Sequence Structure
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2021 ◽  
Saminur Islam ◽  
Ahmed Abbasi ◽  
Nitin Agarwal ◽  
Wanhong Zheng ◽  
Gianfranco Doretto ◽  

Biologia ◽  
2021 ◽  
Tanja Plieger ◽  
Matthias Wolf

AbstractProtothecosis is an infectious disease caused by organisms currently classified within the green algal genus Prototheca. The disease can manifest as cutaneous lesions, olecranon bursitis or disseminated or systemic infections in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. Concerning diagnostics, taxonomic validity is important. Prototheca, closely related to the Chlorella species complex, is known to be polyphyletic, branching with Auxenochlorella and Helicosporidium. The phylogeny of Prototheca was discussed and revisited several times in the last decade; new species have been described. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and partial mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) sequence data. In this work we use Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) as well as 18S rDNA data. However, for the first time, we reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of Prototheca using primary sequence and RNA secondary structure information simultaneously, a concept shown to increase robustness and accuracy of phylogenetic tree estimation. Using encoded sequence-structure data, Neighbor-Joining, Maximum-Parsimony and Maximum-Likelihood methods yielded well-supported trees in agreement with other trees calculated on rDNA; but differ in several aspects from trees using cytb as a phylogenetic marker. ITS2 secondary structures of Prototheca sequences are in agreement with the well-known common core structure of eukaryotes but show unusual differences in their helix lengths. An elongation of the fourth helix of some species seems to have occurred independently in the course of evolution.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Nikesh Patel ◽  
Sam Clark ◽  
Eva U. Weiß ◽  
Carlos P. Mata ◽  
Jen Bohon ◽  

AbstractThe roles of RNA sequence/structure motifs, Packaging Signals (PSs), for regulating assembly of an HBV genome transcript have been investigated in an efficient in vitro assay containing only core protein (Cp) and RNA. Variants of three conserved PSs, within the genome of a strain not used previously, preventing correct presentation of a Cp-recognition loop motif are differentially deleterious for assembly of nucleocapsid-like particles (NCPs). Cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the T = 4 NCPs formed with the wild-type gRNA transcript, reveal that the interior of the Cp shell is in contact with lower resolution density, potentially encompassing the arginine-rich protein domains and gRNA. Symmetry relaxation followed by asymmetric reconstruction reveal that such contacts are made at every symmetry axis. We infer from their regulation of assembly that some of these contacts would involve gRNA PSs, and confirmed this by X-ray RNA footprinting. Mutation of the ε stem-loop in the gRNA, where polymerase binds in vivo, produces a poor RNA assembly substrate with Cp alone, largely due to alterations in its conformation. The results show that RNA PSs regulate assembly of HBV genomic transcripts in vitro, and therefore may play similar roles in vivo, in concert with other molecular factors.

Tatjana Škrbić ◽  
Trinh Xuan Hoang ◽  
Achille Giacometti ◽  
Amos Maritan ◽  
Jayanth R. Banavar

Proteins are the common constituents of all living cells. They are molecular machines that interact with each other as well as with other cell products and carry out a dizzying array of functions with distinction. These interactions follow from their native state structures and therefore understanding sequence-structure relationships is of fundamental importance. What is quite remarkable about proteins is that their understanding necessarily straddles several disciplines. The importance of geometry in defining protein native state structure, the constraints placed on protein behavior by mathematics and physics, the need for proteins to obey the laws of quantum chemistry, and the rich role of evolution and biology all come together in defining protein science. Here we review ideas from the literature and present an interdisciplinary framework that aims to marry ideas from Plato and Darwin and demonstrates an astonishing consilience between disciplines in describing proteins. We discuss the consequences of this framework on protein behavior.

2021 ◽  
pp. 717-727
Lina Peng ◽  
Lili Sun ◽  
Yongqing Xu ◽  
Zhenxue Cai ◽  
Xu Feng ◽  

Rumex patientia L. can respond to abiotic stresses and withstand low temperatures. Proline accumulation plays important roles under various abiotic stresses in different plants, specially salinity. P5CS and OAT of plants are key enzymes in the proline synthesis pathway. In the present study, the RpP5cs and RpOat genes of the proline synthesis pathway in R. patientia L. were cloned with full-length cDNAs of 2178 bp and 1401 bp. The expression of RpP5cs and RpOat genes were higher in Russian Щавель Чемпион than Chinese R. patientia × R. tianschanicus cv. Rumex under salinity and alkalinity stress over 0 - 24 hrs. These results could provide insights into sequence structure and differential tolerance in many plants. Bangladesh J. Bot. 50(3): 717-727, 2021 (September) Special

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (20) ◽  
pp. 11134
Anton O. Chugunov ◽  
Nadezhda A. Potapova ◽  
Natalia S. Klimenko ◽  
Victor V. Tatarskiy ◽  
Sofia G. Georgieva ◽  

Transcription activation factors and multisubunit coactivator complexes get recruited at specific chromatin sites via protein domains that recognize histone modifications. Single PHDs (plant homeodomains) interact with differentially modified H3 histone tails. Double PHD finger (DPF) domains possess a unique structure different from PHD and are found in six proteins: histone acetyltransferases MOZ and MORF; chromatin remodeling complex BAF (DPF1–3); and chromatin remodeling complex PBAF (PHF10). Among them, PHF10 stands out due to the DPF sequence, structure, and functions. PHF10 is ubiquitously expressed in developing and adult organisms as four isoforms differing in structure (the presence or absence of DPF) and transcription regulation functions. Despite the importance of the DPF domain of PHF10 for transcription activation, its structure remains undetermined. We performed homology modeling of the human PHF10 DPF domain and determined common and distinct features in structure and histone modifications recognition capabilities, which can affect PBAF complex chromatin recruitment. We also traced the evolution of DPF1–3 and PHF10 genes from unicellular to vertebrate organisms. The data reviewed suggest that the DPF domain of PHF10 plays an important role in SWI/SNF-dependent chromatin remodeling during transcription activation.

2021 ◽  
Liam M. Longo ◽  
Rachel Kolodny ◽  
Shawn E. McGlynn

AbstractAs sequence and structure comparison algorithms gain sensitivity, the intrinsic interconnectedness of the protein universe has become increasingly apparent. Despite this general trend, β-trefoils have emerged as an uncommon counterexample: They are an isolated protein lineage for which few, if any, sequence or structure associations to other lineages have been identified. If β-trefoils are, in fact, remote islands in sequence-structure space, it implies that the oligomerizing peptide that founded the β-trefoil lineage itself arose de novo. To better understand β-trefoil evolution, and to probe the limits of fragment sharing across the protein universe, we identified both ‘β-trefoil bridging themes’ (evolutionarily-related sequence segments) and ‘β-trefoil-like motifs’ (structure motifs with a hallmark feature of the β-trefoil architecture) in multiple, ostensibly unrelated, protein lineages. The success of the present approach stems, in part, from considering β-trefoil sequence segments or structure motifs rather than the β-trefoil architecture as a whole, as has been done previously. The newly uncovered inter-lineage connections presented here suggest a novel hypothesis about the origins of the β-trefoil fold itself – namely, that it is a derived fold formed by ‘budding’ from an Immunoglobulin-like β-sandwich protein. These results demonstrate how the emergence of a folded domain from a peptide need not be a signature of antiquity and underpin an emerging truth: few protein lineages escape nature’s sewing table.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (183) ◽  
Nora S. Martin ◽  
Sebastian E. Ahnert

Genotype–phenotype maps link genetic changes to their fitness effect and are thus an essential component of evolutionary models. The map between RNA sequences and their secondary structures is a key example and has applications in functional RNA evolution. For this map, the structural effect of substitutions is well understood, but models usually assume a constant sequence length and do not consider insertions or deletions. Here, we expand the sequence–structure map to include single nucleotide insertions and deletions by using the RNAshapes concept. To quantify the structural effect of insertions and deletions, we generalize existing definitions for robustness and non-neutral mutation probabilities. We find striking similarities between substitutions, deletions and insertions: robustness to substitutions is correlated with robustness to insertions and, for most structures, to deletions. In addition, frequent structural changes after substitutions also tend to be common for insertions and deletions. This is consistent with the connection between energetically suboptimal folds and possible structural transitions. The similarities observed hold both for genotypic and phenotypic robustness and mutation probabilities, i.e. for individual sequences and for averages over sequences with the same structure. Our results could have implications for the rate of neutral and non-neutral evolution.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Marcio Dorn ◽  
Rodrigo Ligabue-Braun ◽  
Hugo Verli

The development and application of bioinformatics has been growing steadily, but its learning and training has been lagging. We have approached this problem through a bi-annual event, called EGB (Escola Gaúcha de Bioinformática), dedicated to undergraduate and graduate students (mainly from biology, biomedicine, chemistry, physics, and computer sciences), as well as professionals, to mingle and be presented to bioinformatics from sequence, structure, and computational standpoints simultaneously. The interactive environment provided by EGB allows for participants mingling, independently from their training background, fostering collaborative learning and experience exchange. Both lecturers and students are encouraged to collaborate and communicate, with no formal acknowledgement of “status differentiation”.

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