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Tanish Kumar

Abstract: The technology round the usage of mask with the aid of using the general public to hinder COVID-19 transmission is advancing rapidly. In this narrative overview, we expand an analytical framework to study masks utilisation, synthesising the applicable literature to tell more than one areas: populace impact, transmission characteristics, supply control, wearer protection, sociological considerations, and implementation considerations. A number one direction of transmission of COVID-19 is thru breathing debris, and it's far recognised to be transmissible from presymptomatic, paucisymptomatic, and asymptomatic people. Reducing ailment unfold calls for things: proscribing contacts of inflamed people thru bodily distancing and different measures and lowering the transmission chance according to touch. The preponderance of proof shows that masks sporting reduces transmissibility according to touch with the aid of using lowering transmission of inflamed breathing debris in each laboratory and medical contexts. Public masks sporting is handiest at lowering unfold of the virus whilst compliance is high. Given the modern shortages of clinical mask, we advise the adoption of public material masks sporting, as a powerful shape of supply control, along with present hygiene, distancing, and make contact with tracing strategies. Because many breathing debris turn out to be smaller because of evaporation, we advise growing awareness on a formerly unnoticed component of masks utilisation: masks sporting with the aid of using infectious people (“supply control”) with blessings on the populace level, in preference to simplest masks sporting with the aid of using inclined people, which include fitness care workers, with awareness on person outcomes. We advise that public officers and governments strongly inspire the usage of extensive face mask in public, which include the usage of suitable regulation. Policy makers want pressing steering on the usage of mask with the aid of using the overall populace as a device in preventing extreme acute breathing syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the breathing virus that reasons COVID-19. Masks were encouraged as an ability device to address the COVID-19 pandemic for the reason that preliminary outbreak in China (1), even though utilisation all through the outbreak numerous with the aid of using time and location (2). Globally, nations are grappling with translating the proof of public masks sporting to their contexts. These guidelines are being evolved in a complicated decision-making environment, with a unique pandemic, speedy technology of recent research, and exponential boom in instances and deaths in lots of regions. There is presently an international scarcity of N95/FFP2 respirators and surgical mask to be used in hospitals. Simple material mask gift a practical answer to be used with the aid of using the general public. This has been supported with the aid of using maximum fitness bodies. We gift an interdisciplinary narrative overview of the literature at the position of face mask in lowering COVID-19 transmission with inside the community. Keywords: COVID, ECONOMY, MASKS, LIVES, SAFETY, FUTURE

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 181-191
Panagiotis Pentaris ◽  
Abiola Oresanya

Regardless the few decades that an established legislative framework in Child Protection has been in effect, the responsibility of the Law and the Child Protection System is to continuously explore social needs, as they change, transform or new ones are introduced to adapt to the circumstances in the attempts to safeguard and protect children. This paper is not focusing on those adaptations; it draws on this responsibility to argue that in an ever-changing world, wherein needs and demands are shifting, Child Protection Vocabulary needs to be more explicit and adaptive to those changes. Vocabulary like ‘best interest’, ‘resilience’, ‘power’, and ‘vulnerability’ are commonplace in child protection legislation, regulation, policy and practice. That said, the question of interpretation is always of concern; how are the varied agencies, stakeholders, authorities, groups, and individuals approaching safeguarding and child protection when the heterogeneity of the language used is ever-increasing? This paper provides a conceptual content analysis of Child Protection Vocabulary found in the Children Act 1989. The analysis will be drawing on the amendments in Children Act 2004, as well as the Children and Social Work Act 2017, but will preserve its focus on the Children Act 1989 as the foundation for the contemporary Child Protection System. Implications of the findings are provided at the end.

Ritika Tiwari ◽  
Raveen Naidoo ◽  
René English ◽  
Usuf Chikte

Background: Emergency care is viewed as a fundamental human right in South Africa’s constitution. In the public sector, all emergency medical services (EMS) come under the Directorate: Emergency Medical Services and Disaster Medicine at the National Department of Health (NDoH), which provides regulation, policy and oversight guidance to provincial structures.Aim: The aim of the study is to understand the supply and status of human resources for EMS in South Africa.Setting: This research was undertaken for South Africa using the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) database from 2002 to 2019.Methods: A retrospective record-based review of the HPCSA database was undertaken to estimate the current registered and future need for emergency care personnel forecasted up to 2030.Results: There are 76% Basic Ambulance Assistants registered with HPCSA. An additional 96 000 personnel will be required in 2030 to maintain the current ratio of 95.9 registered emergency care personnel per 100 000 population. The profile of an emergency care personnel employed in South Africa is likely to be a black male in the age group of 30–39-years, residing in one of the economically better-resourced provinces.Conclusion: It is time that the current educational framework is revised. Policy interventions must be undertaken to avoid future shortages of the trained emergency care personnel within South Africa.

Kai Wang ◽  
Xin Yang

In pursuit of rapid economic growth, China ignores the carrying capacity of the natural environment and storage quantity of natural resources, resulting in waste and abuse of a large number of natural resources. With the development of industrialization, environmental and ecological problems are becoming more and more serious. Resources are being wasted seriously, and environmental endurance is faced with a great threat. Government regulation on environmental pollution governance has become a consistent problem to be solved for the further economic and social development of all countries in the world. Most governments adopt the establishment of environmental regulation agencies to regulate enterprise pollution. To explore the impact of government regulation on emission reduction of environmental pollutants, government regulation was taken as an explanatory variable and a multivariate panel regression model was established. The influencing factors of environmental pollutant emission in 30 provinces (cities) in China from 2007 to 2016 were estimated. Results show that the government regulation policy in China cannot significantly promote emission reduction of environmental pollutants. GDP and technological progress can effectively reduce the emission of environmental pollutants. The increasing proportion of the secondary industry and a large amount of foreign investment, both lead to an increase in environmental pollutants emission. Government regulation measures can effectively alleviate ecological environment damage caused by environmental pollutant emission. The policy implication of the findings is that the government of China should formulate appropriate intensity of government regulation. The intensity of environmental regulation cannot be blindly increased. Regulation means of pollution charge, pollution permits, and environmental tax should be flexibly used. According to realistic characteristics of different regions, different degrees of excess production cap

A. A. Morosanova ◽  
A. I. Meleshkina

The analysis of international experience in regulating taxi markets allows to identify potential risks of regulatory interference in the passenger transportation markets in Russia. Section 1 examines the international experience of tariff regulation and taxi market deregulation measures, taking into account empirical studies of the tariff restrictions effectiveness. Section 2 contains examples of quotas, restricted the number of passenger taxis or licenses. Since regulatory practice is not limited to these methods, section 3 provides cases of establishing additional requirements for the carrier's activities. The conclusion contains all cases summary and a list of potential risks of implementing the tariff regulation policy in taxi market in Russian Federation. It is concluded that markets with dynamic pricing may react ambiguously to the straightening or weakening of tariff and quotas regulation.The research is based on the theory of institutional change, including developments on the problems of institutional design and regulatory impact assessment.The choice of cases is determined by the information availability about the results of the introduced regime of taxi services regulation. This makes it possible to analyze the qualitative characteristics of relevant market dynamics without diving into quantitative calculations and collecting statistics.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Aidong Zhao ◽  
Jinsheng Huang ◽  
Huub Ploegmakers ◽  
Erwin van der Krabben ◽  
Xianlei Ma

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