abiotic stresses
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. K. Warsi ◽  
S. M. Howladar ◽  
M. A. Alsharif

Abstract Population growth is increasing rapidly around the world, in these consequences we need to produce more foods to full fill the demand of increased population. The world is facing global warming due to urbanizations and industrialization and in this concerns plants exposed continuously to abiotic stresses which is a major cause of crop hammering every year. Abiotic stresses consist of Drought, Salt, Heat, Cold, Oxidative and Metal toxicity which damage the crop yield continuously. Drought and salinity stress severally affected in similar manner to plant and the leading cause of reduction in crop yield. Plants respond to various stimuli under abiotic or biotic stress condition and express certain genes either structural or regulatory genes which maintain the plant integrity. The regulatory genes primarily the transcription factors that exert their activity by binding to certain cis DNA elements and consequently either up regulated or down regulate to target expression. These transcription factors are known as masters regulators because its single transcript regulate more than one gene, in this context the regulon word is fascinating more in compass of transcription factors. Progress has been made to better understand about effect of regulons (AREB/ABF, DREB, MYB, and NAC) under abiotic stresses and a number of regulons reported for stress responsive and used as a better transgenic tool of Arabidopsis and Rice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 295 ◽  
pp. 110785
Shu-Zhen Jiao ◽  
Chao Guo ◽  
Wen-Kong Yao ◽  
Ning-Bo Zhang ◽  
Ji-Yuan Zhang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 176 ◽  
pp. 114400
Tianzeng Niu ◽  
Xi Wang ◽  
Mureed Abbas ◽  
Jie Shen ◽  
Ruixiang Liu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ayomide Emmanuel Fadiji ◽  
Olubukola Oluranti Babalola ◽  
Gustavo Santoyo ◽  
Michele Perazzolli

Crop plants are more often exposed to abiotic stresses in the current age of fast-evolving climate change. This includes exposure to extreme and unpredictable changes in climatic conditions, phytosanitary hazards, and cultivation conditions, which results in drastic losses in worldwide agricultural productions. Plants coexist with microbial symbionts, some of which play key roles in the ecosystem and plant processes. The application of microbial biostimulants, which take advantage of symbiotic relationships, is a long-term strategy for improving plant productivity and performance, even in the face of climate change-associated stresses. Beneficial filamentous fungi, yeasts, and bacteria are examples of microbial biostimulants, which can boost the growth, yield, nutrition and stress tolerance in plants. This paper highlights recent information about the role of microbial biostimulants and their potential application in mitigating the abiotic stresses occurring on crop plants due to climate change. A critical evaluation for their efficient use under diverse climatic conditions is also made. Currently, accessible products generally improve cultural conditions, but their action mechanisms are mostly unknown, and their benefits are frequently inconsistent. Thus, further studies that could lead to the more precisely targeted products are discussed.

Horticulturae ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 80
Jing Bin ◽  
Meilin Zhu ◽  
Huifen Ding ◽  
Zhouying Zai ◽  
Tingting Shi ◽  

Sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) is an evergreen woody plant that emits a floral aroma and is widely used in the landscape and fragrance industries. However, its application and cultivation regions are limited by cold stress. Heat-shock transcription factor (HSF) family members are widely present in plants and participate in, and regulate, the defense processes of plants under various abiotic stress conditions, but now, the role of this family in the responses of O. fragrans to cold stress is still not clear. Here, 46 OfHSF members were identified in the O. fragrans genome and divided into three subfamilies on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis. The promoter regions of most OfHSFs contained many cis-acting elements involved in multiple hormonal and abiotic stresses. RNA-seq data revealed that most of OfHSF genes were differentially expressed in various tissues, and some OfHSF members were induced by cold stress. The qRT-PCR analysis identified four OfHSFs that were induced by both cold and heat stresses, in which OfHSF11 and OfHSF43 had contrary expression trends under cold stress conditions and their expression patterns both showed recovery tendencies after the cold stress. OfHSF11 and OfHSF43 localized to the nuclei and their expression patterns were also induced under multiple abiotic stresses and hormonal treatments, indicating that they play critical roles in responses to multiple stresses. Furthermore, after a cold treatment, transient expression revealed that the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of OfHSF11-transformed tobacco significantly increased, and the expression levels of cold-response regulatory gene NbDREB3, cold response gene NbLEA5 and ROS detoxification gene NbCAT were significantly inhibited, implying that OfHSF11 is a negative regulator of cold responses in O. fragrans. Our study contributes to the further functional characterization of OfHSFs and will be useful in developing improved cold-tolerant cultivars of O. fragrans.

2022 ◽  
Yue Zhang ◽  
Shizhuo Lin ◽  
Jianping Wang ◽  
Meiling Tang ◽  
Jianfeng Huang ◽  

Abstract As one of the most abundant ions in cells, potassium (K+) is closely related to plant growth and development and contributes to plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. However molecular mechanisms towards K+ uptake and transport are unclear in tropic fruit trees. In this study, 18 KT/HAK/KUP family genes (MiHAKs) were isolated and characterized in mango. Results showed that MiHAKs were unevenly expressed in distinct tissues and were differentially responded to K+ depletion, PEG, and NaCl stresses in roots, in which K+ depletion and PEG treatment significantly enhanced while NaCl treatment mainly reduced responsive MiHAK genes. In particular, MiHAK14 was the most abundant KT/HAK/KUP family gene in mango, especially in roots. Functional complementation in TK2420 mutant revealed that MiHAK14 could uptake external K+. Moreover, overexpression of MiHAK14 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to K+ depletion and NaCl stresses with strengthened K+ nutritional status and ROS scavenging ability. This study provides molecular basis for further functional studies of KT/HAK/KUP transporters in tropic fruit trees, and favorably demonstrates the essentiality of K+ homeostasis in plant tolerance to abiotic stresses, including K+ deficiency and NaCl stress.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 63-68
Juraj Faragó

Increasing concerns for security of the fossil fuel supply emphasizes the need to complement fossil fuel-based energy sources with renewable energy sources. Plant biomass represents an abundant renewable resource for the production of bioenergy and biomaterials. This review summarizes the last advancements in the use of biotechnological tools to improve bioethanol production from plant biomass through genetic engineering the starch content and composition and lignocellulosic matter characteristics, and increasing the capacity of plants to produce harvestable yield and ameliorating the negative abiotic stresses on plants so as to increase yield.

PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12786
Zeyu Zhang ◽  
Shilei Luo ◽  
Zeci Liu ◽  
Zilong Wan ◽  
Xueqin Gao ◽  

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a very important hormone in plants. It regulates growth and development of plants and plays an important role in biotic and abiotic stresses. The Pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYR/PYL) proteins play a central role in ABA signal transduction pathways. The working system of PYL genes in cucumber, an important economical vegetable (Cucumis sativus L.), has not been fully studied yet. Through bioinformatics, a total of 14 individual PYL genes were identified in Chinese long ‘9930’ cucumber. Fourteen PYL genes were distributed on six chromosomes of cucumber, and their encoded proteins predicted to be distributed in cytoplasm and nucleus. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the PYL genes of cucumber, Arabidopsis, rice, apple, Brachypodium distachyon and soybeancould be classified into three groups. Genetic structures and conserved domains analysis revealed that CsPYL genes in the same group have similar exons and conserved domains. By predicting cis-elements in the promoters, we found that all CsPYL members contained hormone and stress-related elements. Additionally, the expression patterns of CsPYL genes were specific in tissues. Finally, we further examined the expression of 14 CsPYL genes under ABA, PEG, salt stress. The qRT-PCR results showed that most PYL gene expression levels were up-regulated. Furthermore, with different treatments about 3h, the relative expression of PYL8 was up-regulated and more than 20 times higher than 0h. It indicated that this gene may play an important role in abiotic stress.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 172
Gideon Grafi ◽  
Jeevan R. Singiri

The seed is the fundamental unit of the dispersal of dry, dehiscent fruits, in which the fruit splits open at maturity to allow for seed dispersal. However, dry fruits may be indehiscent and therefore represent the dispersal unit (DU). Cereals possess a one-seeded fruit, whereby the seed coat and the fruit coat are fused together to generate the caryopsis. This caryopsis may be covered by floral bracts to generate two types of DUs, namely florets, whereby the caryopsis is enclosed by the lemma and the palea (e.g., Avenasterilis) or spikelet, whereby the floret(s) is further covered by the glumes (Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides). Here, we highlight the dead coverings enclosing the caryopsis in cereals, namely the husks as an integral component of the dispersal unit that play multifaceted roles in grain biology. Thus, besides protection and dispersal means, the husks function as a rich maternal supply of proteins and metabolites for enhancing growth and development, combat potential pathogens as well as confer tolerance to abiotic stresses. These attributes might have broad implications for crop performance, plant population dynamics and diversity in ecological systems, and for conservation of genetic resources in seed banks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 702
Shuya Tan ◽  
Jie Cao ◽  
Xinli Xia ◽  
Zhonghai Li

Priming is an adaptive strategy that improves plant defenses against biotic and abiotic stresses. Stimuli from chemicals, abiotic cues, and pathogens can trigger the establishment of priming state. Priming with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a potential plant growth regulator, can enhance plant tolerance to the subsequent abiotic stresses, including salinity, drought, heat, cold, and UV-B. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the remarkable effects of ALA priming on plant physiology remain to be elucidated. Here, we summarize recent progress made in the stress tolerance conferred by ALA priming in plants and provide the underlying molecular and physiology mechanisms of this phenomenon. Priming with ALA results in changes at the physiological, transcriptional, metabolic, and epigenetic levels, and enhances photosynthesis and antioxidant capacity, as well as nitrogen assimilation, which in turn increases the resistance of abiotic stresses. However, the signaling pathway of ALA, including receptors as well as key components, is currently unknown, which hinders the deeper understanding of the defense priming caused by ALA. In the future, there is an urgent need to reveal the molecular mechanisms by which ALA regulates plant development and enhances plant defense with the help of forward genetics, multi-omics technologies, as well as genome editing technology.

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