akt signaling pathway
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 947-952
Jun Zhang ◽  
Yuying Gao ◽  
Peng Chen ◽  
Yu Zhou ◽  
Sheng Guo ◽  

This study was to explore the mechanism by how exosomes (exo) derived from BMSCs affects cardiomyocyte apoptosis. BMSCs were isolated and incubated with cardiomyocytes while the cardiomyocytes were exposed to sevoflurane or DMSO treatment. Apoptotic cells were calculated and level of apoptosis related proteins was detected by Western blot. Through transfection with microRNA-(miRNA)-312 inhibitor, we evaluated the effect of BMSC-exo on the sevoflurane-induced apoptosis. Sevoflurane significantly inhibited the viability of cardiomyocytes and induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Besides, sevoflurane decreased the expression of miR-312 and enhanced Bax expression in cardiomyocytes through restraining the phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK. Treatment with BMSC-exo, however, activated MAPK/ERK signaling by up-regulating miR-312, thereby inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis, promoting cardiomyocyte proliferation, and elevating the level of Bcl-2. In conclusion, BMSC-exo-derived miR-312 inhibits sevoflurane-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by activating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 558-563
Boxian Zhao ◽  
Weiguo Zhu

Multiple miRNAs are differentially expressed in gastric cancer (GC). Herein, this study aims to investigate miR-455’s role in GC and its mechanism. Exosomes (exo) separated from BMSCs after transfection were co-cultured with either phagocytes, GC cells (NCI-N87 cell), or macrophages combined with NCI-N87cells (mixed group) followed by analysis of the expression of PTEN, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, and PI3K, and AKT by RT-qPCR and Western blot. Increased miR-455 expression was observed in GC cells upon transfection. GC cells in the mixed group relative to NCI-N87 group exhibited a lower cell migration and invasion and impaired proliferative capacity (p < 0.05), accompanied with higher expressions of N-cadherin, E-cadherin, PI3K, and AKT, and decreased level of PTEN (p < 0.05). The combined treatment resulted in a higher phagocytic rate (12.38±0.21%) and phagocytic index (14.29±2.11%) compared to treatment with only phagocytes (p < 0.05). In conclusion, BMSC-derived exosomal miR-455 inhibits the growth of GC cells and promotes the phagocytosis through inactivating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 393-398
Ming Yan ◽  
Ringxing Bai ◽  
Hongyi Zhang ◽  
Wenmao Yan

SDF-1α activity is closely related to information transmission and cell migration when contributing to lymphatic metastasis in various tumors. Herein, we explored the interaction among SDF-1α, CXCR4 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in gastric cancer (GC) and their roles in this disorder. Human GC cells KATO-III and BMSCs were co-cultured without contact. GC cells were transfected with SDF-1α, CXCR4 inhibitor, and PI3K inhibitor. After examining the efficiency of transfection, cell migration was evaluated using Transwell chamber, and expression SDF-1α, CD133, and CXCR4 was determined by RT-qPCR. With transfection rate of 98%, the number of migrated cells reduced upon inhibition of CXCR4 and PI3K. Luciferase activity in 565 nm are high than CXCR4 inhibition group. (p < 0.05). Likewise, up-regulation of SDF-1α increased the expression of SDF-1 (0.825±0.061), CD133 (0.875±0.058), CXCR4 (0.801±0.052), and Akt (0.852±0.062), compared to the blank group, CXCR4 inhibition group and PI3K inhibition group (p < 0.05). Down-regulation of CXCR4 and PI3K, however, decreased the expression insignificantly (p > 0.05). Collectively, up-regulation of SDF-1α activates CXCR4 signaling pathway of BMSCs and stimulates its downstream PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and and increases the expression of CD133, thereby promoting malignant behaviors of GC cells.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-18
Li Li ◽  
Da Wei ◽  
Junying Zhang ◽  
Rong Deng ◽  
Jinhai Tang ◽  

Objective. Studies revealed an important role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in multiple cancers, including breast cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the role and function of miR-641 in breast cancer. Methods. The expression level of miR-641 in breast cancer cell lines (Hs-578T, MCF7, HCC1937, and MAD-MB-231) was determined by real-time PCR. Functional analyses, including CCK-8 assay, transwell assay, wound-healing assay, and apoptosis detection, were carried out to explore the roles of miRNA-641 in malignant behaviors of breast cancer. Luciferase report assay was used to investigate the regulatory association of miRNA-641 with its potential targets. Results. The expression levels of miR-641 were downregulated, while the expression levels of nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1 (NUCKS1) were increased in breast cancer cell lines. The in vitro results showed that miR-641 repressed proliferation and migration/invasion and promoted apoptosis of breast cancer cells. NUCKS1, a positive regulator of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3K)/protein-serine-threonine kinase (AKT) pathway, was confirmed as a direct target of miR-641. The of treatment of the PI3K agonist, 740Y-P, could abrogate the antioncogenic potentials of miR-641 in breast cancer cells. Conclusion. miR-641 functioned as a tumor suppressor through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway via targeting NUCKS1 in breast cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
Mohammad Rafi Khezri ◽  
Reza Varzandeh ◽  
Morteza Ghasemnejad-Berenji

AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is associated with a high mortality rate. The majority of deaths in this disease are caused by ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) followed by cytokine storm and coagulation complications. Although alterations in the level of the number of coagulation factors have been detected in samples from COVID-19 patients, the direct molecular mechanism which has been involved in this pathologic process has not been explored yet. The PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is an intracellular pathway which plays a central role in cell survival. Also, in recent years the association between this pathway and coagulopathies has been well clarified. Therefore, based on the evidence on over-activity of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in SARS-CoV-2 infection, in the current review, the probable role of this cellular pathway as a therapeutic target for the prevention of coagulation complications in patients with COVID-19 is discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Zhihui Cai ◽  
Huajun Wang ◽  
Jun Jiang ◽  
Shichang Xiao ◽  
Jianpeng Xiao ◽  

Osteoporosis is a degenerative disease that endangers human health. At present, chemical drugs used for osteoporosis have serious side effects. Therefore, it is valuable to search herbs with high safety and good curative effect in antiosteoporosis. Erzhi formula (EZF), an ancient classic compound, has been reported to have a beneficial effect in antiosteoporosis, but its mechanism is unclear. In this paper, the active compounds of EZF were found in Systems Pharmacology Database, and gene targets related to osteoporosis were obtained in GeneCards. The GO functional and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed by Metascape. The network of “components-targets-signal pathway” was constructed by Cytoscape. Next, molecular docking between the active components and hub genes related to the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway was conducted by Autodock. In the verification experiment, the zebrafish induced by prednisolone (PNSL) was used to reproduce glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) model, and then the reversal effects of EZF were systematically evaluated according to the behavior, skull staining area, bone mineralization area (BMA), average optical density (AOD), and cumulative optical density (COD). Finally, it was shown that 24 components in EZF could regulate 39 common gene targets to exert antiosteoporosis effect. Besides, the main regulatory mechanisms of EZF were 4 signaling pathways: PI3K-Akt, JAK-STAT, AGE-RAGE, and cancer pathway. In PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, wedelolactone, dimethyl wedelolactone, specnuezhenide, ursolic acid, acacetin, beta-sitosterol, apigenin, and kaempferol can bind tightly with EGF, IL-2, and IL-4 genes. Compared with the model group, the moving distance, swimming speed, and cumulative swimming time of zebrafish in EZF group were significantly increased ( P < 0.05 ). Meanwhile, the BMA and COD of zebrafish were significantly improved after the intervention of EZF ( P < 0.05 ). In summary, the 24 components of EZF exert their antiosteoporosis effects by regulating 39 related gene targets, among which the PI3K signaling pathway is crucial. EZF can promote bone formation and reversed GIOP through “multicomponent/multitarget/multipathway” and the medium dose of EZF may be the most suitable concentration for the treatment of GIOP in zebrafish model.

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