Economic Consequences
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Nur Hidayah Che Ahmat ◽  
Syafiqah Rahamat ◽  
Susan Wohlsdorf Arendt

The novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) first appeared in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province China before emerging in neighbouring countries in early 2020. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic when the spreading of the virus started accelerating in many parts of the world and killing thousands of people. As of 22nd May 2021, there were more than 166 million confirmed cases with more than 147 million recovered and nearly 3.5 million deaths (Worldometers, n.d.). According to the WHO (2020) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020), the virus easily spreads through coughing and sneezing. Therefore, many countries implemented social distancing between individuals and various other restriction orders or recommendations (e.g., stay-at-home policies, closure of non-essential businesses) to help curb virus spread. How governments in each country reacted to control the spread of the virus appeared crucial to mitigate public health and economic impacts. Keywords: Foodservice, Hospitality, Hotel, Malaysia, Pandemic

2021 ◽  
Rossella Martarelli ◽  
Georgia Casanova ◽  
Giovanni Lamura

Abstract BackgroundPopulation ageing, constantly on the increase in all countries worldwide, has long been the object of scientific research from several perspectives, including multi and interdisciplinary approaches. This scoping review aims to investigate the socio-economic consequences of older people’s poor health on their own economic conditions and those of their families. This study aims to: a) map the main concepts that characterise the body of literature pertaining to this issue; b) identify conceptual gaps or unexplored research areas to be addressed; c) delve into the ways of arguing about the difficulties that affect a large number of families with older members to care for, especially with regard to the concept of socio-economic deprivation, which in our perspective includes both material and social deprivation (e.g. in the form of loneliness experienced as a consequence of health disorders). This protocol fulfils the purpose of clarifying the stages and methods of the study and listing the techniques used.MethodsThis article is being drafted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols 2015 (PRISMA-P 2015). The rationale behind the study and its stages are aligned with the guidelines of Lockwood et al. (2019) and the recommendations of Munn et al. (2018): Each stage links up with the next, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (the 2020 PRISMA Statement), while the reporting phase refers to the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) checklist. The search process is being performed by means of databases such as PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. The latest version of MAXQDA will be used for analyzing all data.Discussion We aim to highlight and connect the most useful insights addressed to stakeholders and policymakers and, most of all, the ones valuable to social innovation. Nevertheless, it is necessary for us to remark that, despite the prevalence of the English language, most research articles are written and published in other languages. Therefore, they are excluded from the search process.Systematic review registration Open Science Framework (OSF), Registration DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/XQ58Z

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Tanja Gavrić ◽  
Ibrahim Obhođaš ◽  
Esad Jakupović

In the world economy, small and medium sized entreprises (SMEs) dominate in the number of overall enterprises (90-99% of all enterprises, depending on the definition used) and in economic contributions (GDP growth, productivity, job creation, innovation, level of competition, etc.) (Lundström i Stevenson, 2001). Because small businesses generate jobs, tax revenue, functional products, charitable donations, technological development, and social contributions to communities, their success and sustainability are important for social and economic development. In addition to the impact on public health, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused a major economic shock and the greatest consequences were felt by the small and medium-sized enterprises. Due to the crisis caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, countries and their companies are facing major problems of human and business capacities sustainability. Although governments have enacted private sector policies, there are constraints that have direct implications for economic growth potential. In this paper, we investigate the impact of COVID-19 on SMEs in Bosnia and Herzegovina, focusing on the impact of the Law for mitigation negative economic consequences, better known as the Crown-Law. We first examined how the companies performed this year compared to the previous year, and then we examined whether there were barriers to the implementation of the Crowv-Law and if so, whether they were internal or external. The results of this research point to the fact that the Crown-Law is not good enough. The measures are not in line with the strategic needs of SMEs, there is a time limit and the measures are short-term. The SME development strategy should be coordinated based on the mechanism of public-private dialogue. SMEs need business services to improve their competitiveness (information, consulting, training, accounting, legal services, advertising, marketing, technical and technological services, including testing standards and certification requirements abroad, product upgrades, etc.). The results of this research provide some information of the business results and expectations of SMEs in times of crisis, while offering insight into measures designed to aid recovery. The results highlight the role that the length of the crisis will play in determining its final impact, which policymakers should consider when considering the scale of interventions needed. On the other side, the Covid-19 pandemic has opened up new challenges, but also opportunities for SMEs, such as technological advances that create new products and transform almost every phase of the business from manufacturing to marketing, procurement and logistics. Currently, only a small part of the SME sector is able to recognize and seize these opportunities and meet the challenges.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Jacob Kazungu ◽  
Kenneth Munge ◽  
Kalin Werner ◽  
Nicholas Risko ◽  
Andres I. Vecino-Ortiz ◽  

Abstract Background Healthcare workers are at a higher risk of COVID-19 infection during care encounters compared to the general population. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) have been shown to protect COVID-19 among healthcare workers, however, Kenya has faced PPE shortages that can adequately protect all healthcare workers. We, therefore, examined the health and economic consequences of investing in PPE for healthcare workers in Kenya. Methods We conducted a cost-effectiveness and return on investment (ROI) analysis using a decision-analytic model following the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) guidelines. We examined two outcomes: 1) the incremental cost per healthcare worker death averted, and 2) the incremental cost per healthcare worker COVID-19 case averted. We performed a multivariate sensitivity analysis using 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations. Results Kenya would need to invest $3.12 million (95% CI: 2.65–3.59) to adequately protect healthcare workers against COVID-19. This investment would avert 416 (IQR: 330–517) and 30,041 (IQR: 7243 – 102,480) healthcare worker deaths and COVID-19 cases respectively. Additionally, such an investment would result in a healthcare system ROI of $170.64 million (IQR: 138–209) – equivalent to an 11.04 times return. Conclusion Despite other nationwide COVID-19 prevention measures such as social distancing, over 70% of healthcare workers will still be infected if the availability of PPE remains scarce. As part of the COVID-19 response strategy, the government should consider adequate investment in PPE for all healthcare workers in the country as it provides a large return on investment and it is value for money.

2021 ◽  
Hossein Namdar Areshtanab ◽  
Fariba Vaseai ◽  
Hossein Ebrahimi ◽  
Mohammad Arshadi Bostanabad ◽  
Mina Hosseinzadeh

Abstract Background: Domestic violence is one of the most common problems of public health that can be occurred in families and can lead to physical, psychological, and economic consequences individually, family, and social level. The present study was aimed to determine domestic violence of married couples from the Viewpoint of women. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study 547 women referring to health centers of Marand in 2018 were participated. Sampling method was the convenience sampling method. For data collection, Socio-demographic and the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) questionnaires were used. Descriptive (mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage of frequency) and inferential statistics, including t-test were used to analyze the data. Results: Results showed that domestic violence against men (98.3%) and women (98.5%) has a high prevalence. Women have experienced more violence in the psychological, physical, and sexual dimensions and men have experienced more violence in the negotiation and injury dimensions. Conclusions: The most important message of study beyond the comparison of the numbers and the operative or the victim of violence is the insecurity of the family environment for women, men, and children, which can have serious consequences for the family and society in the future. According to the importance of family as one of the essential elements of a healthy society, a preventative proceeding is required.

2021 ◽  
pp. tobaccocontrol-2021-056628
Mônica Nunes-Rubinstein ◽  
Teresa Leão

ObjectivesTo identify proponents and opponents of the commercialisation and marketing of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products (HTPs), identify the arguments used on both sides and compare how the arguments have changed over time, we analysed three policy discussions occurring in 2009, 2018 and 2019.MethodsWe conducted a content analysis of one document and six videos from these discussions, provided on the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency website, or upon request.ResultsThe arguments most used by tobacco companies were related to claims that the use of e-cigarettes and HTPs is less harmful than conventional tobacco. Unions that support its commercialisation also argued that lifting the ban would prevent smuggling and guarantee their quality. On the other side, universities, medical and anti-tobacco institutions argued that such devices may have health risks, including the risk of inducing cigarette smoking. In 2009, most arguments belonged to the ‘health’ theme, while in 2018 and 2019 economic arguments and those related to morals and ethics were frequently used.ConclusionsThose that supported the commercialisation and marketing of e-cigarettes and HTPs first focused on arguments of harm reduction, while 10 years later the right to access and potential economic consequences also became common. Public health agents and academics must gather evidence to effectively respond to these arguments and discuss these policies, and must prepare themselves to use and respond to arguments related to moral and economic themes.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (18) ◽  
pp. 5836
Tobia Piccoli ◽  
Matteo Fermeglia ◽  
Daniele Bosich ◽  
Paolo Bevilacqua ◽  
Giorgio Sulligoi

The technology of cold ironing (or shore-to-ship power) can meaningfully reduce greenhouse gases and air pollutant emissions from ships at the berth by powering the vessels from the electrical shore grid. While cold ironing constitutes an effective and affordable solution in northern Europe and America, economic, legal, and environmental factors still render this technology less attractive in southern Europe. This paper aims to unpack and analyze the economic, regulatory, and environmental factors that can foster cold ironing as a standard installation in the Mediterranean Sea. Based on a model design for the port of Trieste (Italy) as applied to a cluster of target ports in the Adriatic Sea (in Italy, Croatia, and Greece), this article evaluates the cold ironing payback period by comparing costs of shore side-plants with environmental externalities and O&M costs. Moreover, the paper addresses key regulatory bottlenecks arising in different European jurisdictions with regard to the setting-up and development of cold ironing, while appraising the legal and economic consequences of deploying cold ironing in light of the future inclusion of the maritime sector in the EU Emission Trading System.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
K. Giamalaki ◽  
C. Beaulieu ◽  
S. A. Henson ◽  
A. P. Martin ◽  
H. Kassem ◽  

AbstractExtreme Aleutian Low (AL) events have been associated with major ecosystem reorganisations and unusual weather patterns in the Pacific region, with serious socio-economic consequences. Yet, their future evolution and impacts on atmosphere–ocean interactions remain uncertain. Here, a large ensemble of historical and future runs from the Community Earth System Model is used to investigate the evolution of AL extremes. The frequency and persistence of AL extremes are quantified and their connection with climatic variables is examined. AL extremes become more frequent and persistent under the RCP8.5 scenario, associated with changes in precipitation and air temperature patterns over North America. Future changes in AL extremes also increase the variability of the sea surface temperature and net heat fluxes in the Kuroshio Extension, the most significant heat and energy flux region of the basin. The increased frequency and persistence of future AL extremes may potentially cause substantial changes in fisheries and ecosystems of the entire Pacific region as a knock-on effect.

2021 ◽  
pp. 088626052110435
Elisha Chan ◽  
Maria Rosa Viñas-Racionero ◽  
Mario J. Scalora

Stalking and intrusive harassment (SIH) are prevalent and serious public health issues associated with significant psychological, social, and economic consequences. Further exacerbating this problem is the growing use of technology and the internet, which has facilitated the perpetration of SIH behaviors via electronic means. Given its prevalence and negative impact, it is imperative to identify precursors of cyber and offline SIH to better predict and mitigate its detrimental effects. Thus, the current study examined whether overall emotion dysregulation and stalking-related attitudes are predictive factors of SIH perpetration. In addition, it was determined whether specific difficulties with emotion regulation and stalking supportive attitudes were differentially associated with online and offline SIH perpetration. Participants consisted of 874 university students who completed an online survey comprised of a battery of self-report measures, including the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale, Stalking-related Attitudes Questionnaire, Obsessive-Relational Intrusion Pursuit Short Form, and the Cyber-Obsessional Pursuit scale. Logistic regression analyses revealed that overall emotion dysregulation and greater endorsement of stalking supportive attitudes predicted SIH perpetration. Moreover, emotion regulation difficulties distinguished the domain(s) in which an individual was more likely to perpetrate SIH behaviors. Specifically, those who reported more problems with emotion regulation, particularly a lack of emotional awareness, were more likely to engage in both offline and online SIH behaviors concurrently than to perpetrate purely offline or purely online. These findings have significant implications for stalking risk assessment and prevention efforts. In particular, understanding the predictive roles of emotion dysregulation and stalking-related attitudes on online and offline SIH perpetration can inform the development and improvement of evidence-based prevention and intervention programs, as well as stalking risk assessment instruments.

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