonas shigelloides are gram-negative, thermotolerant, motile, and pleomorphic microorganisms that are only distantly related to those of the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families. One of the most common sources of P. shigelloides contamination is human stool, but it may also be found in a wide range of other animals, plants, and aquatic habitats. Antimicrobial resistance in P. shigelloides from seawater and shellfish was investigated, and pathogenicity involved genes were characterized as part of this study. Out of 384 samples of shellfish, 5.7% included P. shigelloides. The presence of P. shigelloides was also discovered in 5% of the seawater sampled. The antimicrobial resistance of 23 P. shigelloides isolates derived from those samples was investigated. All isolates were sensitive to nalidixic acid, carbenicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, kanamycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin in the study. Several strains isolated from diseased shellfish were tested for virulence in shellfish by intraperitoneal injections. The LD50 values ranged from 12 × 108 to 3 × 1012 cfu/shellfish. When looking for possible virulence factors that may play a significant role in bacterial infection in the current study, we found that all of these genes were present in these strains. These include genes such as elastase, lipase, flagellin, enterotoxin, and DNases. According to these findings, shellfish may serve as a reservoir for multi-resistant P. shigelloides and help spread virulence genes across the environment.

2022 ◽  
Ming Zhang ◽  
Jun Liu ◽  
Zhenzhen Yin ◽  
Li Zhang

Bacillus cereus is a food contaminant with widely varying enterotoxic potential of its virulence proteins. In this article, phylogenetic analysis of the whole-genome amino acid sequences of 41 strains, evolutionary distance calculation of the amino acid sequences of the virulence genes, and functional and structural prediction of the virulence proteins were performed to reveal the taxonomically diverse distribution of virulence factors. The genome evolution of the strains showed a clustering trend based on the coding virulence genes. The strains of B. cereus have evolved into non-toxic risk and toxic risk clusters with medium-high- and medium-low-risk clusters. The distances of evolutionary transfer relative to housekeeping genes of incomplete virulence genes were greater than those of complete virulence genes, and the distance values of HblACD were higher than those of nheABC and CytK among the complete virulence genes. Cytoplasmic localization was impossible for all the virulence proteins, and NheB, NheC, Hbl-B, and Hbl-L 1 were extracellular according to predictive analysis. Nhe and Hbl proteins except CytK had similar spatial structures. The predicted structures of Nhe and Hbl mainly showed ‘head’ and ‘tail’ domains. The ‘head’ of NheA and Hbl-B, including two α-helices separated by β-tongue strands, might play a special role in Nhe trimers and Hbl trimers, respectively. The ‘cap’ of CytK, which includes two ‘latches’ with many β-sheets, formed a β-barrel structure with pores, and a ‘rim’ balanced the structure. The evolution of B. cereus strains showed a clustering tendency based on the coding virulence genes, and the complete virulence-gene operon combination had higher relative genetic stability. The beta-tongue or latch associated with β-sheet folding might play an important role in the binding of virulence structures and pore-forming toxins in B. cereus .

Haiyan Long ◽  
Ya Hu ◽  
Yu Feng ◽  
Zhiyong Zong

Klebsiella oxytoca complex comprises nine closely-related species causing human infections. We curated genomes labeled Klebsiella (n=14,256) in GenBank and identified 588 belonging to the complex, which were examined for precise species, sequence types, K- and O-antigen types, virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes. The complex and Klebsiella pneumoniae share many K- and O-antigen types. Of the complex, K. oxytoca and Klebsiella michiganensis appear to carry more virulence genes and be more commonly associated with human infections.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 126
Antonio Lozano-León ◽  
Carlos García-Omil ◽  
Rafael R. Rodríguez-Souto ◽  
Alexandre Lamas ◽  
Alejandro Garrido-Maestu

Salmonella spp. and antimicrobial resistant microorganisms are two of the most important health issues worldwide. In the present study, strains naturally isolated from mussels harvested in Galicia (one of the main production areas in the world), were genetically characterized attending to the presence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes. Additionally, the antimicrobial profile was also determined phenotypically. Strains presenting several virulence genes were isolated but lacked all the antimicrobial resistance genes analyzed. The fact that some of these strains presented multidrug resistance, highlighted the possibility of bearing different genes than those analyzed, or resistance based on completely different mechanisms. The current study highlights the importance of constant surveillance in order to improve the safety of foods.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 129
Camilla Smoglica ◽  
Alberto Vergara ◽  
Simone Angelucci ◽  
Anna Rita Festino ◽  
Antonio Antonucci ◽  

The aim of this study was to determine and characterize potential resistance mechanisms against selected Critically Important Antibiotics in Escherichia coli isolates collected from wild and domestic ruminants living in the Maiella National Park, in Central Italy. A total of 38 isolates were obtained from red deer, Apennine chamois, cattle, sheep, and goats grazing in lands with different levels of anthropic pressure. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by Minimal Inhibitory Concentration testing, showing phenotypic resistance to colistin, meropenem, or ceftazidime in 9 isolates along with one bacterial strain being resistant to three of the tested antibiotics. In addition, the biomolecular assays allowed the amplification of the genes conferring the colistin (mcr-4), the carbapenems (OXA-48), penicillins and cephalosporins (TEM, SHV, CMY-1, CMY-2) resistance. In order to describe the potential pathogenicity of isolates under study, virulence genes related to Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) pathovars were identified. This study is the first report of mcr-4 and OXA-48 genes in resistant E. coli harboring virulence genes in Italian wildlife, with special regard to Apennine chamois and red deer species. The multidisciplinary approach used in this study can improve the early detection of emerging antibiotic resistance determinants in human-animal-environment interfaces by means of wildlife monitoring.

2022 ◽  
Meng Mao ◽  
Michael R. Strand ◽  
Gaelen R. Burke

Bracoviruses (BVs) are endogenized nudiviruses in parasitoid wasps of the microgastroid complex (family Braconidae). Microgastroid wasps have coopted nudivirus genes to produce replication-defective virions that females use to transfer virulence genes to parasitized hosts. The microgastroid complex further consists of six subfamilies and ∼50,000 species but current understanding of BV gene inventories and organization primarily derives from analysis of two wasp species in the subfamily Microgastrinae ( Microplitis demolitor and Cotesia congregata ) that produce M. demolitor BV (MdBV) and C. congregata BV (CcBV). Notably, several genomic features of MdBV and CcBV remain conserved since divergence of M. demolitor and C. congregata ∼53 million years ago (MYA). However, it is unknown whether these conserved traits more broadly reflect BV evolution, because no complete genomes exist for any microgastroid wasps outside of the Microgastrinae. In this regard, the subfamily Cheloninae is of greatest interest because it diverged earliest from the Microgastrinae (∼85 MYA) after endogenization of the nudivirus ancestor. Here, we present the complete genome of Chelonus insularis , which is an egg-larval parasitoid in the Cheloninae that produces C. insularis BV (CinsBV). We report that the inventory of nudivirus genes in C. insularis is conserved but are dissimilarly organized when compared to M. demolitor and C. congregata . Reciprocally, CinsBV proviral segments share organizational features with MdBV and CcBV but virulence gene inventories exhibit almost no overlap. Altogether, our results point to the functional importance of a conserved inventory of nudivirus genes and a dynamic set of virulence genes for the successful parasitism of hosts. Our results also suggest organizational features previously identified in MdBV and CcBV are likely not essential for BV virion formation. Significance Bracoviruses are a remarkable example of virus endogenization, because large sets of genes from a nudivirus ancestor continue to produce virions that thousands of wasp species rely upon to parasitize hosts. Understanding how these genes interact and have been coopted by wasps for novel functions is of broad interest in the study of virus evolution. This manuscript characterizes bracovirus genome components in the parasitoid wasp Chelonus insularis , which together with existing wasp genomes captures a large portion of the diversity among wasp species that produce bracoviruses. Results provide new information about how bracovirus genome components are organized in different wasps while also providing additional insights on key features required for function.

Wan Huang ◽  
Jisheng Zhang ◽  
Lingyi Zeng ◽  
Chengru Yang ◽  
Lining Yin ◽  

BackgroundThis study aimed to determine the molecular characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) isolates in a hospital in western Chongqing, southwestern China.MethodsA total of 127 unique CRKP isolates were collected from the Yongchuan Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, identified using a VITEK-2 compact system, and subjected to microbroth dilution to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration. Enterobacteriaceae intergenic repeat consensus polymerase chain reaction and multilocus sequence typing were used to analyze the homology among the isolates. Genetic information, including resistance and virulence genes, was assessed using polymerase chain reaction. The genomic features of the CRKP carrying gene blaKPC-2 were detected using whole-genome sequencing.ResultsST11 was the dominant sequence type in the homology comparison. The resistance rate to ceftazidime-avibactam in children was much higher than that in adults as was the detection rate of the resistance gene blaNDM (p < 0.0001). Virulence genes such as mrkD (97.6%), uge (96.9%), kpn (96.9%), and fim-H (84.3%) had high detection rates. IncF (57.5%) was the major replicon plasmid detected, and sequencing showed that the CRKP063 genome contained two plasmids. The plasmid carrying blaKPC-2, which mediates carbapenem resistance, was located on the 359,625 base pair plasmid IncFII, together with virulence factors, plasmid replication protein (rep B), stabilizing protein (par A), and type IV secretion system (T4SS) proteins that mediate plasmid conjugation transfer.ConclusionOur study aids in understanding the prevalence of CRKP in this hospital and the significant differences between children and adults, thus providing new ideas for clinical empirical use of antibiotics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Rahma Mohammed ◽  
Sara M. Nader ◽  
Dalia A. Hamza ◽  
Maha A. Sabry

Abstract Background Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic mycozoonosis of global significance in a wide variety of host species. In equines, cryptococcosis is uncommon, and sporadic cases have been reported with rhinitis, sinusitis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Cryptococcus spp. represents a potential risk for immunosuppressed and healthy persons. In Egypt, epidemiological data on cryptococcal infection in horses are limited. The current study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of Cryptococcus spp. in horses and its possible role in the epidemiology of such disease in Egypt. A total of 223 samples was collected from different localities in Egypt included 183 nasal swabs from horses, 28 nasal swabs from humans, and 12 soil samples. Bacteriological examination and the identification of Cryptococcus spp. were performed. Molecular serotyping of Cryptococcus spp. was determined by multiplex PCR using CNa-70S/A-CNb-49S/A. The virulence genes (LAC1, CAP59, and PLB1) of the identified isolates were detected by PCR. Moreover, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the C. gattii gene from horses, humans, and soil isolates found nearby were performed. Result The overall occurrence of Cryptococcus spp. in horses were 9.3, 25, and 10.7% in horses, the soil, and humans, respectively. Molecular serotyping of the Cryptococcus spp. isolates recovered from the nasal passages of horses proved that C. gattii (B), C. neoformans, and two hybrids between C. neoformans (A) and C. gattii (B) were identified. Meanwhile, in case of soil samples, the isolates were identified as C. gattii (B). The human isolates were serotyped as C. gattii in two isolates and C. neoformans in only one isolate. Molecular detection of some virulence genes (LAC1), (CAP59), and (PLB1) were identified in both C. gattii and C. neoformans isolates. The C. gattii gene amplicons of the isolates from horses, humans, and the soil were closely related. Conclusion This study provides the first insights into the Egyptian horse ecology of Cryptococcus species and highlights the role of horses as asymptomatic carriers in disseminating the potentially pathogenic Cryptococcus spp. It also presents the possible risk of cryptococcosis infection in humans.

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