Logistic Regressions
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Ian Thomas ◽  
Peter Mackie

IntroductionPrior research into the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection amongst people experiencing homelessness (PEH) largely relates to people in communal forms of temporary accommodation in contexts where this type of accommodation remained a major part of the response to homelessness during the COVID-19 pandemic. Little is known about the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 amongst PEH more broadly, and in a policy and practice context that favoured self-contained accommodation, such as Wales, UK. ObjectiveDescribe the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 amongst PEH in Wales, UK, using routinely collected administrative data from the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank. MethodsRoutinely collected data were used to identify PEH in Wales between 1st March 2020 and 1st March 2021. Using SARS-CoV-2 pathology testing data, prevalence rates were generated for PEH and three comparator groups: (1) the not-homeless population; (2) a cohort `exact matched' for age, sex, local authority and area deprivation; and (3) a matched comparison group created using these same variables and Propensity Score Matching (PSM). Three logistic regressions were run on samples containing each of the comparator groups to explore the effect of experiencing homelessness on testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. ResultsThe prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection amongst PEH was 5.0%, compared to the not-homeless population at 5.6%. For the exact matched and PSM match comparator groups, prevalence was 6.9% and 6.7%, respectively. Logistic regression found that SARS-CoV-2 infection was 0.9 times less likely amongst PEH compared to people not experiencing homelessness from the general population. The odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection for PEH was 0.75 and 0.73 where the `not-homeless' comparators were from the exact match and PSM samples, respectively. ConclusionOur analysis revealed that a year into the COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 amongst PEH in Wales was lower than the general population. A policy response to homelessness that moved away from communal accommodation may be partly responsible for the reduced SAR-CoV-2 infection amongst PEH.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4344
Montserrat Monserrat Hernández ◽  
Ángeles Arjona Garrido ◽  
Juan Carlos Checa Olmos ◽  
Darío Salguero García

Current studies show an increase in the risk of eating disorders in runners. Since it is known that abusive exercise can be both a cause and a consequence of such developments, the main objective of the present study was to examine the risk and possible relationships between negative running addiction (NRA), as measured by the reduced and validated SAS-40 scale, and the tendency to be a compulsive eater (measured by YFAS 2.0), anorexia nervosa (AN), and/or bulimia nervosa (BN) (measured by EAT-40). This study highlights the novelty of researching the level of influence of NRA on each defined eating disorder. Method: A total of 167 Spanish-speaking federated runners in cross-country and track running (42% women and 58% men), with an average age of 24 years and an average BMI of 21 kg/m2, responded to an online questionnaire that asked about sociodemographic data and the Spanish versions of the SAS-40, YFAS 2, YFAS 3, and YFAS 4. Through a quantitative methodology using logistic regressions—the coefficient of determination and Pearson’s correlation coefficient—we created a sample analysis that related the significant items of the DSM-V to the results of the questionnaires administered, as well as their relationship with the practice of the sport in question and various variables of the environment. Results: The rates of CE, AN, and BN were 65, 11.4, and 16.2%, respectively. The tendency towards CE increased with a lower weight (r = 0.156, p < 0.05), not having been overweight in childhood (r = 0.151, p < 0.05), and being a long-distance runner (r = 0.123 p < 0.05). The risk of AN increased with the absence of menstruation for more than 3 months (r = 0.271 p < 0.01), having suffered from childhood obesity (r = 0.213 p < 0.05), and being underweight (r = 0.064 p < 0.05). The risk of BN increased with having suffered from childhood obesity (r = 0.194 p < 0.05), having a higher weight (r = 0.140, p < 0.05), and practicing athletics, especially the relay modality (r = 0.044 p < 0.05). Conclusions: A considerable number of runners are at risk of suffering from some type of eating disorder. A significant relationship was observed between long-distance runners and the risk of eating disorders (AN, BN, and CE), and the association is stronger for CE than for AN and BN. Lastly, childhood experiences (such as being obese/a healthy weight) were notorious for increasing the risk of eating disorders. Further studies are needed to research each particular parameter and the relationships between the possible levels of dependence on exercise. Level of evidence: Level III, cohort analytic study.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Peng Chen ◽  
Yongbing Deng ◽  
Xing Yu ◽  
Tao Huang ◽  
Jingrui Huang

Objective. To evaluate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of TBI patients from 2016 to 2019 admitted to Port Moresby General Hospital (PMGH) of Papua New Guinea (PNG) and compare the results with previous researches to analyze current clinical characteristics and prognosis. Methods. A retrospective study was performed on 389 TBI patients in Port Moresby General Hospital (PMGH) over a 48-month period (from January 2016 to December 2019). The clinical and radiographic data were collected. Patients were followed up for at least 3 months, and outcomes were assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to analyze the prognosis and intracranial infection of patients, as well as the effect of surgery on the prognosis of TBI patients. Results. The average age of the 389 TBI patients was 24.9 years old, and the most common age was 18-40 years old, accounting for 55.5%. The proportion of male patients was 79.4%, and the proportion of juvenile patients (≤18 years) was 30.8%. The most primary cause of injury was fighting and brawling (38.0%). At admission, patients had an average GCS score of 9.1, and patients with severe TBI accounted for 46.8%. Overall, 32.1% of the patients had a good prognosis, with a mortality rate of 13.9% (54 cases). Analyzing the relationship between surgical treatment and prognosis in 303 patients with moderate or severe TBI, there was no statistical significance. Univariate and logistic regression analyses for poor prognosis included gender, GCS, multiple injuries, Rotterdam CT scores, and intracranial infection. Univariate and logistic regression analyses for intracranial infection included GCS, open brain trauma, and postoperative drainage time. Conclusion. Despite there has been a secular trend towards reduced incidence of TBI, the prognosis of moderate or severe TBI patients who received surgery showed no significant improvement, indicating that PNG, as a backward developing country, faced a huge problem in TBI prevention and control.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 ◽  
Moges Gelaw Taye ◽  
Amelework Molla ◽  
Diriba Teshome ◽  
Metages Hunie ◽  
Simegnew Kibret ◽  

Background: Early postoperative hypoxemia is a common problem after general anesthesia. The identification of factors associated with an increased occurrence of it might help healthcare professionals to hypoxemia risk patients, therefore this study aims to assess the incidence and factors associated with early postoperative hypoxemia among surgical procedures.Methods: A prospective cohort study design was conducted from February 1, 2020 to June 30, 2020, on a total of 424 patients who underwent surgery under general anesthesia in Debre Tabor Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. The data was collected using a structured checklist. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regressions were used to check the association.Results: The incidence of early postoperative hypoxemia was 45.8%. Patients having a BMI of 25-29.9 kg/m2 and BMI of 30-39.9 kg/m2, patients having a chronic disease, current smokers, SPO2 reading before induction of less than 95%, emergency surgery, and the absence of oxygen therapy during the period of transfer and/or in the post anesthesia care unit were significantly associated with an increased risk of hypoxemia in the early postoperative period.Conclusions: The incidence of early postoperative hypoxemia was high in Debre Tabor Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. Obese patients, patients having a chronic disease, current smokers, and lower oxygen saturations before induction, emergency surgery, and the absence of oxygen therapy were the main predictors of an increased occurrence of early postoperative hypoxemia

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0260616
Man Luo ◽  
Xiaofang Zhang ◽  
Fang Peng ◽  
Jing Zhao ◽  
Haijun Deng

This study investigates international students’ acculturation attitude preference and the influence factors (i.e., gender, duration in China, host and English proficiency, adult attachment style and social ties) on each acculturation attitude (i.e, integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization attitude) in China. A group of 229 international students within China responded online. Results from cluster analysis based on process model of acculturation revealed that, integration was the most prevalent acculturation attitude of international students in China. Additionally, logistic regressions analysis indicated that duration in China was negatively associated with adoption of separation and marginalization attitude also higher level of English proficiency predicted the preference of marginalization attitude. However, Chinese proficiency was positively associated with integration attitude adoption, host ties were positively and significantly associated with adoption of assimilation and integration attitude, but negatively associated with the usage of marginalization attitude. Lastly, avoidance attachment was found negatively associating with the integration attitude. This study provides valuable insights for international student education policymakers to assist international students in order to adapt to a new environment quickly and effectively.

2021 ◽  
pp. 036354652110572
Emma K. Nowak ◽  
Mélanie L. Beaulieu ◽  
Bruce D. Beynnon ◽  
James A. Ashton-Miller ◽  
Daniel R. Sturnick ◽  

Background: The lateral femoral condyle index (LFCI)—a recently developed measure of the sphericity of the lateral femoral condyle—was reported to be a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, issues have been raised regarding how the index was measured and regarding the patient group and the knee in which it was measured. Purpose: To investigate the association between the LFCI and the risk of sustaining a primary, noncontact ACL injury, and to examine whether this association was moderated by the posterior-inferior–directed slope of the lateral tibial plateau. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A secondary analysis was conducted of deidentified magnetic resonance images of the uninjured knees of 86 athletes with ACL injury and the corresponding knees of 86 control athletes, matched for sports team, sex, and age. From those images, we measured the LFCI and the posterior-inferior–directed slope of the middle region articular cartilage surface of the tibial plateau’s lateral compartment. Conditional logistic regressions were performed to determine whether the LFCI was significantly associated with ACL injury risk and whether the lateral tibial compartment middle cartilage slope moderated this association. Data were analyzed for female and male participants separately as well as for both groups combined. Results: The LFCI was not found to be significantly associated with experiencing a primary, noncontact ACL injury for all analyses. The lateral tibial slope measure was not found to moderate the association between the LFCI and ACL injury. A conditional logistic regression analysis using the LFCI data of the injured knees, instead of the uninjured knees, of the participants with ACL injury revealed that the LFCI was significantly associated with ACL injury. Conclusion: In this population of athletically active female and male participants, the LFCI was not found to be a risk factor for noncontact ACL injury, regardless of the geometric features of the lateral tibial slope.

2021 ◽  
pp. emermed-2021-211454
Louise E Smith ◽  
Danai Serfioti ◽  
Dale Weston ◽  
Neil Greenberg ◽  
G James Rubin

BackgroundHealthcare workers (HCWs) are frontline responders to emergency infectious disease outbreaks such as COVID-19. To avoid the rapid spread of disease, adherence to protective measures is paramount. We investigated rates of correct use of personal protective equipment (PPE), hand hygiene and physical distancing in UK HCWs who had been to their workplace at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic and factors associated with adherence.MethodsWe used an online cross-sectional survey of 1035 UK healthcare professionals (data collected 12–16 June 2020). We excluded those who had not been to their workplace in the previous 6 weeks, leaving us with a sample size of 831. Respondents were asked about their use of PPE, hand hygiene and physical distancing in the workplace. Frequency of uptake was reported descriptively; adjusted logistic regressions were used to separately investigate factors associated with adherence to use of PPE, maintaining good hand hygiene and physical distancing from colleagues.ResultsAdherence to personal protective measures was suboptimal (PPE use: 80.0%, 95% CI 77.3 to 82.8; hand hygiene: 67.8%, 95% CI 64.6 to 71.0; coming into close contact with colleagues: 74.7%, 95% CI 71.7 to 77.7). Adherence to PPE use was associated with having received training about health and safety in the workplace for COVID-19, greater perceived social pressure to adopt the behaviour and availability of PPE. Non-adherence was associated with fatalism about COVID-19 and greater perceived difficulty of adopting protective measures. Workplace design using markings to facilitate distancing was associated with adherence to physical distancing.ConclusionsUptake of personal protective behaviours among UK HCWs at the start of the pandemic was variable. Factors associated with adherence provide insight into ways to support HCWs to adopt personal protective behaviours, such as ensuring that adequate PPE is available and designing workplaces to facilitate physical distancing.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (23) ◽  
pp. 5669
Min-Hsin Yang ◽  
Jing-Yang Huang ◽  
Sung-Lang Chen ◽  
James Cheng-Chung Wei

Background: Stress-related diseases (SRDs) are adjustment disorders triggered by stressful life changes. There is a growing body of evidence showing that stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of IC/BPS. In the present study, we investigated the association between SRDs and a subsequent association of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Methods: We performed a nested case-control study from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) of Taiwan. The two-year time-varying association between SRDs and IC/BPS was explored to distinguish the short- or long-term effects of these factors. We then conducted multiple conditional logistic regressions to evaluate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IC/BPS in patients with a history of SRDs. Results: A total of 1103 IC/BPS patients and 4412 non-IC/BPS patients were analyzed. For all SRDs, the significantly increased risks were obtained in 2 years before IC/BPS diagnosis, and the higher OR was observed within 3 months before the diagnosis of IC/BPS. Multiple conditional logistic regressions showed that patients who had prior medical care for urinary tract infection (OR = 10.95, 95% CI = 9.07 to 13.22), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.93), peptic ulcer (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.37 to 2.09), inflammatory bowel syndrome (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.21 to 2.29), autoimmune diseases (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.97), depression (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.24 to 1.91), sleep disorders (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.19 to 1.78), and allergic rhinitis (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.62) within 2 years had a significant risk of IC/BPS. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that the health care for SRDs within the previous 2 years is associated with an increased risk of subsequent IC/BPS. The time-varying association provides an important insight that helps us to identify cases with IC/BPS, especially among patients with repeated UTI visits.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (4) ◽  
pp. 373-383
Jiyoon Han ◽  
Eunok Park

Purpose: This study aimed to identify the status of drug use and analyze the effects of drug use on falls among older people.Methods: The data were collected from 285 community-dwelling older persons through interviewing with questionnaires and checking participants’ medication prescriptions and the drugs using the Korea Pharmaceutical Information Center’s (KPIC) website. The medications were classified into anatomical and therapeutic divisions based on the medications’ ingredients provided by the KPIC. x2 test, ANOVA, t-test, and logistic regressions were applied to analyze the data.Results: The finding showed that 81.4% of the older adults were taking medications. Older people taking antihyperlipidemic drugs were at 1.79 times higher risk for experiencing a fall (95% CI=1.01~3.16, p=.046), and hypnotic sedative and sleeping pills increased their fall risks 11.06 times (95% CI=1.27~96.07, p=.029) compared to those not taking the medications. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents showed a 2.74 odds ratio (95% CI=1.23~5.73, p=.013) and narcotic analgesics increased the fall experience risk 8.56 times (95% CI=1.02~71.88, p=.048). Those with chronic diseases experienced falls 3.04 times more than those without chronic diseases.Conclusion: The study findings showed medications might be one of the important influencing factors on fall risks among older adults. Raising awareness of fall risks associated with medicines through health education and medication reviews by health professionals should be considered a strategy for preventing older adults' falls.

Jesús F. García-Gavilán ◽  
Indira Paz-Graniel ◽  
Nancy Babio ◽  
Dora Romaguera ◽  
Jose Alfredo Martínez ◽  

Abstract Purpose Inflammation could play a key role in tissue damage and bone metabolism. The modified dietary inflammatory score (M-DIS) is a validated tool to estimate the inflammatory potential of the diet. In the present study, we evaluate the associations between the M-DIS and bone mineral density (BMD) in a senior Mediterranean population with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods Baseline cross-sectional association between the M-DIS and bone mineral density was assessed in 1134 participants of the multicenter PREDIMED-Plus trial (aged 55–75 with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome). BMD was measured using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry scans and participants answered a food frequency questionnaire to determine the M-DIS. BMD was categorized as low BMD when T score was equal or lower than -1 and normal BMD in another case. Associations between BMD and M-DIS were evaluated by using linear and logistic regressions adjusted by other co-variates. Results Participants in the top tertile of the M-DIS had a lower BMD at total femur [β (95% CI) − 0.02 (− 0.04, − 0.01)], trochanter areas [β (95% CI) − 0.03 (− 0.05, − 0.01)] and lumbar spine area [β (95% CI) − 0.03 (− 0.07, 0.01)] (but in the last case, measures were less precise and hence not statistically significant) compared to those in the lower M-DIS tertile. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of the total femur and femoral trochanter osteopenia/osteoporosis were higher in participants in the top tertile compared to those in the lowest tertile of M-DIS [OR (95% CI) 1.71 (1.12, 2.64), P for trend 0.015; 2.02 (1.29, 3.21), P for trend 0.002, respectively]. Conclusion A high pro-inflammatory diet, measured by the M-DIS, is associated with lower BMD in a senior Mediterranean population with metabolic syndrome.

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