hippocampal neurons
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 867-872
Qunwei You ◽  
Wenjie Wang ◽  
Taotao Tao ◽  
Tianyu Wang ◽  
Danhong Zhang ◽  

This study intends to explore miR-129’s effect on cell viability of Alzheimer’s disease by regulating the target gene APP. The hippocampal neurons were assigned into model group (MO group); mimetic group (SI group); inhibitor group (IN group) followed by analysis of hippocampal neuronal cell proliferation and activity, APP protein content, miR-129 expression and cell apoptosis by CCK-8 assay, Western blot method, MTT assay, qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. miR-129 expression of hippocampal neurons in IN group was lowest. Compared with IN and MO groups, SI group had significantly increased miR-129 level and reduced number of hippocampal neuron apoptosis (P < 0.05). Compared with IN group, MO group had significantly reduced cell apoptosis (P < 0.05). SI group had highest number of hippocampal neurons proliferation followed by IN group. SI group had highest OD value followed by MO group and IN group. The cell activity of SI group was higher than that of IN group and MO group (both P < 0.05). Compared with SI group, rat neuron activity in MO group was significantly higher than IN group (P < 0.05). The APP protein expression of hippocampal neuron cells in SI group was lowest followed by MO group and IN group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the low miR-129 expression can inhibit the activity of hippocampal neurons possibly through up-regulation of APP protein content.

Renata Saha ◽  
Sadegh Faramarzi ◽  
Robert Bloom ◽  
Onri J. Benally ◽  
Kai Wu ◽  

Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to measure the effect of micromagnetic stimulation (μMS) on hippocampal neurons, by using single microcoil (μcoil) prototype, Magnetic Pen (MagPen). MagPen will be used to stimulate the CA3 magnetically and excitatory post synaptic potential (EPSP) measurements will be made from the CA1. The threshold for μMS as a function of stimulation frequency of the current driving the µcoil will be demonstrated. Finally, the optimal stimulation frequency of the current driving the μcoil to minimize power will be estimated. Approach: A biocompatible prototype, MagPen was built, and customized such that it is easy to adjust the orientation of the μcoil over the hippocampal tissue in an in vitro setting. Finite element modeling (FEM) of the μcoil was performed to estimate the spatial profiles of the magnetic flux density (in T) and the induced electric fields (in V/m). The induced electric field profiles generated at different values of current applied to the µcoil whether can elicit a neuron response was validated by numerical modeling. The modeling settings were replicated in experiments on rat hippocampal neurons. Main results: The preferred orientation of MagPen over the Schaffer Collateral fibers was demonstrated such that they elicit a neuron response. The recorded EPSPs from CA1 due to μMS at CA3 were validated by applying tetrodotoxin (TTX). Finally, it was interpreted through numerical analysis that increasing frequency of the current driving the μcoil, led to a decrease in the current amplitude threshold for μMS. Significance: This work reports that μMS can be used to evoke population EPSPs in the CA1 of hippocampus. It demonstrates the strength-frequency curve for µMS and its unique features related to orientation dependence of the µcoils, spatial selectivity and distance dependence. Finally, the challenges related to µMS experiments were studied including ways to overcome them.

2022 ◽  
Matheus F Sathler ◽  
Michael J Doolittle ◽  
James A Cockrell ◽  
India R Nadalin ◽  
Franz Hofmann ◽  

As the development of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drastically improves the lifespan of individuals with HIV, many are now entering the prime age when Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like symptoms begin to manifest. Hyperphosphorylated tau, a known AD pathological characteristic, has been prematurely increased in the brains of HIV-infected patients as early as in their 30s and is increased with age. This thus suggests that HIV infection may lead to accelerated AD phenotypes. However, whether HIV infection causes AD to develop more quickly in the brain is not yet fully determined. Interestingly, we have previously revealed that viral glycoproteins, HIV gp120 and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) gp95, induce neuronal hyperexcitation via cGMP-dependent kinase II (cGKII) activation in cultured hippocampal neurons. Here, we use cultured mouse cortical neurons to demonstrate that HIV gp120 and FIV gp95 are sufficient to increase cellular tau pathology, including intracellular tau hyperphosphorylation and tau release to the extracellular space. We further reveal that viral glycoprotein-induced cellular tau pathology requires cGKII activation. Together, HIV infection likely accelerates AD-related tau pathology via cGKII activation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 96
Guangyan Xu ◽  
Tianjia Li ◽  
Yuguang Huang

Intraoperative hypothermia is a common complication during operations and is associated with several adverse events. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and its adverse consequences have drawn increasing attention in recent years. There are currently no relevant studies investigating the correlation between intraoperative hypothermia and POCD. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of intraoperative hypothermia on postoperative cognitive function in rats undergoing exploratory laparotomies and to investigate the possible related mechanisms. We used the Y-maze and Morris Water Maze (MWM) tests to assess the rats’ postoperative spatial working memory, spatial learning, and memory. The morphological changes in hippocampal neurons were examined by haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and hippocampal synaptic plasticity-related protein expression. Activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc), cyclic adenosine monophosphate-response element-binding protein (CREB), S133-phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB [S133]), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor 1 (AMPAR1), and S831-phosphorylated AMPAR1 (p-AMPAR1 [S831]) were evaluated by Western blotting. Our results suggest a correlation between intraoperative hypothermia and POCD in rats and that intraoperative hypothermia may lead to POCD regarding impairments in spatial working memory, spatial learning, and memory. POCD induced by intraoperative hypothermia might be due to hippocampal neurons damage and decreased expression of synaptic plasticity-related proteins Arc, p-CREB (S133), and p-AMPAR1 (S831).

2022 ◽  
Carolina Flores-Muñoz ◽  
Francisca García-Rojas ◽  
Miguel A. Perez ◽  
Odra Santander ◽  
Elena Mery ◽  

Abstract Enhanced activity and overexpression of Pannexin 1 (PANX1) channels contribute to neuronal pathologies, such as epilepsy and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the hippocampus, the PANX1 channel ablation alters glutamatergic neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and memory flexibility. Nevertheless, PANX1-knockout (PANX1-KO) mice still preserve the ability to learn, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms work to stabilize neuronal activity. Here, we show that the absence of PANX1 in the adult brain promotes a series of structural and functional modifications in PANX1-KO CA1 hippocampal synapses, preserving spontaneous activity. Adult CA1 neurons of PANX1-KO mice exhibit enhanced excitability, a more complex dendritic branching, enhanced spine maturation, and multiple synaptic contacts compared to the WT condition. These modifications seem to rely on the actin-cytoskeleton dynamics as an increase in actin polymerization and an imbalance between Rac1 and RhoA GTPase activity is observed in the absence of PANX1. Our findings highlight a novel interaction between PANX1, actin, and small Rho GTPases, which appear to be relevant for synapse stability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 790
Csilla Lea Fazekas ◽  
Adrienn Szabó ◽  
Bibiána Török ◽  
Krisztina Bánrévi ◽  
Pedro Correia ◽  

Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory amino acid in the central nervous system. Neurons using glutamate as a neurotransmitter can be characterised by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). Among the three subtypes, VGLUT3 is unique, co-localising with other “classical” neurotransmitters, such as the inhibitory GABA. Glutamate, manipulated by VGLUT3, can modulate the packaging as well as the release of other neurotransmitters and serve as a retrograde signal through its release from the somata and dendrites. Its contribution to sensory processes (including seeing, hearing, and mechanosensation) is well characterised. However, its involvement in learning and memory can only be assumed based on its prominent hippocampal presence. Although VGLUT3-expressing neurons are detectable in the hippocampus, most of the hippocampal VGLUT3 positivity can be found on nerve terminals, presumably coming from the median raphe. This hippocampal glutamatergic network plays a pivotal role in several important processes (e.g., learning and memory, emotions, epilepsy, cardiovascular regulation). Indirect information from anatomical studies and KO mice strains suggests the contribution of local VGLUT3-positive hippocampal neurons as well as afferentations in these events. However, further studies making use of more specific tools (e.g., Cre-mice, opto- and chemogenetics) are needed to confirm these assumptions.

2022 ◽  
Jessica L. Cote ◽  
Paul B. Vander ◽  
Michael Ellis ◽  
Joel M. Cline ◽  
Nadezhda Svezhova ◽  

The adapter protein SH2B1 is recruited to neurotrophin receptors including TrkB, receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Herein, we demonstrate that the four alternatively spliced isoforms of SH2B1 are important determinants of neuronal architecture and neurotrophin-induced gene expression. Primary hippocampal neurons from Sh2b1−/- (KO) mice exhibit decreased neurite complexity and length and BDNF-induced expression of synapse-related immediate early genes Egr1 and Arc. Reintroduction of each SH2B1 isoform into KO neurons increases neurite complexity; the brain-specific δ isoform also increases total neurite length. Human obesity-associated variants, when expressed in SH2B1δ, alter neurite complexity, suggesting that a decrease or increase in neurite branching may have deleterious effects that contribute to the severe childhood obesity and neurobehavioral abnormalities associated with these variants. Surprisingly, in contrast to SH2B1α, β, and γ, which localize primarily in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane, SH2B1δ localizes primarily in nucleoli. Some SH2B1δ is also present in the plasma membrane and nucleus. Nucleolar localization, driven by two highly basic regions unique to SH2B1δ, is required for SH2B1δ to maximally increase neurite complexity and BDNF-induced expression of Egr1, Arc, and FosL1.

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