klebsiella oxytoca
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Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 550
Hussah Abdullah Alshwyeh ◽  
Sahar Khamees Aldosary ◽  
Muna Abdulsalam Ilowefah ◽  
Raheem Shahzad ◽  
Adeeb Shehzad ◽  

Nigella species are widely used to cure various ailments. Their health benefits, particularly from the seed oils, could be attributed to the presence of a variety of bioactive components. Roasting is a critical process that has historically been used to facilitate oil extraction and enhance flavor; it may also alter the chemical composition and biological properties of the Nigella seed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the roasting process on the composition of the bioactive components and the biological activities of Nigella arvensis and Nigella sativa seed extracts. Our preliminary study showed that seeds roasted at 50 °C exhibited potent antimicrobial activities; therefore, this temperature was selected for roasting Nigella seeds. For extraction, raw and roasted seed samples were macerated in methanol. The antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca were determined by measuring the diameter of the zone of inhibition. The cell viability of extracts was tested in a colon carcinoma cell line, HCT-116, by using a microculture tetrazolium technique (MTT) assay. Amino acids were extracted and quantified using an automatic amino acid analyzer. Then, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis was performed to identify the chemical constituents and fatty acids. As a result, the extracts of raw and roasted seeds in both Nigella species showed strong inhibition against Klebsiella oxytoca, and the raw seed extract of N.arvensis demonstrated moderate inhibition against S. pyogenes. The findings of the MTT assay indicated that all the extracts significantly decreased cancer cell viability. Moreover, N. sativa species possessed higher contents of the measured amino acids, except tyrosine, cystine, and methionine. The GC–MS analysis of extracts showed the presence of 22 and 13 compounds in raw and roasted N. arvensis, respectively, and 9 and 11 compounds in raw and roasted N. sativa, respectively. However, heat treatment decreased the detectable components to 13 compounds in roasted N. arvensis and increased them in roasted N. sativa. These findings indicate that N. arvensis and N. sativa could be potential sources of anticancer and antimicrobials, where the bioactive compounds play a pivotal role as functional components.

2022 ◽  
Adeliia G. Giliazeva ◽  
Polina S. Misheeva ◽  
Margarita R. Sharipova ◽  
Ayslu M. Mardanova

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 249
Nicoleta Cazacu ◽  
Claudia G. Chilom ◽  
Sorina Iftimie ◽  
Maria Bălășoiu ◽  
Valentina P. Ladygina ◽  

The synthesis of nanoparticles inside microorganisms is an economical alternative to chemical and physical methods of nanoparticle synthesis. In this study, ferrihydrite nanoparticles synthesized by Klebsiella oxytoca bacterium in special conditions were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), small-angle X-ray (SAXS), UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and molecular docking. The morphology and the structure of the particles were characterized by means of SEM and SAXS. The elemental content was determined by means of the EDS method. The absorption properties of the ferrihydrite nanoparticles were investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The binding mechanism of the biogenic ferrihydrite nanoparticles to Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) protein, studied by fluorescence, showed a static and weak process, combined with FRET. Protein denaturation by temperature and urea in the presence of the ferrihydrite nanoparticles demonstrated their influence on the unfolding process. The AutoDock Vina and UCSF Chimera programs were used to predict the optimal binding site of the ferrihydrite to BSA and to find the location of the hydrophobic cavities in the sub-domain IIA of the BSA structure.

Haiyan Long ◽  
Ya Hu ◽  
Yu Feng ◽  
Zhiyong Zong

Klebsiella oxytoca complex comprises nine closely-related species causing human infections. We curated genomes labeled Klebsiella (n=14,256) in GenBank and identified 588 belonging to the complex, which were examined for precise species, sequence types, K- and O-antigen types, virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes. The complex and Klebsiella pneumoniae share many K- and O-antigen types. Of the complex, K. oxytoca and Klebsiella michiganensis appear to carry more virulence genes and be more commonly associated with human infections.

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 144
Alexandros Mavrommatis ◽  
Maria-Eleftheria Zografaki ◽  
Sofia Marka ◽  
Eleni D. Myrtsi ◽  
Elisavet Giamouri ◽  

Although carotenoids generally possess antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, the in vivo synergistic action of carotenoid blends derived from plant-based by-products has not been thoroughly studied. Therefore, the carotenoid characterization and antimicrobial potential of Citrus reticulata extract as well as the impact of this carotenoid-rich extract (CCE) dietary supplementation on the performance, meat quality, and immune-oxidative status of broiler chickens were determined. One hundred and twenty one-day-old hatched chicks (Ross 308) were allocated to two dietary groups, with four replicate pens of 15 birds each. Birds were fed either a basal diet (CON) or the basal diet supplemented with 0.1% CCE (25 mg carotenoid extract included in 1 g of soluble starch) for 42 d. β-Cryptoxanthin, β -Carotene, Zeaxanthin, and Lutein were the prevailing carotenoid compounds in the Citrus reticulata extract. The CCE feed additive exerted inhibitory properties against both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and negative (Klebsiella oxytoca, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium) bacteria. Both the broiler performance and meat quality did not substantially differ, while the breast muscle malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration tended to decrease (p = 0.070) in the CCE-fed broilers. The inclusion of CCE decreased the alanine aminotransferase and MDA concentration, and the activity of glutathione peroxidase, while the activity of superoxide dismutase was increased in the blood. Catalase and NADPH oxidase 2 relative transcript levels were significantly downregulated in the livers of the CCE-fed broilers. Additionally, Interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) relative transcript levels were downregulated in the livers of the CCE- fed broilers, while TNF and interferon γ (IFNG) tended to decrease in the spleens and bursa of Fabricius, respectively. The present study provided new insights regarding the beneficial properties of carotenoids contained in Citrus reticulata in broilers’ immune-oxidative status. These promising outcomes could be the basis for further research under field conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. 3
Christina W. Obiero ◽  
Wilson Gumbi ◽  
Stella Mwakio ◽  
Hope Mwangudzah ◽  
Anna C. Seale ◽  

Background: Early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) typically begins prior to, during or soon after birth and may be rapidly fatal. There is paucity of data on the aetiology of EONS in sub-Saharan Africa due to limited diagnostic capacity in this region, despite the associated significant mortality and long-term neurological impairment. Methods: We compared pathogens detected in cord blood samples between neonates admitted to hospital with possible serious bacterial infection (pSBI) in the first 48 hours of life (cases) and neonates remaining well (controls). Cord blood was systematically collected at Kilifi County Hospital (KCH) from 2011-2016, and later tested for 21 bacterial, viral and protozoal targets using multiplex PCR via TaqMan Array Cards (TAC). Results: Among 603 cases (101 [17%] of whom died), 179 (30%) tested positive for ≥1 target and 37 (6.1%) tested positive for multiple targets. Klebsiella oxytoca, Escherichia coli/Shigella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Streptococcus pyogenes were commonest. Among 300 controls, 79 (26%) tested positive for ≥1 target, 11 (3.7%) were positive for multiple targets, and K. oxytoca and P. aeruginosa were most common. Cumulative odds ratios across controls: cases (survived): cases (died) were E. coli/Shigella spp. 2.6 (95%CI 1.6-4.4); E. faecalis 4.0 (95%CI 1.1-15); S. agalactiae 4.5 (95%CI 1.6-13); Ureaplasma spp. 2.9 (95%CI 1.3-6.4); Enterovirus 9.1 (95%CI 2.3-37); and Plasmodium spp. 2.9 (95%CI 1.4-6.2). Excluding K. oxytoca and P. aeruginosa as likely contaminants, aetiology was attributed in 9.4% (95%CI 5.1-13) cases using TAC. Leading pathogen attributions by TAC were E. coli/Shigella spp. (3.5% (95%CI 1.7-5.3)) and Ureaplasma spp. (1.7% (95%CI 0.5-3.0)). Conclusions: Cord blood sample may be useful in describing EONS pathogens at birth, but more specific tests are needed for individual diagnosis. Careful sampling of cord blood using aseptic techniques is crucial to minimize contamination. In addition to culturable bacteria, Ureaplasma and Enterovirus were causes of EONS.

2022 ◽  
Joanna Szaleniec ◽  
Agnieszka Gibała ◽  
Joanna Stalińska ◽  
Magdalena Oćwieja ◽  
Paulina Żeliszewska ◽  

Introduction: The significance of the microbiome in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is not clear. Antimicrobials are recommended in acute exacerbations of the disease (AECRS). Increasing rates of antibiotic resistance stimulate research on alternative therapeutic options including silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), sometimes referred to as “colloidal silver”. However, there are concerns regarding the safety of silver administration and the emergence of silver resistance. In this cross-sectional observational study, we assessed the sensitivity of sinonasal pathogens to AgNPs and compared it with the toxicity of AgNPs for nasal epithelial cells. Method: Negatively charged AgNPs (13±5 nm) were obtained with the use of tannic acid. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the AgNPs were determined for pathogens isolated from patients with AECRS. Cytotoxicity was tested on human nasal epithelial cells line in vitro. Results: 48 clinical isolates and 4 reference strains were included in the study (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Acinetobacter baumanii, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae). The MIC values differed between isolates, even within the same species. All of the strains were sensitive to AgNPs in concentrations nontoxic to human cells during 24 hours exposition. However, 48h exposition to AgNPs increased toxicity to human cells, narrowing their therapeutic window and enabling 19% of pathogens to resist the AgNPs biocidal action. Conclusions: AgNPs can potentially be used in intranasal drugs to treat most episodes of AECRS. Sensitivity testing may be necessary before application. Results of sensitivity testing for reference strains cannot be extrapolated to other strains of the same species.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Oleen Machona ◽  
Farisai Chidzwondo ◽  
Rumbidzai Mangoyi

Abstract Background The excessive use of polystyrene as a packaging material has resulted in a rise in environmental pollution. Polystyrene waste has continually increased water pollution, soil pollution and the closing of landfill sites since it is durable and resistant to biodegradation. Therefore, the challenge in polystyrene disposal has caused researchers to look for urgent innovative and eco-friendly solutions for plastic degradation. The current study focuses on the isolation and identification of bacteria produced by the larvae of beetle Tenebrio molitor (yellow mealworms), that enable them to survive when fed with polystyrene foam as their sole carbon diet. Materials and methods The biodegradation of polystyrene by Tenebrio molitor was investigated by breeding and rearing the mealworms in the presence and absence of polystyrene. A comparison was made between those fed with a normal diet and those fed on polystyrene. The mealworms which were fed with polystyrene were then dissected and the guts were collected to isolate and identify the bacteria in their guts. The viability and metabolic activity of the isolates were investigated. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing was used for molecular identification of the isolates. The PCR products were directly sequenced using Sanger’s method and the phylogenetic tree and molecular evolutionary analyses were constructed using MEGAX software with the Neighbour Joining algorithm. The evolutionary distances were computed using the Maximum Composite Likelihood method. Results The decrease in mass of the polystyrene as feedstock confirmed that the mealworms were depending on polystyrene as their sole carbon diet. The frass egested by mealworms also confirmed the biodegradation of polystyrene as it contained very tiny residues of polystyrene. Three isolates were obtained from the mealworms guts, and all were found to be gram-negative. The sequencing results showed that the isolates were Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182, Klebsiella oxytoca NBRC 102593 and Klebsiella oxytoca JCM 1665. Conclusion Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182, Klebsiella oxytoca NBRC 102593 and Klebsiella oxytoca JCM 1665 maybe some of the bacteria responsible for polystyrene biodegradation.

Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 50
Mathilde Lescat ◽  
Mélanie Magnan ◽  
Sonia Kenmoe ◽  
Patrice Nordmann ◽  
Laurent Poirel

Bacterial adaptation to antiseptic selective pressure might be associated with decreased susceptibility to antibiotics. In Gram-negative bacteria, some correlations between reduced susceptibility to chlorhexidine (CHX) and polymyxins have been recently evidenced in Klebsiella pneumoniae. In the present study, four isolates belonging to distinct enterobacterial species, namely K. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca and Enterobacter cloacae, were submitted to in-vitro selective adaptation to two antiseptics, namely CHX and octenidine (OCT), and to the antibiotic colistin (COL). Using COL as selective agent, mutants showing high MICs for that molecule were recovered for E. cloacae, K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca, exhibiting a moderate decreased susceptibility to CHX, whereas OCT susceptibility remained unchanged. Using CHX as selective agent, mutants with high MICs for that molecule were recovered for all four species, with a cross-resistance observed for COL, while OCT susceptibility remained unaffected. Finally, selection of mutants using OCT as selective molecule allowed recovery of K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca and E. cloacae strains showing only slightly increased MICs for that molecule, without any cross-elevated MICs for the two other molecules tested. No E. coli mutant with reduced susceptibility to OCT could be obtained. It was therefore demonstrated that in-vitro mutants with decreased susceptibility to CHX and COL may be selected in E. coli, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca and E. cloacae, showing cross-decreased susceptibility to COL and CHX, but no significant impact on OCT efficacy. On the other hand, mutants were difficult to obtain with OCT, being obtained for K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae only, showing only very limited decreased susceptibility in those cases, and with no cross effect on other molecules. Whole genome sequencing enabled deciphering of the molecular basis of adaptation of these isolates under the respective selective pressures, with efflux pumps or lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis being the main mechanisms of adaptation.

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