granulosa cells
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Jamie L. Stewart ◽  
Liying Gao ◽  
Jodi A. Flaws ◽  
Vitor R. G. Mercadante ◽  
Nicholas W. Dias ◽  

Nerve growth factor-β (NGF) is critical for ovulation in the mammalian ovary and is luteotrophic when administered systemically to camelids and cattle. This study aimed to assess the direct effects of purified bovine NGF on steroidogenesis and angiogenic markers in the bovine pre-ovulatory follicle. Holstein heifers (n = 2) were synchronized with a standard protocol, and heifers with a preovulatory follicle (≥ 12 mm) had the ovary containing the dominant follicle removed via colpotomy. Pre-ovulatory follicles were dissected into 24 pieces containing theca and granulosa cells that were randomly allocated into culture media supplemented with either purified bovine NGF (100 ng/mL) or untreated (control) for 72 h. The supernatant media was harvested for quantification of progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations, whereas explants were subjected to mRNA analyses to assess expression of steroidogenic and angiogenic markers. Treatment of follicle wall pieces with NGF upregulated gene expression of steroidogenic enzyme HDS17B (P = 0.04) and increased testosterone production (P < 0.01). However, NGF treatment did not alter production of progesterone (P = 0.81) or estradiol (P = 0.14). Consistently, gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes responsible for producing these hormones (STAR, CYP11A1, HSD3B, CYP17A1, CYP19A1) were unaffected by NGF treatment (P ≥ 0.31). Treatment with NGF downregulated gene expression of the angiogenic enzyme FGF2 (P = 0.02) but did not alter PGES (P = 0.63), VEGFA (P = 0.44), and ESR1 (P = 0.77). Collectively, these results demonstrate that NGF from seminal plasma may interact directly on the theca and granulosa cells of the bovine pre-ovulatory follicle to stimulate testosterone production, which may be secondary to theca cell proliferation. Additionally, decreased FGF2 expression in NGF-treated follicle wall cells suggests hastened onset of follicle wall cellular remodeling that occurs during early luteal development.

Autophagy ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Tong Shao ◽  
Hanni Ke ◽  
Ran Liu ◽  
Lan Xu ◽  
Shuang Han ◽  

Kanadi Sumapraja ◽  
Andon Hestiantoro ◽  
Isabella Kurnia Liem ◽  
Arief Boediono ◽  
Teuku Z Jacoeb

Background: The umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium (UC-MSCs-CM) produces secretomes with anti-apoptotic properties, and has the potential to prevent apoptosis of granulosa cells (GC) during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Objective: To observe the effect of UC-MSCs-CM on the interaction between pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and the influence of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) production in GC. Materials and Methods: UC-MSCs-CM was collected from umbilical cord stem cell culture on passage 4. GC from 23 women who underwent in vitro fertilization were cultured and exposed to UC-MSCs-CM for 24 hr. Then RNA of the GC was extracted and the mRNA expression of BCL-2 associated X (BAX), survivin and GDF9 were analysed using quantitative real-time PCR. The spent culture media of the GC were collected for measurement of insulin growth factor 1 using ELISA. Results: The expression of BAX was significantly different after UC-MSCs-CM exposure (4.09E-7 vs. 3.74E-7, p = 0.02). No significant changes occurred in survivin, BAX/survivin ratio, and GDF9 expression after UC-MSCs-CM exposure (p > 0.05). The IGF-1 level of the CM was significantly higher after the CM was used as a culture medium for GC (2.28 vs. 3.07 ± 1.72, p ≤ 0.001). A significant positive correlation was found between survivin and GDF9 (r = 0.966, p ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: IGF-1 produced by UC-MSCs-CM can work in paracrine fashion through the IGF receptor, which can inhibit BAX and maintain GDF9 production. Moreover, under the influence of UC-MSCs-CM, GC are also capable of producing IGF-1, which can impact GC through autocrine processes. Key words: Conditioned medium, BAX, Survivin, GDF9, IGF-1.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Diyan Li ◽  
Chunyou Ning ◽  
Jiaman Zhang ◽  
Yujie Wang ◽  
Qianzi Tang ◽  

AbstractFolliculogenesis is a complex biological process involving a central oocyte and its surrounding somatic cells. Three-dimensional chromatin architecture is an important transcription regulator; however, little is known about its dynamics and role in transcriptional regulation of granulosa cells during chicken folliculogenesis. We investigate the transcriptomic dynamics of chicken granulosa cells over ten follicular stages and assess the chromatin architecture dynamics and how it influences gene expression in granulosa cells at three key stages: the prehierarchical small white follicles, the first largest preovulatory follicles, and the postovulatory follicles. Our results demonstrate the consistency between the global reprogramming of chromatin architecture and the transcriptomic divergence during folliculogenesis, providing ample evidence for compartmentalization rearrangement, variable organization of topologically associating domains, and rewiring of the long-range interaction between promoter and enhancers. These results provide key insights into avian reproductive biology and provide a foundational dataset for the future in-depth functional characterization of granulosa cells.

Anja Baufeld ◽  
Jens Vanselow

Abstractl-lactate acts as a signaling molecule in bovine granulosa cells (GCs). The initiated alterations depend on the transport of l-lactate into the cells via monocarboxylate transporters. In the present study, we further elucidated the intracellular actions of l-lactate and tested whether the PKA signaling pathway is involved. Therefore, we treated cultured bovine GCs with l-lactate and PKA inhibitors H-89 and KT5720, and with an activator of PKA, 6-Bnz-cAMP. l-lactate treatment resulted in decreased estradiol production and downregulation of CYP19A1, FSHR, and LHCGR as well as in the upregulation of the markers of early luteinization PTX3, RGS2, and VNN2. These specific l-lactate effects were almost completely abolished by pre-treatment of the GCs with both inhibitors of PKA signaling. In addition, also the l-lactate-induced upregulation of LDHA and of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 and SLC16A7 was abolished after PKA inhibition. An activation of the PKA with 6-Bnz-cAMP revealed similar effects on the gene expression like l-lactate alone. In summary, the presented data demonstrate that l-lactate-induced effects on GCs are mediated via PKA signaling thus supporting the role of l-lactate as signaling molecule during the folliculo-luteal transition.

A. Smekalova ◽  
O. Mityashova ◽  
O. Aleinikova ◽  
E. Montvila ◽  
I. Lebedeva

Somatotropic hormone (STH) is an important positive modulator of ovarian function in mammals. Local production of STH and the expression of the corresponding specific receptors were also detected in hen ovarian follicles, which indicates the participation of this hormone in the endocrine/paracrine control of folliculogenesis in birds. Nevertheless, the role of STH in the regulation of growth of avian follicles at the final stage of maturation is still not clear.Objective: To study in vitro the effect of STH on the proliferative activity and apoptotic changes of granulosa and theca cells from preovulatory follicles of domestic hens.Materials and methods. Young laying hens aged 34-35 weeks with a long clutch were used in the experiments. Granulosa and theca cells were isolated from the largest yellow follicle in the hierarchy (F1). The cells were cultured in a medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum until a monolayer was formed, and then for 24 h in the medium without serum in the absence (control) or in the presence of STH at various concentrations (1-100 ng/ml). The proliferative activity and apoptotic changes in the cells were assessed by immunocytochemical assay, based on the expression level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen PCNA and pro-apoptotic protein Bax, respectively.Results. The proportion of PCNA-positive granulosa cells increased 1.3-1.8 times (P<0.01-0.05) as compared to control with increasing the content of STH in the medium to 10-100 ng/ml. Furthermore, within this concentration range, the studied hormone reduced 1.2-1.6 times (P<0.05) the relative number of granulosa cells with the positive reaction to Bax. The sensitivity of theca cells to the growth-stimulating effect of STH was lower than that of granulosa cells. Such the effect of STH led to an increase in the proportion of PCNA-positive thecal cells by 1.2-1.3 times (P<0.05) and was detected only at concentrations of 25 and 100 ng/ml. Meanwhile, STH (25-100 ng/ml) increased 1.3 times (P<0.05) the level of Bax expression in theca cells.Conclusions. The results of the present study indicate the stimulating effect of STH in vitro on the proliferative activity of granulosa and theca cells from the most mature hen preovulatory follicle. In addition, STH is able to reduce the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax in granulosa cells and increase this expression in thecal cells. Thus, the data obtained indicate the possible participation of STH in the regulation of growth and development of follicles at the final stage of maturation during the period of maximum egg-laying intensity in laying hens.

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