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Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 527
Oskar Juszczyk ◽  
Juliusz Juszczyk ◽  
Sławomir Juszczyk ◽  
Josu Takala

A harmful impact of climate change and global warming has concerned various sectors of the international community. Numerous energy policies aiming at climate change mitigation have been implemented on a national and global scale. Renewable energy technologies (RETs) play a critical role in enhancing sustainable solutions that significantly limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Such innovative technologies can facilitate energy transition through providing, e.g., energy security, sustainable development, and effective usage of indigenous resources. However, the commercialization of RETs is extremely challenging. The barriers can be of a different nature, although this study focused on socioeconomic and regulatory issues. There is ample evidence that energy policies play a central role in supporting adoption of renewables. It is also claimed that RETs require the whole ecosystem to support their successful diffusion. In this study, we explored multifarious barriers for widespread RET diffusion in two European Union countries, Finland and Poland, indicating the most common barriers existing in the literature as well as analyzing major bottlenecks from the viewpoint of renewable energy companies’ executives. We also present statistics of the most commonly used RETs in these countries in order to express the diffusion issues more appropriately. The research shows that inflexible, ineffective, and excessive regulatory frameworks; limited financing options; as well as an insufficient level of societal awareness have been seen as the main bottlenecks for RET diffusion in both countries. The outcomes of this study provide useful insights for the researchers in the energy transition field as well as practical managerial and regulatory implications aimed at overcoming these challenges.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Zhennan Xiao ◽  
Bo Long ◽  
Zeji Zhao

Background and Objectives. Opioids are essential in pain management after laparoscopic colorectal surgery while large dose may induce constipation and pneumonia. Ample evidence has demonstrated that postoperative analgesia can improve sleep quality. But the effects of improvement in sleep quality on postoperative pain have yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of improving preoperative sleep quality by zolpidem on intraoperative analgesia and postoperative pain. Methods. A prospective, randomized study was conducted with 88 patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. The experimental group (S group, n = 44) was given 10 mg of zolpidem tartrate one night before the surgical procedure, while no medication was given to the control group (C group, n = 44). The primary outcome was the intraoperative remifentanil consumption. Sufentanil consumption, average patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) effective press times, the visual analog scale (VAS) scores, and incidences of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) were recorded at 6 h (T1), 12 h (T2), and 24 h (T3) postoperatively. Results. The intraoperative remifentanil consumption was significantly lower in the S group than that in the C group ( p < 0.01 ). Sufentanil consumption at 6 h and 12 h postoperatively was significantly lower in the S group than that in the C group ( p < 0.05 ); average PCA effective press times and VAS scores, at 6 h and 12 h postoperatively, were significantly lower in the S group than those in the C group ( p < 0.01 ); differences between groups 24 h postoperatively were not significant. No significant between-group difference was noted in the incidence of nausea and vomiting. Conclusion. Improving patients’ sleep quality the night before surgical procedure by zolpidem can decrease the usage of intraoperative analgesics and reduce postoperative pain.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Diyan Li ◽  
Chunyou Ning ◽  
Jiaman Zhang ◽  
Yujie Wang ◽  
Qianzi Tang ◽  

AbstractFolliculogenesis is a complex biological process involving a central oocyte and its surrounding somatic cells. Three-dimensional chromatin architecture is an important transcription regulator; however, little is known about its dynamics and role in transcriptional regulation of granulosa cells during chicken folliculogenesis. We investigate the transcriptomic dynamics of chicken granulosa cells over ten follicular stages and assess the chromatin architecture dynamics and how it influences gene expression in granulosa cells at three key stages: the prehierarchical small white follicles, the first largest preovulatory follicles, and the postovulatory follicles. Our results demonstrate the consistency between the global reprogramming of chromatin architecture and the transcriptomic divergence during folliculogenesis, providing ample evidence for compartmentalization rearrangement, variable organization of topologically associating domains, and rewiring of the long-range interaction between promoter and enhancers. These results provide key insights into avian reproductive biology and provide a foundational dataset for the future in-depth functional characterization of granulosa cells.

Alan Mark Weinstein

The renal response to acute hyperkalemia is mediated by increased K secretion within connecting tubule (CNT), flux that is modulated by tubular effects (e.g. aldosterone) in conjunction with increased luminal flow. There is ample evidence that peritubular K blunts Na reabsorption in proximal tubule, thick ascending Henle limb, and distal convoluted tubule (DCT). While any such reduction may augment CNT delivery, the relative contribution of each is uncertain. The kidney model of this lab was recently advanced with representation of cortical labyrinth and medullary ray. Model tubules capture the impact of hyperkalemia to blunt Na reabsorption within each upstream segment. However, this forces the question of the extent to which increased Na delivery is transmitted past macula densa and its tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) signal. Beyond increasing macula densa Na delivery, peritubular K is predicted to raise cytosolic Cl and depolarize macula densa cells, which may also activate TGF. Thus, although upstream reduction in Na transport may be larger, it appears that the DCT effect is critical to increasing CNT delivery. Beyond the flow effect, hyperkalemia reduces ammoniagenesis and reduced ammoniagenesis enhances K excretion. What this model provides is a possible mechanism. When cortical NH4 is taken up via peritubular Na,K(NH4)-ATPase, it acidifies principal cells. Consequently, reduced ammoniagenesis increases principal cell pH, thereby increasing conductance of both ENaC and ROMK, enhancing K excretion. In this model, aldosterone's effect on principal cells, diminished DCT Na reabsorption, and reduced ammoniagenesis, all provide relatively equal and additive contributions to renal K excretion.

Renu Minda

I wish to suggest a physiological function for alpha-synuclein (a-syn) that has the potential to explain its role in pathology. Intraneuronal proteinaceous Lewy Bodies (LBs), the pathological hallmark of Parkinson&rsquo;s disease and other synucleinopathies, consist majorly of a-syn. Ample evidence suggests that LBs are not the result of simple amyloidosis of cytosolic a-syn. Benign soluble unstructured a-syn gets converted into toxic species which preferentially accumulates in LBs. But how these aberrant a-syn molecules are produced in the cytosol, is still not clear. The present hypothesis is an effort to relate a metabolic reaction specific to neuronal function, that is, phase transition, with the pathobiology of a-syn. During high frequency stimulation, which entails rapid phase transition reactions at the presynaptic compartment, aberrant interaction of a-syn with the membrane occasionally generates toxic a-syn molecules. My conjecture is that the physiological function of a-syn is to modulate membrane fluidity by a process wherein it goes through a conformation cycle driven by a flux of energy from mitochondria. It is the range of toxic a-syn produced during aberrant phase transition reaction that is responsible for pathology, not the normal a-syn that reenters the conformation cycle, thereby, resolving the paradox of the Janus-face of a-syn.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 436
Lucía Barallat ◽  
María Arregui ◽  
Sandra Fernandez-Villar ◽  
Blanca Paniagua ◽  
Andrés Pascual-La Rocca

There is ample evidence to support the use of endocrowns to restore endodontic teeth. However, the influence of the position of the interproximal margins on fracture strength has not yet been studied. The aim was to determine the relationship between the apicocoronal position of the interproximal restorative margins and fracture resistance in nonvital teeth restored with CAD/CAM endocrown overlays. Forty extracted human maxillary premolars were prepared for endocrown overlay restorations without ferrule on the interproximal aspects and classified according to the position of the interproximal restoration margins in relation to the alveolar crest: 2 mm (group A), 1 mm (group B), 0.5 mm (group C), and 0 mm (group D). Fracture strength was measured using a universal testing machine applying a compressive force to the longitudinal tooth axis. Group A had a mean fracture resistance of 859.61 (±267.951) N, group B 1053.9 (±333.985) N, group C 1124.6 (±291.172) N, and group D 780.67 (±183.269) N, with statistical differences between groups. Group C had the highest values for fracture strength compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). The location of the interproximal margins appears to influence the fracture resistance of CAD/CAM endocrown overlays. A distance of 0.5 mm between the interproximal margin and the alveolar crest was associated with increased fracture resistance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Natalia V. Zhukova ◽  
Marina G. Eliseikina ◽  
Evgeniy S. Balakirev ◽  
Francisco J. Ayala

AbstractThe discovery of symbiotic associations extends our understanding of the biological diversity in the aquatic environment and their impact on the host’s ecology. Of particular interest are nudibranchs that unprotected by a shell and feed mainly on sponges. The symbiotic association of the nudibranch Rostanga alisae with bacteria was supported by ample evidence, including an analysis of cloned bacterial 16S rRNA genes and a fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis, and microscopic observations. A total of 74 clones belonging to the phyla α-, β-, γ-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria were identified. FISH confirmed that bacteriocytes were packed with Bradyrhizobium, Maritalea, Labrenzia, Bulkholderia, Achromobacter, and Stenotrophomonas mainly in the foot and notum epidermis, and also an abundance of Synechococcus cyanobacteria in the intestinal epithelium. An ultrastructural analysis showed several bacterial morphotypes of bacteria in epidermal cells, intestine epithelium, and in mucus layer covering the mollusk body. The high proportion of typical bacterial fatty acids in R. alisae indicated that symbiotic bacteria make a substantial contribution to its nutrition. Thus, the nudibranch harbors a high diversity of specific endo- and extracellular bacteria, which previously unknown as symbionts of marine invertebrates that provide the mollusk with essential nutrients. They can provide chemical defense against predators.

2022 ◽  
Yudian Cai ◽  
Zhiyong Jin ◽  
Chenxi Zhai ◽  
Huiming Wang ◽  
Jijun Wang ◽  

Abstract Metacognition refers to the ability to be aware of one’s own cognition. Ample evidence indicates that metacognition in the human primate is highly dissociable from cognition, specialized across domains, and subserved by distinct neural substrates. However, these aspects remain relatively understudied in macaque monkeys. In the present study, we investigated the functionality of macaque metacognition by combining a confidence proxy, hierarchical Bayesian meta-d′ computational modelling, and a single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation technique. We found that Brodmann area 46d (BA46d) played a critical role in supporting metacognition independent of task performance; we also found that the critical role in of this region in meta-calculation was time-sensitive. Additionally, we report that macaque metacognition is highly domain-specific with respect to memory and perception decisions. These findings carry implications for our understanding of metacognitive introspection within the primate lineage.

2022 ◽  
Flavio Pazos Obregón ◽  
Diego Silvera ◽  
Pablo Soto ◽  
Patricio Yankilevich ◽  
Gustavo Guerberoff ◽  

Abstract The function of most genes is unknown. The best results in automated function prediction are obtained with machine learning-based methods that combine multiple data sources, typically sequence derived features, protein structure and interaction data. Even though there is ample evidence showing that a gene’s function is not independent of its location, the few available examples of gene function prediction based on gene location rely on sequence identity between genes of different organisms and are thus subjected to the limitations of the relationship between sequence and function. Here we predict thousands of gene functions in five model eukaryotes (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens) using machine learning models exclusively trained with features derived from the location of genes in the genomes to which they belong. Our aim was not to obtain the best performing method to automated function prediction but to explore the extent to which a gene's location can predict its function in eukaryotes. We found that our models outperform BLAST when predicting terms from Biological Process and Cellular Component Ontologies, showing that, at least in some cases, gene location alone can be more useful than sequence to infer gene function.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Pavel Kratina ◽  
Benjamin Rosenbaum ◽  
Bruno Gallo ◽  
Elena L. Horas ◽  
Eoin J. O’Gorman

Environmental temperature and body size are two prominent drivers of predation. Despite the ample evidence of their independent effects, the combined impact of temperature and predator-prey body size ratio on the strength and stability of trophic interactions is not fully understood. We experimentally tested how water temperature alters the functional response and population stability of dragonfly nymphs (Cordulegaster boltonii) feeding on freshwater amphipods (Gammarus pulex) across a gradient of their body size ratios. Attack coefficients were highest for small predators feeding on small prey at low temperatures, but shifted toward the largest predators feeding on larger prey in warmer environments. Handling time appeared to decrease with increasing predator and prey body size in the cold environment, but increase at higher temperatures. These findings indicate interactive effects of temperature and body size on functional responses. There was also a negative effect of warming on the stability of predator and prey populations, but this was counteracted by a larger predator-prey body size ratio at higher temperatures. Here, a greater Hill exponent reduced feeding at low prey densities when predators were much larger than their prey, enhancing the persistence of both predator and prey populations in the warmer environment. These experimental findings provide new mechanistic insights into the destabilizing effect of warming on trophic interactions and the key role of predator-prey body size ratios in mitigating these effects.

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