primary control
Recently Published Documents





Adam Crepelle ◽  
Tate Fegley ◽  
Ilia Murtazashvili ◽  
Jennifer Brick Murtazashvili

Abstract In the 1970s, Elinor Ostrom and her colleagues found that neighborhood policing works better than metropolitan policing. Though Ostrom articulated design principles for self-governance, the early studies of neighborhood policing did not. In this paper, we articulate the design principles for self-governing policing, which we term Ostrom-Compliant Policing. We then apply this framework to an understudied case: policing on American Indian reservations. Policing in Indian country generally falls into one of three categories – federal policing (by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Federal Bureau of Investigation), state policing (by municipal and state police departments), and tribal policing (by tribal police departments) – that vary in the degree of centralization. Our main contribution is to show that tribal policing as it is practiced in the United States, which claims to be self-governing, is not Ostrom-Compliant. Thus, our approach offers insight into why high crime remains an ongoing challenge in much of Indian country even when tribes have primary control over policing outcomes. This does not mean centralization is better, or that self-governance of policing does not work. Rather, our research suggests that a greater tribal autonomy over-policing and meta-political changes to federal rules governing criminal jurisdictions is necessary to implement Ostromian policing.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 166
Chunsheng Guo ◽  
Yuhong Wang ◽  
Jianquan Liao

In a bipolar DC distribution network, the unbalanced load resistance, line resistance and renewable energy source will cause an unbalanced current for each node of the neutral line and lead to its unbalanced voltage. This is a unique power quality problem of bipolar DC distribution networks, which will increase the power loss in the network and lead to overcurrent protection of the neutral line in serious cases. A voltage balancer can be adopted to suppress the unbalanced voltage and current. However, the existing literature does not consider the consistent application of multiple voltage balancers in a multi-node bipolar DC distribution network. This paper creatively proposes a consensus control topology combining primary control and secondary control in a radial multi-node bipolar DC distribution network with voltage balancers. In this paper, the formulas for the positive and negative current and duty cycle of a bipolar DC distribution network with voltage balancers are derived, and improved voltage balancer modeling based on a consensus algorithm is built. The radial multi-node bipolar DC distribution network is established in MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results compare the consensus control with the traditional droop control and verify the effectiveness of the new control structure with voltage balancers.

2022 ◽  
Brian Johnson ◽  
T. G. Roberts ◽  
Olaoluwapo Ajala ◽  
Alejandro Dominguez-Garcia ◽  
Sairaj Dhople ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 70 (1) ◽  
pp. 67-78
Daniel Lehmann ◽  
Diego Hidalgo Rodriguez ◽  
Michel Brack

Abstract In the decentralized renewable driven electric energy system, economically viable battery systems become increasingly important for providing grid-related services. End of 2016, STEAG has successfully started the commercial operation of six 15 MW large scale battery systems which have been incorporated in STEAG’s primary control pool. During the commissioning phase, extensive effort has been spent in optimizing the operational efficiency of these systems with promising results. However, the operation experience has shown that there is still significant potential for improving the system behavior as well as reducing the aging of the battery cells. By analyzing historical data of the charging power associated with the state of charge management, opportunities for significantly reducing the operational costs have been identified. By means of more involved model-based control strategies, which adequately consider the specific characteristics of the battery system, and by using mathematical optimization and artificial intelligence, adapting the state of charge management strategy to new applications, these additional cost savings can be obtained. Apart from giving insights into the operational experience with large scale battery systems, the contribution of this paper lies in proposing strategies for reducing the operational costs of the battery system using classical approaches as well as mathematical optimization and neural networks. These approaches will be illustrated by simulation results.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 62
Tristram D. L. Irvine-Fynn ◽  
Pete Bunting ◽  
Joseph M. Cook ◽  
Alun Hubbard ◽  
Nicholas E. Barrand ◽  

Ice surface albedo is a primary modulator of melt and runoff, yet our understanding of how reflectance varies over time across the Greenland Ice Sheet remains poor. This is due to a disconnect between point or transect scale albedo sampling and the coarser spatial, spectral and/or temporal resolutions of available satellite products. Here, we present time-series of bare-ice surface reflectance data that span a range of length scales, from the 500 m for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer’s MOD10A1 product, to 10 m for Sentinel-2 imagery, 0.1 m spot measurements from ground-based field spectrometry, and 2.5 cm from uncrewed aerial drone imagery. Our results reveal broad similarities in seasonal patterns in bare-ice reflectance, but further analysis identifies short-term dynamics in reflectance distribution that are unique to each dataset. Using these distributions, we demonstrate that areal mean reflectance is the primary control on local ablation rates, and that the spatial distribution of specific ice types and impurities is secondary. Given the rapid changes in mean reflectance observed in the datasets presented, we propose that albedo parameterizations can be improved by (i) quantitative assessment of the representativeness of time-averaged reflectance data products, and, (ii) using temporally-resolved functions to describe the variability in impurity distribution at daily time-scales. We conclude that the regional melt model performance may not be optimally improved by increased spatial resolution and the incorporation of sub-pixel heterogeneity, but instead, should focus on the temporal dynamics of bare-ice albedo.

SOIL ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 811-825
Danielle L. Gelardi ◽  
Irfan H. Ainuddin ◽  
Devin A. Rippner ◽  
Janis E. Patiño ◽  
Majdi Abou Najm ◽  

Abstract. Biochar is purported to provide agricultural benefits when added to the soil, through changes in saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) and increased nutrient retention through chemical or physical means. Despite increased interest and investigation, there remains uncertainty regarding the ability of biochar to deliver these agronomic benefits due to differences in biochar feedstock, production method, production temperature, and soil texture. In this project, a suite of experiments was carried out using biochars of diverse feedstocks and production temperatures, in order to determine the biochar parameters which may optimize agricultural benefits. Sorption experiments were performed with seven distinct biochars to determine sorption efficiencies for ammonium and nitrate. Only one biochar effectively retained nitrate, while all biochars bound ammonium. The three biochars with the highest binding capacities (produced from almond shell at 500 and 800 ∘C (AS500 and AS800) and softwood at 500 ∘C (SW500)) were chosen for column experiments. Biochars were amended to a sandy loam and a silt loam at 0 % and 2 % (w/w), and Ksat was measured. Biochars reduced Ksat in both soils by 64 %–80 %, with the exception of AS800, which increased Ksat by 98 % in the silt loam. Breakthrough curves for nitrate and ammonium, as well as leachate nutrient concentration, were also measured in the sandy loam columns. All biochars significantly decreased the quantity of ammonium in the leachate, by 22 % to 78 %, and slowed its movement through the soil profile. Ammonium retention was linked to high cation exchange capacity and a high oxygen-to-carbon ratio, indicating that the primary control of ammonium retention in biochar-amended soils is the chemical affinity between biochar surfaces and ammonium. Biochars had little to no effect on the timing of nitrate release, and only SW500 decreased total quantity, by 27 % to 36 %. The ability of biochar to retain nitrate may be linked to high micropore specific surface area, suggesting a physical entrapment rather than a chemical binding. Together, this work sheds new light on the combined chemical and physical means by which biochar may alter soils to impact nutrient leaching and hydraulic conductivity for agricultural production.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 3556
Alexander Michalek ◽  
Admin Husic ◽  
Joshua Roundy ◽  
Amy T. Hansen

Bridge deck drainage is essential to prevent hydroplaning and maintain safety along major roadways. With projected changes in climate, current designs may not be sufficient and a better understanding of the primary controls (climate, bridge deck, and inlet design) on the hydraulic efficiency and sediment removal of drainage systems is needed to maintain public safety. To evaluate the controls on hydraulic drainage efficiency, 576 controlled laboratory experiments were conducted testing grate type (rectangular bar vs. curved vane) and downspout configuration (square vs. circular and 20 cm vs. 25 cm) across a range of flow rates, cross slopes, and longitudinal slopes. An additional 144 sediment erosion experiments were performed to identify controls on the removal of sediment. Hydraulic testing indicated that inflow driven by climate is a primary control on drainage efficiency and spread of water on a roadway. For anthropogenic controls, downspout opening size was found to be the primary control followed by longitudinal slope. Sediment removal results indicated that inflow regime and grate type were the primary controls on the sediment removal rate. Given that inflow, driven by climate, is a control on both hydraulic and sediment removal performance, hydraulic engineers should consider forecasted changes in rainfall intensity in their present-day drainage designs. We provide design guidance and discussion for developing a proactive approach to hydraulic infrastructure in the face of future climate uncertainty.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 253-254
Masahiro Toyama

Abstract While previous research addressed two distinct types of happiness, including hedonia and eudaimonia, the longitudinal associations of primary and secondary control with these happiness constructs had not been fully studied. The present study aimed to contribute to the literature by examining these associations and their age differences. Using data from the second and third waves of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS; N = 4,963, aged 28 to 84 at baseline), the present study conducted structural equation modeling analyses to examine whether primary and secondary control predicted residualized changes over around a decade in the latent constructs of hedonia and eudaimonia and whether there were age differences in these associations. The results indicate that while only primary control predicted change in eudaimonia overall, the associations of primary and secondary control with changes in hedonia and eudaimonia differed by age. Particularly, in comparing these effects for younger and older individuals, primary control predicted increases in eudaimonia only for younger individuals, whereas secondary control predicted decreases in hedonia for younger individuals but predicted increases in eudaimonia for older individuals. Considering these findings, the importance of primary and secondary control for happiness may vary between adults of different ages, which is possibly due to their life priorities that may change with age. The present study suggested potential directions of future research further examining the role of primary and secondary control for happiness and exploring potential interventions to promote happiness, for example, by modifying primary and/or secondary control for adults of different ages.

Paramet Wirasanti ◽  
Suttichai Premrudeepreechacharn

<span lang="EN-US">Regarding a potential of electric vehicles, it has been widely discussed that the electric vehicle can be participated in electricity ancillary services. Among the ancillary service products, the system frequency regulation is often considered. However, the participation in this service has to be conformed to the hierarchical frequency control architecture. Therefore, the vehicle to grid (V2G) application in this article is proposed in the term of multiple-areas of operation. The multiple-areas in this article are concerned as parking areas, which the parking areas can be implied as a V2G operator. From that, V2G operator can obtain the control signal from hierarchical control architecture for power sharing purpose. A power sharing concept between areas is fulfilled by a proposed adaptive droop factor based on battery state of charge and available capacity of parking area. A nonlinear multiplier factor is used for the droop adaptation. An available capacity is also applied as a limitation for the V2G operation. The available capacity is analyzed through a stochastic character. As the V2G application has to be cooperated with the hierarchical control functions, i.e. primary control and secondary control, then the effect of V2G on hierarchical control functions is investigated and discussed.</span>

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document