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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 12
Amyn A. Malik ◽  
Hamidah Hussain ◽  
Rabia Maniar ◽  
Nauman Safdar ◽  
Amal Mohiuddin ◽  

As the COVID-19 pandemic surged, lockdowns led to the cancellation of essential health services. As part of our Zero TB activities in Karachi, we adapted our approach to integrate activities for TB and COVID-19 to decrease the impact on diagnosis and linkage to care for TB treatment. We implemented the following: (1) integrated COVID-19 screening and testing within existing TB program activities, along with the use of an artificial intelligence (AI) software reader on digital chest X-rays; (2) home delivery of medication; (3) use of telehealth and mental health counseling; (4) provision of PPE; (5) burnout monitoring of health workers; and (6) patient safety and disinfectant protocol. We used programmatic data for six districts of Karachi from January 2018 to March 2021 to explore the time trends in case notifications, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and service adaptations in the city. The case notifications in all six districts in Karachi were over 80% of the trend-adjusted expected notifications with three districts having over 90% of the expected case notifications. Overall, Karachi reached 90% of the expected case notifications during the COVID-19 pandemic. The collaborative efforts by the provincial TB program and private sector partners facilitated this reduced loss in case notifications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Qudsiah Suliman ◽  
Poh Ying Lim ◽  
Salmiah Md. Said ◽  
Kit-Aun Tan ◽  
Nor Afiah Mohd. Zulkefli

AbstractTB treatment interruption has resulted in delayed sputum conversion, drug resistance, and a high mortality rate and a prolonged treatment course, hence leading to economic and psychosocial affliction. To date, there are limited studies investigating the physico-social risk factors for early treatment interruptions. This prospective multicenter cohort study aimed to investigate the risk factors for early treatment interruption among new pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) smear-positive patients in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 439 participants were recruited from 39 public treatment centres, 2018–2019. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed to analyse the risk factors for early treatment interruption. Of 439 participants, 104 (23.7%) had early treatment interruption, with 67.3% of early treatment interruption occurring in the first month of treatment. Being a current smoker and having a history of hospitalization, internalized stigma, low TB symptoms score, and waiting time spent at Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course centre were risk factors for early treatment interruption. An appropriate treatment adherence strategy is suggested to prioritize the high-risk group with high early treatment interruption. Efforts to quit smoking cessation programs and to promote stigma reduction interventions are crucial to reduce the probability of early treatment interruption.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xuan Ying Poh ◽  
Fei Kean Loh ◽  
Jon S. Friedland ◽  
Catherine W. M. Ong

Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading infectious killers in the world, infecting approximately a quarter of the world’s population with the causative organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS-TB) is the most severe form of TB, with high mortality and residual neurological sequelae even with effective TB treatment. In CNS-TB, recruited neutrophils infiltrate into the brain to carry out its antimicrobial functions of degranulation, phagocytosis and NETosis. However, neutrophils also mediate inflammation, tissue destruction and immunopathology in the CNS. Neutrophils release key mediators including matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) which degrade brain extracellular matrix (ECM), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α which may drive inflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) that drive cellular necrosis and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), interacting with platelets to form thrombi that may lead to ischemic stroke. Host-directed therapies (HDTs) targeting these key mediators are potentially exciting, but currently remain of unproven effectiveness. This article reviews the key role of neutrophils and neutrophil-derived mediators in driving CNS-TB immunopathology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jeffrey A. Tornheim ◽  
Mandar Paradkar ◽  
Henry Zhao ◽  
Vandana Kulkarni ◽  
Neeta Pradhan ◽  

ObjectivesPediatric tuberculosis (TB) remains difficult to diagnose. The plasma kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (K/T ratio) is a potential biomarker for TB diagnosis and treatment response but has not been assessed in children.MethodsWe performed a targeted diagnostic accuracy analysis of four biomarkers: kynurenine abundance, tryptophan abundance, the K/T ratio, and IDO-1 gene expression. Data were obtained from transcriptome and metabolome profiling of children with confirmed tuberculosis and age- and sex-matched uninfected household contacts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Each biomarker was assessed as a baseline diagnostic and in response to successful TB treatment.ResultsDespite non-significant between-group differences in unbiased analysis, the K/T ratio achieved an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.667 and 81.5% sensitivity for TB diagnosis. Kynurenine, tryptophan, and IDO-1 demonstrated diagnostic AUCs of 0.667, 0.602, and 0.463, respectively. None of these biomarkers demonstrated high AUCs for treatment response. The AUC of the K/T ratio was lower than biomarkers identified in unbiased analysis, but improved sensitivity over existing commercial assays for pediatric TB diagnosis.ConclusionsPlasma kynurenine and the K/T ratio may be useful biomarkers for pediatric TB. Ongoing studies in geographically diverse populations will determine optimal use of these biomarkers worldwide.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Adamou Dodo Balkissou ◽  
Eric Walter Pefura-Yone ◽  
Virginie Poka ◽  
Alain Kuaban ◽  
Djibril Mohammadou Mubarak ◽  

Objectives: Mortality during tuberculosis (TB) remains high in Africa. The purpose of our study was to determine the incidence and predictors of death during TB treatment in Cameroon. Materials and Methods: Data of subjects aged ≥15 years were retrospectively extracted from registers in all TB diagnostic and treatment centers in the Western and Northern regions of Cameroon from 2010 to 2015. Cox regression models were used to determine predictors of death during TB treatment. Results: Of the 19,681 patients included, 12,541 (63.7%) were male and their median age (25th-75th percentile) was 34 (26–45) years. The cumulative incidence (95% confidence interval [CI]) of death during TB treatment was 8.0% (7.5–8.5%). The predictors (hazard ratios [95% CI]) of death were: Age >34 years (1.479 [1.295–1.688], P < 0.001), female sex (1.471 [1.286–1.683], P < 0.001), extra-pulmonary TB (1.723 [1.466–2.026], P < 0.001), human immunodeficiency virus infection (3.739 [3.269–4.276], P < 001]), TB treatment in the Western region (2.241 [1.815–2.768], P < 0.001), treatment before 2012 (1.215 [1.073–1.376], P = 0.002)and low body weight (1st quartile and 2nd quartile) (2.568 [2.133–3.092], [P < 0.001]) and (1.569 [1.298–1.896], P < 0.001) respectively. Conclusion: The incidence of death during TB was relatively high in the Western and Northern regions of Cameroon. Recognition of these persons at greatest risk may improve care and reduce death durinng TB treatment.

Thorax ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. thoraxjnl-2020-216497
Omri A Arbiv ◽  
JeongMin M Kim ◽  
Marie Yan ◽  
Kamila Romanowski ◽  
Jonathon R Campbell ◽  

BackgroundThere is growing interest in using high-dose rifamycin (HDR) regimens in TB treatment, but the safety and efficacy of HDR regimens remain uncertain. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing HDR to standard-dose rifamycin (SDR) regimens.MethodsWe searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and clinicaltrials.gov for prospective studies comparing daily therapy with HDRs to SDRs. Rifamycins included rifampicin, rifapentine and rifabutin. Our primary outcome was the rate of severe adverse events (SAEs), with secondary outcomes of death, all adverse events, SAE by organ and efficacy outcomes of 2-month culture conversion and relapse. This study was prospectively registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42020142519).ResultsWe identified 9057 articles and included 13 studies with 6168 participants contributing 7930 person-years (PY) of follow-up (HDR: 3535 participants, 4387 PY; SDR: 2633 participants, 3543 PY). We found no significant difference in the pooled incidence rate ratio (IRR) of SAE between HDR and SDR (IRR 1.00, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.23, I2=41%). There was no significant difference when analysis was limited to SAE possibly, probably or likely medication-related (IRR 1.07, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.41, I2=0%); studies with low risk of bias (IRR 0.98, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.20, I2=44%); or studies using rifampicin (IRR 1.00, 95% CI 0. 0.75–1.32, I2=38%). No significant differences were noted in pooled outcomes of death, 2-month culture conversion and relapse.ConclusionsHDRs were not associated with a significant difference in SAEs, 2-month culture conversion or death. Further studies are required to identify specific groups who may benefit from HDR.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (S2) ◽  
pp. 44-49
Yuni Kusmiyati ◽  
Suherni ◽  
Yuliasti Eka Purnamaningrum ◽  
Sih Rini Handajani ◽  
Agung Jaya Endranto ◽  

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease leading cause of death in the world but treatment adherence the most underrated and understudied factor affecting the outcome of TB therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of family psychoeducation on TB treatment adherence of children. The study used a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The sample was 40 pairs of primary caregivers and children who received TB treatment and experienced no side effects of anti-TB drugs in Wonosari Hospital Indonesia in 2019. The treatment group was given psychoeducation by trained health personnel psychoeducators, while the control group was given education by health workers. Psychoeducation was carried out individually, 3 meetings in the first week of the study. Adherence was measured at the sixth month which was the end of treatment period, using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using multiple logistic regression. The results showed that family psychoeducation had a significant effect on TB treatment adherence in children after controlling for mother’s knowledge (P-value 0.05 ≤ 0.05). Family psychoeducation is a preventive factor for non-adherence to TB treatment. It is important that psychoeducation is provided to all TB patients to reduce psychological problems that can lead to treatment non-adherence.

2022 ◽  
Stefanie Krug ◽  
Pankaj Prasad ◽  
Shiqi Xiao ◽  
Shichun Lun ◽  
Camilo A. Ruiz-Bedoya ◽  

Tuberculosis (TB) is a devastating infectious disease that continues to cause millions of human deaths every year. Even though most cases of TB can be cured with a 6-month antibiotic combination therapy, these long treatment durations have led to the emergence of multi-drug resistance and pose a major hurdle to global TB control. Despite numerous advances in TB drug development, a substantially shortened treatment time has yet to be achieved. Given the rise in antibiotic resistance, an alternative strategy to the direct targeting of M. tuberculosis (M.tb) is the development of host-directed therapies (HDTs) that promote bacterial clearance and/or lung health when given adjunctive to standard TB antibiotics. We recently discovered that a small molecule inhibitor of the Integrated Stress Response (ISR), which is abnormally activated in TB and associated with the formation of necrotic granulomas, reduced M.tb numbers and lung inflammation in mice. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of adjunctive ISR inhibition in the context of standard TB therapy. Throughout the course of treatment, ISR inhibition robustly lowered bacterial burdens compared to standard TB therapy alone and accelerated the time-to-sterility in mice, as demonstrated by significantly reduced relapse rates after 4 months of treatment. In addition, mice receiving adjunctive ISR inhibition tended to have reduced lung necrosis and inflammation. Together, our findings identify the ISR pathway as a promising therapeutic target with the potential of shortening TB treatment durations and improving lung health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
pp. 44-49
J. Acosta ◽  
P. Flores ◽  
M. Alarcón ◽  
M. Grande-Ortiz ◽  
L. Moreno-Exebio ◽  

BACKGROUND: Adherence to TB treatment and therefore treatment success could be improved using digital adherence technology.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a medication event reminder monitor system (MERM) on treatment success and treatment adherence in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB in Perú.METHODS: This was an experimental, randomised, open-label, controlled study conducted among patients in the second phase of TB treatment. The intervention group received their medications through MERM with the support of a treatment monitor, whereas the control group used the usual strategy. Participants were followed until they completed the 54 doses of the second phase of treatment.RESULTS: The study included 53 patients in each group; four in the intervention group withdrew from the study. Treatment success was significantly more frequent in the MERM group (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02–1.30; P = 0.0322). There was no significant difference in the adherence outcomes; however, the percentage of patients who missed at least one dose and patients with more than 10% of total doses missed were lower in the intervention group.CONCLUSION: The use of MERM in the second phase of treatment showed a significant improvement in the treatment success rate in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB.

BMJ Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. e052981
Karim Damji ◽  
Ahmar H Hashmi ◽  
Lin Lin Kyi ◽  
Michele Vincenti-Delmas ◽  
Win Pa Pa Htun ◽  

ObjectiveThis study summarises nutritional intake among patients with tuberculosis (TB) along the Myanmar–Thailand border according to the local diet.SettingTB clinic along the Myanmar–Thailand border.ParticipantsCross-sectional surveys of 24-hour food recall were conducted with participants receiving anti-TB treatment. Participants were purposively selected to reflect proportion of age, sex and HIV co-infection based on historical patient records. Out of a total of 28 participants, 20 (71.4%) were men and 5 (17.9%) were co-infected with HIV.Primary and secondary outcome measuresThe primary outcome compared actual recorded intake to recommended intake. Secondary outcomes compared weight gain and body mass index (BMI) from diagnosis to time of survey.ResultsThere were no significant differences in macronutrient or micronutrient intake by sex or for patients supplementing their rations. Mean treatment length at time of survey was 20.7 weeks (95% CI: 16.5 to 24.8). A significantly higher proportion of women (8/8, 100%) met caloric requirements compared with men (9/20, 45.0%, p=0.010), but few participants met other macronutrient or micronutrient requirements, with no significant differences by sex or for patients supplementing their rations. From diagnosis to the time of the survey, participants averaged significant weight gain of 6.48 kg (95% CI: 3.87 to 9.10) and increased BMI of 2.47 kg/m2 (95% CI: 1.45 to 3.49; p=0.0001 for both). However, 50% (14/28) still had mild or more severe forms of malnutrition.ConclusionsThis cross-sectional survey of nutritional intake in patients undergoing TB treatment in a sanatorium setting demonstrates the difficulty in sufficiently meeting nutritional demands, even when providing nutritional support.

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