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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 888-896
Wenjuan Fan ◽  
Chen Xudong ◽  
Sun Yizheng ◽  
Shanshan Wu ◽  
Haili Wang ◽  

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurologic disorder that impacts a diverse population of older adults. As three-dimensional (3D) models are powerful tools for advancing AD studies, the authors have been developed AD cortical organoids to enable the observation of AD pathology at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels. For creating the model, APPSwe/Ind (APP) and PSEN1 (PS1) mutant genes were transfected into mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) following which the iPSC lines that expressed mutant APP and PS1 proteins were obtained. Then, using modified serum-free suspended embryoid body culture, AD cerebral organoids were made successfully at various ages. The AD model can show AD’s biochemical and pathological alterations, such as overexpressions of Aβ40 and Aβ42 and a decrease of GABAergic interneurons. The proposed model has the potential for implementation in many biomedical applications, including AD drug screening, stem cell transplant, and neuronal tissue engineering.

2022 ◽  
pp. 275275302110687
Caroline F. Morrison ◽  
Sarah Drake ◽  
Nathan L. Basile ◽  
Mary Jane Horn ◽  
Joshua Lambert ◽  

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe symptoms experienced by survivors of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), and demographic and treatment-factors associated with ongoing symptomology. Methods: Fifty pediatric survivors completed a cross-sectional pilot study. Questionnaires were administered online via REDCap to assess symptoms experienced in the last week. Survivors also consented to a medical record chart review. Results: Survivors were on average 5.4 years post-HSCT (range 1.1 to 9 years), male (58%), and Caucasian (80%) who received an allogeneic HSCT (92%). The most commonly reported symptoms were difficulty concentrating (42.5%), pain (38%), worry (38%), nervousness (37.5%), and lack of energy/fatigue (34%). Survivors reported up to 14 symptoms, with 90% of the sample experiencing at least one symptom in the previous week. Average number of symptoms varied by age group between 2.1 (8–9 years) and 6.8 (18 and older). Age and female gender were associated with higher levels of fatigue. Conclusions: The majority of survivors experienced at least one symptom in the previous week. Neuropsychological symptoms and pain endure well into survivorship that can influence outcomes such as function and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Research is needed on biological mechanisms of ongoing symptomology, effective interventions to prevent or mitigate symptoms, and the impact of symptoms on patient outcomes including daily functioning and HRQOL. Implications Survivors of pediatric HSCT continued to experience symptoms for up to nine years. Survivors should be frequently screened for symptoms, as symptoms may affect function, learning/employment outcomes, and HRQOL.

Nahid Reisi ◽  
Pardis Nematolahy

The development of secondary malignancy (SM) is the most worrisome long-term complication of childhood cancer. Acute myeloid leukemia is the most prevalent neoplasm that occurs after treatment with alkylating agents and topoisomerase II inhibitors. Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is a rare lung neoplasm in children. Type II and type III of this cancer are markedly aggressive and have a recurrent nature. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) are treatment modalities that make these patients prone to secondary malignancy. Here was presented and discussed a case of myeloid leukemia 3.5 years after treatment of Pleuropulmonary blastoma in a 5.5-year-old boy who was a candidate for high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cells transplant (auto-SCT) because of frequent recurrence and lack of response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It seems this is the first reported case of therapy-related myeloid leukemia (t-AML) after PPB in children. Awareness of the creation of this complication following administration of cytotoxic therapies in the treatment of solid tumors will increase physician attention in the selection of treatment modality as well as the counseling of patients at the time of diagnosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Maria Chitty-Lopez ◽  
Carla Duff ◽  
Gretchen Vaughn ◽  
Jessica Trotter ◽  
Hector Monforte ◽  

Congenital athymia can present with severe T cell lymphopenia (TCL) in the newborn period, which can be detected by decreased T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) on newborn screening (NBS). The most common thymic stromal defect causing selective TCL is 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). T-box transcription factor 1 (TBX1), present on chromosome 22, is responsible for thymic epithelial development. Single variants in TBX1 causing haploinsufficiency cause a clinical syndrome that mimics 22q11.2DS. Definitive therapy for congenital athymia is allogeneic thymic transplantation. However, universal availability of such therapy is limited. We present a patient with early diagnosis of congenital athymia due to TBX1 haploinsufficiency. While evaluating for thymic transplantation, she developed Omenn Syndrome (OS) and life-threatening adenoviremia. Despite treatment with anti-virals and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), life threatening adenoviremia persisted. Given the imminent need for rapid establishment of T cell immunity and viral clearance, the patient underwent an unmanipulated matched sibling donor (MSD) hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), ultimately achieving post-thymic donor-derived engraftment, viral clearance, and immune reconstitution. This case illustrates that because of the slower immune recovery that occurs following thymus transplantation and the restricted availability of thymus transplantation globally, clinicians may consider CTL therapy and HCT to treat congenital athymia patients with severe infections.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 74
Hiba Dagher ◽  
Ray Hachem ◽  
Anne-Marie Chaftari ◽  
Ying Jiang ◽  
Shahnoor Ali ◽  

(1) Introduction: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) and stem cell transplants (SCT). Isavuconazole was approved by FDA as a primary therapy for Invasive Aspergillosis (IA) and Mucormycosis. The aim of this study is to look at the real-world use of Isavuconazole in patients with HM and evaluate their clinical outcomes and safety. (2) Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of HM patients at MD Anderson Cancer Center who had definite, probable or possible mold infections between 1 April 2016 and 31 January 2020 and were treated with Isavuconazole for a period of at least 7 days. Clinical and radiological findings were assessed at baseline and at 6 and 12 weeks of follow up. (3) Results: We included 200 HM patients with IFIs that were classified as definite (11), probable (63) and possible (126). Aspergillus spp was the most commonly isolated pathogen. The majority of patients (59%) received prophylaxis with anti-mold therapy and Isavuconazole was used as a primary therapy in 43% of patients, and as salvage therapy in 58%. The switch to Isavuconazole was driven by the failure of the primary therapy in 66% of the cases and by adverse effects in 29%. Isavuconazole was used as monotherapy in 30% of the cases and in combination in 70%. Adverse events possibly related to Isavuconazole were reported in eight patients (4%) leading to drug discontinuation. Moreover, a favorable response with Isavuconazole was observed in 40% at 6 weeks and in 60% at 12 weeks. There was no significant difference between isavuconazole monotherapy and combination therapy (p = 0.16 at 6 weeks and p = 0.06 at 12 weeks). Finally, there was no significant difference in outcome when Isavuconazole was used after failure of other anti-mold prophylaxis or treatment versus when used de novo as an anti-mold therapy (p = 0.68 at 6 weeks and p = 0.25 at 12 weeks). (4) Conclusions: Whether used as first-line therapy or after the failure of other azole and non-azole prophylaxis or therapies, isavuconazole seems to have a promising clinical response and a good safety profile as an antifungal therapy in high-risk cancer patients with hematologic malignancies. Moreover, combination therapy did not improve the outcome compared to Isavuconazole therapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 337-349
Adrian J. M. Bailey ◽  
Aidan M. Kirkham ◽  
Madeline Monaghan ◽  
Risa Shorr ◽  
C. Arianne Buchan ◽  

The management of COVID-19 in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients represents a special challenge given the variable states of immune dysregulation and altered vaccine efficacy in this population. A systematic search (Ovid Medline and Embase on 1 June 2021) was needed to better understand the presenting features, prognostic factors, and treatment options. Of 897 records, 29 studies were identified in our search. Most studies reporting on adults and pediatric recipients described signs and symptoms that were typical of COVID-19. Overall, the mortality rates were high, with 21% of adults and 6% of pediatric HCT recipients succumbing to COVID-19. The factors reported to be associated with increased mortality included age (HR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.03–1.43, p = 0.02), ICU admission (HR = 4.42, 95% CI 2.25–8.65, p < 0.001 and HR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.22–4.20, p = 0.01 for allogeneic and autologous HCT recipients), and low platelet count (OR = 21.37, 95% CI 1.71–267.11, p = 0.01). Performance status was associated with decreased mortality (HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.74–0.93, p = 0.001). A broad range of treatments was described, although no controlled studies were identified. The risk of bias, using the Newcastle–Ottawa scale, was low. Patients undergoing HCT are at a high risk of severe morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19. Controlled studies investigating potential treatments are required to determine the efficacy and safety in this population.

2022 ◽  
Vismaya S Bachu ◽  
Pavan Shah ◽  
Adrian E Jimenez ◽  
Adham M Khalafallah ◽  
Jignesh Tailor ◽  

Abstract Purpose: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are malignant central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms of the young. Our study analyzed a large AT/RT cohort from the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to elucidate predictors of short-term mortality and overall survival (OS). Methods: Information was collected on patients with histologically-confirmed AT/RT using the NCDB (2004-2016). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated OS. Prognostic factors for 30-day mortality, 90-day mortality, and OS were determined via multivariate Cox proportional-hazards (CPH) and logistic regression models. Results: Our cohort of 189 patients had a median age of 1 year (IQR [1, 4]) and tumor size of 4.7±2.0 cm at diagnosis. Seventy-two percent were under 3 years old; 55.6% were male and 71.0% were Caucasian. Fifty (27.2%) patients received only surgery (S) (OS=5.91 months), 51 (27.7%) received surgery and chemotherapy (S+CT) (OS=11.2 months), and 9 (4.89%) received surgery and radiotherapy (S+RT) (OS=10.3 months). Forty-five (24.5%) received S+CT+RT combination therapy (OS=45.4 months), 13 (17.1%) received S+CT+BMT/SCT (bone marrow or stem cell transplant) (OS=55.5 months), and 16 (8.70%) received S+CT+RT+BMT/SCT (OS=68.4 months). Bivariate analysis of dichotomized age (HR=0.550, 95% CI[0.357, 0.847], p=0.0067) demonstrated significantly increased patient survival if diagnosed at or above 1 year old. On multivariate analysis, administration of S+CT+RT, S+CT+BMT/SCT, or S+CT+RT+BMT/SCT combination therapy predicted significantly (p<0.05) increased OS compared to surgery alone. Conclusion: AT/RTs are CNS tumors where those diagnosed under 1 year old have a significantly worse prognosis. Our study demonstrates that while traditional CT, RT, and BMT/SCT combination regimens prolong life, overall survival in this population is still low.

Michael Northend ◽  
William Wilson ◽  
Wendy Osborne ◽  
Christopher P. Fox ◽  
Andrew John Davies ◽  

The addition of polatuzumab vedotin to bendamustine and rituximab (Pola-BR) has been shown to improve overall survival (OS) in stem cell transplant (SCT)-ineligible patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). It is also increasingly used as bridging to CAR T-cell therapy (CAR-T). We retrospectively analysed the efficacy of Pola-BR in 133 patients at 28 UK institutions. Treatment intent was bridging to CAR-T for N=40, re-induction with planned SCT for N=13 and stand-alone treatment for N=78. The overall response rate (ORR) was 57.0% (complete response (CR) 32.8%). After median 7.7 months follow-up, median PFS and OS were 4.8 months and 8.2 months respectively. For stand-alone treatment shortened PFS was associated with bulk disease (&gt;7.5cm) (HR 2.32 (95% CI 1.23-4.38), p=0.009), &gt;1 prior treatment (HR 2.17 (95% CI 1.19-3.95), p=0.01) and refractoriness to the last treatment (HR 3.48 (95% CI 1.79-6.76), p&lt;0.001). For CAR-T bridging the ORR was 42.1% (CR 18.4%) and for treatment after CAR-T failure the ORR was 43.8% (CR 18.8%). These data demonstrate efficacy for Pola-BR as a treatment for SCT-ineligible patients with R/R DLBCL, help to delineate which patients may benefit most, and provide preliminary evidence of efficacy as bridging to CAR-T and after CAR-T failure.

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