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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jinwu Peng ◽  
Qiuju Liang ◽  
Zhijie Xu ◽  
Yuan Cai ◽  
Bi Peng ◽  

Exosomes, the small extracellular vesicles, are released by multiple cell types, including tumor cells, and represent a novel avenue for intercellular communication via transferring diverse biomolecules. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) were demonstrated to be enclosed in exosomes and therefore was protected from degradation. Such exosomal miRNAs can be transmitted to recipient cells where they could regulate multiple cancer-associated biological processes. Accumulative evidence suggests that exosomal miRNAs serve essential roles in modifying the glioma immune microenvironment and potentially affecting the malignant behaviors and therapeutic responses. As exosomal miRNAs are detectable in almost all kinds of biofluids and correlated with clinicopathological characteristics of glioma, they might be served as promising biomarkers for gliomas. We reviewed the novel findings regarding the biological functions of exosomal miRNAs during glioma pathogenesis and immune regulation. Furthermore, we elaborated on their potential clinical applications as biomarkers in glioma diagnosis, prognosis and treatment response prediction. Finally, we summarized the accessible databases that can be employed for exosome-associated miRNAs identification and functional exploration of cancers, including glioma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Lihuiping Tao ◽  
Changliang Xu ◽  
Weixing Shen ◽  
Jiani Tan ◽  
Liu Li ◽  

BackgroundExosomes are extracellular vesicles secreted by most cells to deliver functional cargoes to recipient cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a significant part of exosomal contents. The ease of diffusion of exosomes renders them speedy and highly efficient vehicles to deliver functional molecules. Cancer cells secrete more exosomes than normal cells. Reports have showed that exosomal miRNAs of cancer cells facilitate cancer progression. Yet the complexity of cancer dictates that many more functional exosomal miRNAs remain to be discovered.MethodsIn this study, we analyzed miRNA expression profiles of tissue and plasma exosome samples collected from 10 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and 10 healthy individuals. We focused on hsa-miR-101-3p (101-3p), a profoundly up-regulated miRNA enriched in plasma exosomes of patients bearing CRC. We performed target analysis of 101-3p and pursued functional studies of this microRNA in two colorectal cancer cell lines, namely HCT116 and SW480.ResultsOur results indicated that inhibiting 101-3p slowed cell growth and retarded cell migration in vivo in two colorectal cancer cell lines. Target analysis showed that Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (HIPK3) is a target of miR-101-3p. HCT116 and SW480 cells stably overexpressing HIPK3 showed increased level of phosphorylated FADD, as well as retarded cell growth, migration, and increased sensitivity to 5-FU. In-depth analysis revealed increased mitochondrial membrane potential upon HIPK3 overexpression along with increased production of reactive oxygen species, number of mitochondria, and expression of respiratory complexes. Measurements of glycolytic parameters and enzymes revealed decreased level of glycolysis upon HIPK3 overexpression in these two cell lines. Xenograft model further confirmed a profoundly improved potency of the synergistic treatment combining both 5-FU and 101-3p inhibitor compared to 5-FU alone.ConclusionThis study unraveled an oncogenic nature of the exosomal 101-3p and suggested a relationship between the 101-3p-HIPK3 axis and metabolic homeostasis in colorectal cancer. Expression level of 101-3p is positively correlated with glycolytic capacity in CRC and therefore 101-3p itself is an oncomiR. Combining 101-3p inhibitor with chemotherapeutic agents is an effective strategy against CRC.

2022 ◽  
pp. 172460082110700
Jia Chen ◽  
Dongting Yao ◽  
Weiqin Chen ◽  
Zhen Li ◽  
Yuanyuan Guo ◽  

Objectives The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic efficiency of serum exosomal miR-451a as a novel biomarker for pancreatic cancer. Methods Serum samples were collected prior to treatment. First, we analyzed microRNA (miRNA) profiles in serum exosomes from eight pancreatic cancer patients and eight healthy volunteers. We then validated the usefulness of the selected exosomal miRNAs as biomarkers in another 191 pancreatic cancer patients, 95 pancreatic benign disease (PB) patients, and 90 healthy controls. Results The expression of miR-451a in serum-derived exosomes from pancreatic cancer patients was significantly upregulated compared with those from PB patients and healthy individuals. Serum exosomal miR-451a showed excellent diagnostic power in identifying pancreatic cancer patients. In addition, exosomal miR-451a showed a significant association with clinical stage and distant metastasis in pancreatic cancer, and the expression level of serum exosomal miR-451a was sensitive to therapy and relapse. Conclusions Serum exosomal miR-451a might serve as a novel diagnostic marker for pancreatic cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Chuanyun Li ◽  
Tong Zhou ◽  
Jing Chen ◽  
Rong Li ◽  
Huan Chen ◽  

AbstractExosomal miRNAs have attracted much attention due to their critical role in regulating genes and the altered expression of miRNAs in virtually all cancers affecting humans (Sun et al. in Mol Cancer 17(1):14, 2018). Exosomal miRNAs modulate processes that interfere with cancer immunity and microenvironment, and are significantly involved in tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and drug resistance. Fully investigating the detailed mechanism of miRNAs in the occurrence and development of various cancers could help not only in the treatment of cancers but also in the prevention of malignant diseases. The current review highlighted recently published advances regarding cancer-derived exosomes, e.g., sorting and delivery mechanisms for RNAs. Exosomal miRNAs that modulate cancer cell-to-cell communication, impacting tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis and multiple biological features, were discussed. Finally, the potential role of exosomal miRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers was summarized, as well as their usefulness in detecting cancer resistance to therapeutic agents.

2021 ◽  
Yuanyuan Zhao ◽  
Shuhong Pan ◽  
Yunying Li ◽  
Xiaohua Wu

Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorders disease in women of reproductive age. The anovulation caused by abnormal follicular development is still the main characteristic of infertile patients with PCOS. Granulosa cells (GCs), an important component of follicular microenvironment, affect follicular development through GCs dysfunction. Increasing evidence indicates that exosomal miRNAs derived from follicular fluid (FF) of patients play critical roles during PCOS. However, which and how follicular fluid derived exosomal miRNAs play a pivotal role in controlling granulosa cells function and consequently follicular development remain largely unknown. Herein, we showed that miR-143-3p is highly expressed in follicular fluid exosomes of PCOS patients and can be delivered into granulosa cells. Furthermore, the functional experiments showed that the translocated miR-143-3p promoted granulosa cell apoptosis, which are important in follicle development. In terms of mechanism, we demonstrated that BMPR1A was identified as a direct target of miR-143-3p. Overexpression of BMPR1A reversed the effects of exosomal miR-143-3p on GCs apoptosis and proliferation by activating Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that miR-143-3p-containing exosomes derived from PCOS follicular fluid promoted granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting BMPR1A and blockading Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway. Our findings provide a novel mechanism underlying the roles of exosomal-miRNA in follicular fluid of PCOS and facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies for PCOS.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 98
Sheng-Nan Chang ◽  
Jien-Jiun Chen ◽  
Jo-Hsuan Wu ◽  
Yao-Te Chung ◽  
Jin-Wun Chen ◽  

Background: Among various bio-informative molecules transferred by exosomes between cells, micro RNAs (miRNAs), which remain remarkably stable even after freeze-and-thaw cycles, are excellent candidates for potential biomarkers for coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: Blood samples were collected from the coronary arteries of 214 patients diagnosed with three-vessel CAD and 140 without CAD. After precipitation extraction, the amounts of exosomes were found to decrease with increased age and three-vessel CAD. Next-generation sequencing was performed to further explore the possible relationship between exosomal miRNAs and CAD. Results: Eight exosomal miRNAs showed altered expression associated with CAD. The up-regulated miRNAs in CAD were miRNA-382-3p, miRNA-432-5p, miRNA-200a-3p, and miRNA-3613-3p. The down-regulated miRNAs were miRNA-125a-5p, miRNA-185-5p, miRNA-151a-3p, and miRNA-328-3p. Conclusion: We successfully demonstrated particular exosomal miRNAs that may serve as future biomarkers for CAD.

2021 ◽  
C.D.Mohana Priya ◽  
Vettriselvi Venkatesan ◽  
P.Pricilla charmine ◽  
G.Sangeetha Geminiganesan ◽  
Sudha Ekambaram

Abstract Background Recently, urinary exosomal miRNAs are gaining increasing attention as their expression profiles are often associated with specific diseases and they exhibit great potential as noninvasive biomarkers for the diagnosis of various diseases. The present study was aimed to evaluate the expression status of selected miRNAs (miR-1, miR-215-5p, miR-335-5p and let-7a-5p) in urine samples from children with NS [steroid sensitive (SSNS)] and [steroid resistant (SRNS)] along with healthy control group.Methods MicroRNA isolation was carried out in urine samples collected from SSNS (100 nos), SRNS (100 nos), and healthy controls (50 nos) using MiRNeasy Mini Kit, followed by cDNA conversion for all the four selected miRNAs using Taqman advanced miRNA cDNA synthesis kit and their expression was quantified by Taqman Advanced miRNA assay kits using Real Time PCR Machine and Rotogen-Q in SSNS and SRNS patients and healthy control subjects.ResultsQuantification of all the four miRNAs (miR-1, mir-215, miR-335, let 7a) were found to be upregulated in both SSNS and SRNS as compared to control group. Further, the comparison of microRNAs within the case groups revealed significant downregulation of three microRNAs - miR-1, miR-215, miR- 335 and upregulation of let-7a in SRNS group as compared to SSNS. The t-test performed for all the four miRNAs was found to be statistically significant. ConclusionsThe aberrant expression of all the four microRNAs in both SSNS and SRNS as compared to healthy subjects may serve as novel biomarkers to distinguish between NS and healthy controls. The differential expression of microRNA let-7a is useful to discriminate SSNS and SRNS.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Li Sun ◽  
Mu Xu ◽  
Guoying Zhang ◽  
Lin Dong ◽  
Jie Wu ◽  

Background. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide with high mortality, and there is an urgent need of new diagnosis measures. This study is aimed at investigating whether circulating exosomal miRNAs could act as biomarkers for the diagnosis of HCC. Methods. A four-stage strategy was adopted in this study. Candidate miRNA was selected by comprehensive analysis of four GEO datasets and TCGA database. The expression of candidate miRNAs in serum exosomal samples were examined through qRT-PCR. The diagnostic utility of the final validated miRNAs was examined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results. After synthetical analysis of four GEO datasets, six miRNAs were selected as candidates due to their higher differential fold change. miR-101 and miR-125b were selected as candidate miRNAs to further investigate their potential as biomarkers for HCC due to their differential fold change and their influence on overall survival based on the TCGA database. As a result, miR-101 and miR-125b expressions were remarkably downregulated in both tissues and serum exosomes of patients with HCC. The area under the ROC curves (AUCs) of circulating exosomal miR-101 and miR-125b were 0.894 (95% CI, 0.793–0.994) and 0.812 (95% CI, 0.675–0.950), respectively. The combination of the two miRNAs presented higher diagnostic utility for HCC ( AUC = 0.953 ). Conclusion. The exosomal miR-101 and miR-125b panel in the serum may act as a noninvasive biomarker for HCC detection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wenqian Wang ◽  
Chenran Yue ◽  
Sheng Gao ◽  
Shuting Li ◽  
Jianan Zhou ◽  

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterized by the loss of immune tolerance. Lupus nephritis (LN) is still a major cause of the morbidity and mortality of SLE. In clinical practice, diagnosis, and therapy of SLE is complicated and challenging due to lack of ideal biomarkers. Exosomes could be detected from numerous kinds of biological fluids and their specific contents are considered as hallmarks of autoimmune diseases. The exosomal miRNA profiles of SLE/LN patients significantly differ from those of the healthy controls making them as attractive biomarkers for renal injury. Exosomes are considered as optimal delivery vehicles owing to their higher stable, minimal toxicity, lower immunogenicity features and specific target effects. Endogenous miRNAs can be functionally transferred by exosomes from donor cells to recipient cells, displaying their immunomodulatory effects. In addition, it has been confirmed that exosomal miRNAs could directly interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling pathways to regulate NF-κB activation and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. The present Review mainly focuses on the immunomodulatory effects of exosomal-miRNAs, the complex interplay between exosomes, miRNAs and TLR signaling pathways, and how the exosomal-miRNAs can become non-invasive diagnostic molecules and potential therapeutic strategies for the management of SLE.

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