Nerve Growth Factor
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260496
Siravit Sitprija ◽  
Lawan Chanhome ◽  
Onrapak Reamtong ◽  
Tipparat Thiangtrongjit ◽  
Taksa Vasaruchapong ◽  

The venomic profile of Asian mountain pit viper Ovophis monticola is clarified in the present study. Using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, 247 different proteins were identified in crude venom of O. monticola found in Thailand. The most abundant proteins were snake venom metalloproteases (SVMP) (36.8%), snake venom serine proteases (SVSP) (31.1%), and phospholipases A2 (PLA2) (12.1%). Less abundant proteins included L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) (5.7%), venom nerve growth factor (3.6%), nucleic acid degrading enzymes (3.2%), C-type lectins (CTL) (1.6%), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP) (1.2%) and disintegrin (1.2%). The immunoreactivity of this viper’s venom to a monovalent antivenom against green pit viper Trimeresurus albolabris, or to a polyvalent antivenom against hemotoxic venom was investigated by indirect ELISA and two-dimensional (2D) immunoblotting. Polyvalent antivenom showed substantially greater reactivity levels than monovalent antivenom. A titer for the monovalent antivenom was over 1:1.28x107 dilution while that of polyvalent antivenom was 1:5.12x107. Of a total of 89 spots comprising 173 proteins, 40 spots of predominantly SVMP, SVSP and PLA2 were specific antigens for antivenoms. The 49 unrecognized spots containing 72 proteins were characterized as non-reactive proteins, and included certain types of CTLs and CRISPs. These neglected venom constituents could limit the effectiveness of antivenom-based therapy currently available for victims of pit viper envenomation.

2021 ◽  
Qianqian Chen ◽  
Qianyan Liu ◽  
Pan Wang ◽  
Tianmei Qian ◽  
Xinghui Wang ◽  

Abstract Proper supporting factor can possess the ability to enhance neuron regeneration, for instance, neurotrophic effects especially nerve growth factor (NGF). However, the in vivo applications of NGF are largely limited by its intrinsic disadvantages. Considering that let-7 targets and regulates NGF, and let-7 is also the core and harbor regulators in peripheral nerve repair and regeneration, we evaluated the potential application in clinical. We firstly screened the let-7a as the most ideal let-7 family molecular by gene expression analysis and functional approach. We further evaluated the in vivo safety, the cell permeability of 3 main cells in regeneration micro-environment, and the morphological and functional indicators. Our study provides an essential basis for in vivo application of let-7 and pictured a vision for the clinical translation of miRNA as a prospective alternative for regenerative medicine.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 6023
Christina Hassiepen ◽  
Aashish Soni ◽  
Ines Rudolf ◽  
Vivian Boron ◽  
Sebastian Oeck ◽  

High expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase TrkA/NTRK1 is associated with a favorable outcome in several solid tumors of childhood including neuroblastoma. During development, TrkA/NTRK1 governs migration and differentiation of neuronal precursor cells, while it is associated with mitotic dysfunction and altered DNA damage response, among others, in neuroblastoma. Here, we used human neuroblastoma cell lines with inducible TrkA/NTRK1 expression to mechanistically explore the role of TrkA/NTRK1 signaling in checkpoint activation after DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation (IR). TrkA/NTRK1 activated cells showed increased short-term cell viability upon IR compared to vector control cells. This was accompanied by a deficient G2/M-checkpoint at both low (1 Gy) and high doses (4 Gy) of IR. In a tightly controlled setting, we confirmed that this effect was strictly dependent on activation of TrkA/NTRK1 by its ligand, nerve growth factor (NGF). TrkA/NTRK1-expressing cells displayed impaired ATM and CHK1 phosphorylation, resulting in stabilization of CDC25B. In line with these findings, ATM or ATR inhibition recapitulated the effects of TrkA/NTRK1 activation on the IR-induced G2/M-checkpoint. In conclusion, we here provide first evidence for a previously unrecognized function of NTRK signaling in checkpoint regulation and the response to IR.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Yan Ke ◽  
Lina Huang ◽  
Bingheng Chen ◽  
Jing Sima ◽  
Jiaguo Cao ◽  

With an increasing incidence in recent years, glaucoma (GL) has gradually become a global public health problem for humans of all ages. Nerve growth factor (NGF) eye drops, with well-documented stable effect in the treatment of GL, can be potentiated by the administration of NGF drugs via ultrasound contrast agent (UCA). This study analyzed the efficacy of NGF+UCA on GL mice and the influencing mechanism on retinal ganglion cells and further explored the pathological changes of GL mice under different UCA irradiation duration. In this study, we established GL mouse models and treated the mouse with NGF+UCA. The effect of NGF+UCA on intraocular pressure in mice was observed; the flash visual evoked potential of mice was compared; the changes of retinal structure, inflammation index, and oxidative stress index were observed, and autophagic protein levels were tested. Finally, the influence of UCA irradiation duration on GL symptoms was observed. The results showed that the intraocular pressure of mice decreased greatly, while their flash visual evoked potential and nervous layer of retina increased, and their ganglion cells showed stronger proliferation activity and weaker apoptosis and autophagy, indicating that UCA-mediated NGF can strongly improve the pathological condition of GL mice. In addition, PI3K/AKT pathway-associated proteins were inhibited in retina under the intervention of NGF+UCA, which further suggests that the influence of UCA-mediated NGF on GL is achieved by inhibiting autophagy of retinal ganglion cells and enhancing their apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Moreover, we found that in the treatment of GL, three weeks of UCA irradiation and six weeks caused no significant difference in the pathological manifestations and ganglion cells of mice, while after six weeks of irradiation, the level of NLRP3 in mice increased. In conclusion, UCA-mediated NGF can significantly improve the pathological condition of GL mice and improve the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells by inhibiting autophagy, which is associated with the inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signal pathway. In terms of selection of UCA irradiation duration, three weeks of irradiation is enough to yield good clinical results.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1561
Igor Manzhulo ◽  
Olga Manzhulo ◽  
Anna Tyrtyshnaia ◽  
Arina Ponomarenko ◽  
Sophia Konovalova ◽  

The present study demonstrates that synaptamide (N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine), an endogenous metabolite of docosahexaenoic acid, when administered subcutaneously (4 mg/kg/day, 14 days), exhibits analgesic activity and promotes cognitive recovery in the rat sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. We analyzed the dynamics of GFAP-positive astroglia and S100β-positive astroglia activity, the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF), and two subunits of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR1 and NMDAR2A) in the hippocampi of the experimental animals. Hippocampal neurogenesis was evaluated by immunohistochemical detection of DCX. Analysis of N-acylethanolamines in plasma and in the brain was performed using the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. In vitro and in vivo experiments show that synaptamide (1) reduces cold allodynia, (2) improves working memory and locomotor activity, (3) stabilizes neurogenesis and astroglial activity, (4) enhances the expression of NGF and NMDAR1, (5) increases the concentration of Ca2+ in astrocytes, and (6) increases the production of N-acylethanolamines. The results of the present study demonstrate that synaptamide affects the activity of hippocampal astroglia, resulting in faster recovery after CCI.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
Huey-En Tzeng ◽  
Syuan-Ling Lin ◽  
Louis Anoop Thadevoos ◽  
Ming-Yu Lien ◽  
Wei-Hung Yang ◽  

AbstractChondrosarcoma is a malignancy of soft tissue and bone that has a high propensity to metastasize to distant organs. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is critical for neuronal cell growth, apoptosis, and differentiation, and also appears to promote the progression and metastasis of several different types of tumors, although the effects of NGF upon chondrosarcoma mechanisms are not very clear. We report that NGF facilitates lysyl oxidase (LOX)-dependent cellular migration and invasion in human chondrosarcoma cells, and that NGF overexpression enhances lung metastasis in a mouse model of chondrosarcoma. NGF-induced stimulation of LOX production and cell motility occurs through the inhibition of miR-149-5p expression, which was reversed by PI3K, Akt, and mTOR inhibitors and their respective short interfering RNAs. Notably, levels of NGF and LOX expression correlated with tumor stage in human chondrosarcoma samples. Thus, NGF appears to be a worthwhile therapeutic target for metastatic chondrosarcoma.

2021 ◽  
Fengchun Ye ◽  
David Alvarez-Carbonell ◽  
Kien Nguyen ◽  
Saba Valadkhan ◽  
Konstantin Leskov ◽  

Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection of microglial cells in the brain leads to chronic neuroinflammation, which is antecedent to the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in the majority of patients. Productively HIV infected microglia release multiple neurotoxins including proinflammatory cytokines and HIV proteins such as envelope glycoprotein (gp120) and transactivator of transcription (Tat). However, powerful counteracting silencing mechanisms in microglial cells result in the rapid shutdown of HIV expression to limit neuronal damage. Here we investigated whether the Nerve Growth Factor IB-like nuclear receptor Nurr1 (NR4A2), which is a repressor of inflammation in the brain, acts to directly restrict HIV expression. HIV silencing was substantially enhanced by Nurr1 agonists in both immortalized human microglial cells ( hµglia ) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-derived human microglial cells (iMG). Overexpression of Nurr1 led to viral suppression, whereas by contrast, knock down (KD) of endogenous Nurr1 blocked HIV silencing. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that Nurr1 mediates recruitment of the CoREST/HDAC1/G9a/EZH2 transcription repressor complex to HIV promoter resulting in epigenetic silencing of active HIV. Transcriptomic studies demonstrated that in addition to repressing HIV transcription, Nurr1 also downregulated numerous cellular genes involved in inflammation, cell cycle, and metabolism, thus promoting HIV latency and microglial homoeostasis. Thus, Nurr1 plays a pivotal role in modulating the cycles of proviral reactivation by cytokines and potentiating the proviral transcriptional shutdown. These data highlight the therapeutic potential of Nurr1 agonists for inducing HIV silencing and microglial homeostasis and amelioration of the neuroinflammation associated with HAND.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Luigi Manni ◽  
Giorgio Conti ◽  
Antonio Chiaretti ◽  
Marzia Soligo

Since the 1980s, the development of a pharmacology based on nerve growth factor (NGF) has been postulated for the therapy of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This hypothesis was based on the rescuing effect of the neurotrophin on the cholinergic phenotype of the basal forebrain neurons, primarily compromised during the development of AD. Subsequently, the use of NGF was put forward to treat a broader spectrum of neurological conditions affecting the central nervous system, such as Parkinson’s disease, degenerative retinopathies, severe brain traumas and neurodevelopmental dysfunctions. While supported by solid rational assumptions, the progress of a pharmacology founded on these hypotheses has been hampered by the difficulty of conveying NGF towards the brain parenchyma without resorting to invasive and risky delivery methods. At the end of the last century, it was shown that NGF administered intranasally to the olfactory epithelium was able to spread into the brain parenchyma. Notably, after such delivery, pharmacologically relevant concentration of exogenous NGF was found in brain areas located at considerable distances from the injection site along the rostral-caudal axis. These observations paved the way for preclinical characterization and clinical trials on the efficacy of intranasal NGF for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and of the consequences of brain trauma. In this review, a summary of the preclinical and clinical studies published to date will be attempted, as well as a discussion about the mechanisms underlying the efficacy and the possible development of the pharmacology based on intranasal conveyance of NGF to the brain.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Yulia V. Dobryakova ◽  
Yulia S. Spivak ◽  
Maria I. Zaichenko ◽  
Alena A. Koryagina ◽  
Vladimir A. Markevich ◽  

One of the aspects of Alzheimer disease is loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain, which leads to development of cognitive impairment. Here, we used a model of cholinergic deficit caused by immunotoxin 192IgG-saporin to study possible beneficial effects of adeno-associated virus (AAV)–mediated overexpression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the hippocampus of rats with cholinergic deficit. Suspension of recombinant AAV carrying control cassette or cassette with NGF was injected into both hippocampi of control rats or rats with cholinergic deficit induced by intraseptal injection of 192IgG-saporin. Analysis of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunostaining showed that NGF overexpression in the hippocampus did not prevent strong loss of ChAT-positive neurons in the septal area caused by the immunotoxin. Induction of cholinergic deficit in the hippocampus led to impairments in Y-maze and beam-walking test but did not affect behavioral indices in the T-maze, open field test, and inhibitory avoidance training. NGF overexpression in the rats with cholinergic deficit restored normal animal behavior in Y-maze and beam-walking test. Recording of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in vivo in the hippocampal CA1 area showed that induction of cholinergic deficit decreased magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) and prevented a decrease in paired-pulse ratio after LTP induction, and NGF overexpression reversed these negative changes in hippocampal synaptic characteristics. The beneficial effect of NGF was not associated with compensatory changes in the number of cells that express NGF receptors TrkA and NGFR in the hippocampus and medial septal area. NGF overexpression also did not prevent a 192IgG-saporin–induced decrease in the activity of acetylcholine esterase in the hippocampus. We conclude that NGF overexpression in the hippocampus under conditions of cholinergic deficit induces beneficial effects which are not related to maintenance of cholinergic function.

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