multicenter cohort study
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Qudsiah Suliman ◽  
Poh Ying Lim ◽  
Salmiah Md. Said ◽  
Kit-Aun Tan ◽  
Nor Afiah Mohd. Zulkefli

AbstractTB treatment interruption has resulted in delayed sputum conversion, drug resistance, and a high mortality rate and a prolonged treatment course, hence leading to economic and psychosocial affliction. To date, there are limited studies investigating the physico-social risk factors for early treatment interruptions. This prospective multicenter cohort study aimed to investigate the risk factors for early treatment interruption among new pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) smear-positive patients in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 439 participants were recruited from 39 public treatment centres, 2018–2019. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed to analyse the risk factors for early treatment interruption. Of 439 participants, 104 (23.7%) had early treatment interruption, with 67.3% of early treatment interruption occurring in the first month of treatment. Being a current smoker and having a history of hospitalization, internalized stigma, low TB symptoms score, and waiting time spent at Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course centre were risk factors for early treatment interruption. An appropriate treatment adherence strategy is suggested to prioritize the high-risk group with high early treatment interruption. Efforts to quit smoking cessation programs and to promote stigma reduction interventions are crucial to reduce the probability of early treatment interruption.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 413
Author(s):  
César Fernández-de-las-Peñas ◽  
José D. Martín-Guerrero ◽  
Óscar J. Pellicer-Valero ◽  
Esperanza Navarro-Pardo ◽  
Víctor Gómez-Mayordomo ◽  
...  

This multicenter cohort study investigated the differences between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related symptoms and post-COVID symptoms between male and female COVID-19 survivors. Clinical and hospitalization data were collected from hospital medical records in a sample of individuals recovered from COVID-19 at five public hospitals in Spain. A predefined list of post-COVID symptoms was systematically assessed, but patients were free to report any symptom. Anxiety/depressive levels and sleep quality were also assessed. Adjusted multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify the association of sex with post-COVID related-symptoms. A total of 1969 individuals (age: 61, SD: 16 years, 46.4% women) were assessed 8.4 months after discharge. No overall significant sex differences in COVID-19 onset symptoms at hospital admission were found. Post-COVID symptoms were present in up to 60% of hospitalized COVID-19 survivors eight months after the infection. The number of post-COVID symptoms was 2.25 for females and 1.5 for males. After adjusting by all variables, female sex was associated with ≥3 post-COVID symptoms (adj OR 2.54, 95%CI 1.671–3.865, p < 0.001), the presence of post-COVID fatigue (adj OR 1.514, 95%CI 1.040–2.205), dyspnea (rest: adj OR 1.428, 95%CI 1.081–1.886, exertion: adj OR 1.409, 95%CI 1.109–1.791), pain (adj OR 1.349, 95%CI 1.059–1.720), hair loss (adj OR 4.529, 95%CI 2.784–7.368), ocular problems (adj OR 1.981, 95%CI 1.185–3.312), depressive levels (adj OR 1.606, 95%CI 1.002–2.572) and worse sleep quality (adj OR 1.634, 95%CI 1.097–2.434). Female sex was a risk factor for the development of some long-term post-COVID symptoms including mood disorders. Healthcare systems should consider sex differences in the management of long haulers.


Critical Care ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yunjoo Im ◽  
Danbee Kang ◽  
Ryoung-Eun Ko ◽  
Yeon Joo Lee ◽  
Sung Yoon Lim ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Timely administration of antibiotics is one of the most important interventions in reducing mortality in sepsis. However, administering antibiotics within a strict time threshold in all patients suspected with sepsis will require huge amount of effort and resources and may increase the risk of unintentional exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics in patients without infection with its consequences. Thus, controversy still exists on whether clinicians should target different time-to-antibiotics thresholds for patients with sepsis versus septic shock. Methods This study analyzed prospectively collected data from an ongoing multicenter cohort of patients with sepsis identified in the emergency department. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were compared for in-hospital mortality of patients who had received antibiotics within 1 h to that of those who did not. Spline regression models were used to assess the association of time-to-antibiotics as continuous variables and increasing risk of in-hospital mortality. The differences in the association between time-to-antibiotics and in-hospital mortality were assessed according to the presence of septic shock. Results Overall, 3035 patients were included in the analysis. Among them, 601 (19.8%) presented with septic shock, and 774 (25.5%) died. The adjusted OR for in-hospital mortality of patients whose time-to-antibiotics was within 1 h was 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61–0.99; p = 0.046). The adjusted OR for in-hospital mortality was 0.66 (95% CI 0.44–0.99; p = 0.049) and statistically significant in patients with septic shock, whereas it was 0.85 (95% CI 0.64–1.15; p = 0.300) in patients with sepsis but without shock. Among patients who received antibiotics within 3 h, those with septic shock showed 35% (p = 0.042) increased risk of mortality for every 1-h delay in antibiotics, but no such trend was observed in patients without shock. Conclusion Timely administration of antibiotics improved outcomes in patients with septic shock; however, the association between early antibiotic administration and outcome was not as clear in patients with sepsis without shock.


Allergy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Makiko Nanishi ◽  
Michimasa Fujiogi ◽  
Robert J. Freishtat ◽  
Claire E. Hoptay ◽  
Cindy S. Bauer ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Author(s):  
Guosong Wu ◽  
Andrea Soo ◽  
Paul Ronksley ◽  
Jayna Holroyd-Leduc ◽  
Sean M. Bagshaw ◽  
...  

Critical Care ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mariano Esperatti ◽  
Marina Busico ◽  
Nora Angélica Fuentes ◽  
Adrian Gallardo ◽  
Javier Osatnik ◽  
...  

Abstract Background In patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory failure (ARF), awake prone positioning (AW-PP) reduces the need for intubation in patients treated with high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO). However, the effects of different exposure times on clinical outcomes remain unclear. We evaluated the effect of AW-PP on the risk of endotracheal intubation and in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19-related ARF treated with HFNO and analyzed the effects of different exposure times to AW-PP. Methods This multicenter prospective cohort study in six ICUs of 6 centers in Argentine consecutively included patients > 18 years of age with confirmed COVID-19-related ARF requiring HFNO from June 2020 to January 2021. In the primary analysis, the main exposure was awake prone positioning for at least 6 h/day, compared to non-prone positioning (NON-PP). In the sensitivity analysis, exposure was based on the number of hours receiving AW-PP. Inverse probability weighting–propensity score (IPW-PS) was used to adjust the conditional probability of treatment assignment. The primary outcome was endotracheal intubation (ETI); and the secondary outcome was hospital mortality. Results During the study period, 580 patients were screened and 335 were included; 187 (56%) tolerated AW-PP for [median (p25–75)] 12 (9–16) h/day and 148 (44%) served as controls. The IPW–propensity analysis showed standardized differences < 0.1 in all the variables assessed. After adjusting for other confounders, the OR (95% CI) for ETI in the AW-PP group was 0.36 (0.2–0.7), with a progressive reduction in OR as the exposure to AW-PP increased. The adjusted OR (95% CI) for hospital mortality in the AW-PP group ≥ 6 h/day was 0.47 (0.19–1.31). The exposure to prone positioning ≥ 8 h/d resulted in a further reduction in OR [0.37 (0.17–0.8)]. Conclusion In the study population, AW-PP for ≥ 6 h/day reduced the risk of endotracheal intubation, and exposure ≥ 8 h/d reduced the risk of hospital mortality.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Slim Fourati ◽  
Etienne Audureau ◽  
Romain Arrestier ◽  
Stéphane Marot ◽  
Claire Dubois ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC) α spread worldwide, including in France, at the beginning of 2021. This variant was suggested to be associated with a higher risk of mortality than other variants. Little information is available in the subset of patients with severe disease admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU). We aimed to characterize the genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 variants isolated from patients with severe COVID-19 in order to unravel the relationships between specific viral mutations/mutational patterns and clinical outcomes.Methods: Prospective multicentre observational cohort study. Patients aged ≥18 years admitted in 11 ICUs from Great Paris area hospitals between October 1, 2020, and May 30, 2021 (before the introduction of VOC δ (B.617.2) in France) for acute respiratory failure (SpO2≤90% and need for supplemental oxygen or ventilator support) were included. SARS-CoV-2 infection, determined by RT-PCR testing. The primary clinical endpoint was day-28 mortality. Full-length SARS-CoV-2 genomes were sequenced by means of next-generation sequencing (Illumina COVIDSeq).Results: 413 patients were included, 183 (44.3%) had been infected with pre-existing variants, 197 (47.7%) with variant α (B.1.1.7), and 33 (8.0%) with other variants. Patients infected with pre-existing variants were significantly older (64.9±11.9 vs 60.5±11.8 years; p=0.0005); they had significantly more frequent COPD (11.5% (n=21/183) vs 4.1% (n=8/197); p=0.009), and higher SOFA score (4 [3-8] vs 3 [2-4]; 0.0002). Day-28 mortality was not different between patients infected with pre-existing, α (B.1.1.7) or other variants (31.1% (n=57/183) vs 26.2% (n=51/197) vs 30.3% (n=10/33), respectively; p=0.550). There was no association between day-28 mortality with a specific variant or the presence of specific mutations in SARS CoV-2 genome, including 17 mutations selected in the spike protein and all 1017 non-synonymous mutations detected throughout the entire viral genome.Conclusions: At ICU admission, patients infected with pre-existing variants had a different clinical presentation from those infected with variant α (B.1.1.7) and other variants later in the course of the pandemic, but mortality did not differ between these groups. There was no association between a specific variant or SARS CoV-2 genome mutational pattern and day-28 mortality.


Author(s):  
Min Zhang ◽  
Yan-Chen Wang ◽  
Jin-Xing Feng ◽  
Ai-Zhen Yu ◽  
Jing-Wei Huang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background This study aimed to describe length of stay (LOS) to discharge and site variations among very preterm infants (VPIs) admitted to 57 Chinese neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and to investigate factors associated with LOS for VPIs. Methods This retrospective multicenter cohort study enrolled all infants < 32 weeks’ gestation and admitted to 57 NICUs which had participated in the Chinese Neonatal Network, within 7 days after birth in 2019. Exclusion criteria included major congenital anomalies, NICU deaths, discharge against medical advice, transfer to non-participating hospitals, and missing discharge date. Two multivariable linear models were used to estimate the association of infant characteristics and LOS. Results A total of 6580 infants were included in our study. The overall median LOS was 46 days [interquartile range (IQR): 35–60], and the median corrected gestational age at discharge was 36 weeks (IQR: 35–38). LOS and corrected gestational age at discharge increased with decreasing gestational age. The median corrected gestational age at discharge for infants at 24 weeks, 25 weeks, 26 weeks, 27–28 weeks, and 29–31 weeks were 41 weeks, 39 weeks, 38 weeks, 37 weeks and 36 weeks, respectively. Significant site variation of LOS was identified with observed median LOS from 33 to 71 days in different hospitals. Conclusions The study provided concurrent estimates of LOS for VPIs which survived in Chinese NICUs that could be used as references for medical staff and parents. Large variation of LOS independent of infant characteristics existed, indicating variation of care practices requiring further investigation and quality improvement.


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