synonymous mutations
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2022 ◽  
Soumyanetra Chandra ◽  
Kritika Gupta ◽  
Shruti Khare ◽  
Pehu Kohli ◽  
Aparna Asok ◽  

Deep mutational scanning studies suggest that single synonymous mutations are typically silent and that most exposed, non active-site residues are tolerant to mutations. Here we show that the ccdA antitoxin component of the E.coli ccdAB toxin-antitoxin operonic system is unusually sensitive to mutations when studied in the operonic context. A large fraction (~80%) of single codon mutations, including many synonymous mutations in the ccdA gene show inactive phenotypes that are correlated with the E.coli codon usage frequency but retain native-like binding affinity towards cognate toxin, CcdB. Therefore, the observed phenotypic effects are largely not due to alterations in protein structure or stability, consistent with the fact that a large region of CcdA is intrinsically disordered. In select cases, proteomics studies reveal altered ratios of CcdA:CcdB protein levels in vivo, suggesting that these mutations likely alter relative translation efficiencies of the two genes in the operon. We extend these results by predicting and validating single synonymous mutations that lead to loss of function phenotypes in the relBE operon upon introduction of rarer codons. Thus, in their native context, genes are likely to be more sensitive to both synonymous and non-synonymous point mutations than inferred from previous saturation mutagenesis studies.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261014
Carlos Arana ◽  
Chaoying Liang ◽  
Matthew Brock ◽  
Bo Zhang ◽  
Jinchun Zhou ◽  

High viral transmission in the COVID-19 pandemic has enabled SARS‐CoV‐2 to acquire new mutations that may impact genome sequencing methods. The ARTIC.v3 primer pool that amplifies short amplicons in a multiplex-PCR reaction is one of the most widely used methods for sequencing the SARS-CoV-2 genome. We observed that some genomic intervals are poorly captured with ARTIC primers. To improve the genomic coverage and variant detection across these intervals, we designed long amplicon primers and evaluated the performance of a short (ARTIC) plus long amplicon (MRL) sequencing approach. Sequencing assays were optimized on VR-1986D-ATCC RNA followed by sequencing of nasopharyngeal swab specimens from fifteen COVID-19 positive patients. ARTIC data covered 94.47% of the virus genome fraction in the positive control and patient samples. Variant analysis in the ARTIC data detected 217 mutations, including 209 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and eight insertions & deletions. On the other hand, long-amplicon data detected 156 mutations, of which 80% were concordant with ARTIC data. Combined analysis of ARTIC + MRL data improved the genomic coverage to 97.03% and identified 214 high confidence mutations. The combined final set of 214 mutations included 203 SNVs, 8 deletions and 3 insertions. Analysis showed 26 SARS-CoV-2 lineage defining mutations including 4 known variants of concern K417N, E484K, N501Y, P618H in spike gene. Hybrid analysis identified 7 nonsynonymous and 5 synonymous mutations across the genome that were either ambiguous or not called in ARTIC data. For example, G172V mutation in the ORF3a protein and A2A mutation in Membrane protein were missed by the ARTIC assay. Thus, we show that while the short amplicon (ARTIC) assay provides good genomic coverage with high throughput, complementation of poorly captured intervals with long amplicon data can significantly improve SARS-CoV-2 genomic coverage and variant detection.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 378
Alejandra Bernardini ◽  
Marta Dueñas ◽  
María Cruz Martín-Soberon ◽  
Carolina Rubio ◽  
Cristian Suarez-Cabrera ◽  

Background and Aims: Metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) remains an incurable disease with limited treatment options after platinum-based chemotherapy and immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). Vinflunine has shown a modest increase in overall survival and remains a therapeutic option for chemo- and immunotherapy refractory tumours. However, biomarkers that could identify responding patients to vinflunine and possible alternative therapies after failure to treatment are still missing. In this study, we aimed to identify potential genomic biomarkers of vinflunine response in mUC patient samples and potential management alternatives. Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of mUC patients (n = 23) from three university hospitals in Spain were used for genomic targeted-sequencing and transcriptome (using the Immune Profile panel by NanoString) analyses. Patients who received vinflunine after platinum-based chemotherapy failure were classified in non-responders (NR: progressive disease ≤ 3 months; n= 11) or responders (R: response ≥ 6 months; n = 12). Results: Genomic characterization revealed that the most common alteration, TP53 mutations, had comparable frequency in R (6/12; 50%) and NR (4/11; 36%). Non-synonymous mutations in KTM2C (4/12; 33.3%), PIK3CA (3/12; 25%) and ARID2 (3/12; 25%) were predominantly associated with response. No significant difference was observed in tumour mutational burden (TMB) between R and NR patients. The NR tumours showed increased expression of diverse immune-related genes and pathways, including various interferon gamma-related genes. We also identified increased MAGEA4 expression as a potential biomarker of non-responding tumours to vinflunine treatment. Conclusions: Our data may help to identify potential genomic biomarkers of response to vinflunine. Moreover, tumours refractory to vinflunine showed immune signatures potentially associated with response to ICB. Extensive validation studies, including longitudinal series, are needed to corroborate these findings.

2022 ◽  
Lorenzo Talarico ◽  
Anna Bryjová ◽  
Dagmar Čížková ◽  
Karel Douda ◽  
Martin Reichard

AbstractPolymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), DAB1 gene was characterized for the first time in the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus), a freshwater fish employed in studies of host-parasite coevolution and mate choice, taking advantage of newly designed primers coupled with high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Across 221 genotyped individuals, we detected 1–4 variants per fish, with 28% individuals possessing 3–4 variants. We identified 36 DAB1 variants, and they showed high sequence diversity mostly located within predicted antigen-binding sites, and both global and codon-specific excess of non-synonymous mutations. Despite deep divergence between two major allelic lineages, functional diversity was surprisingly low (3 supertypes). Overall, these findings suggest the role of positive and balancing selection in promotion and long-time maintenance of DAB1 polymorphism. Further investigations will clarify the role of pathogen-mediated selection to drive the evolution of DAB1 variation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 98 (6) ◽  
pp. 627-638
I. A. Lapovok ◽  
P. B. Baryshev ◽  
D. V. Saleeva ◽  
A. A. Kirichenko ◽  
A. V. Shlykova (Murzakova) ◽  

Introduction. The aim of the study was to use comparative analysis for assessing efficiency of detection and confirmation of dual HIV infection, using conventional population sequencing (PS) and next generation sequencing (NGS) for an HIV-1 pol gene fragment, which encompasses protease and partially reverse transcriptase (positions 2253–3368).Materials and methods. The study was performed on intersubtype dual HIV infection model samples containing viruses of HIV-1 subtype B, sub-subtype A6 and recombinant form CRF63_02A1. Viruses were mixed pairwise in proportions from 10 to 90% to obtain 3 groups of model samples: CRF63vsB, CRF63vsA6, and A6vsB. The nucleotide sequences obtained by using PS and NGS technologies having 5, 10, 15, and 20% sensitivity thresholds for minor virus variants (NGS5–NGS20, respectively) were used to estimate the number of degenerate nucleotides or the degenerate base (DB) count and the number of synonymous mutations (SM) or the SM count. The fragment of the studied region (positions 2725–2981) was used for the analysis of operational taxonomic units.Results. The application of NGS5 proved highly efficient for detection of dual HIV infection in the model samples. The statistically significant (p < 0.01) increase in DB and SM counts was demonstrated by NGS5 compared to PS. As a result, NGS5 helped detect dual HIV infection in 25 out of 27 model samples, while with PS it was detected only in 15 samples. The analysis of operational taxonomic units confirmed dual HIV infection in all the groups of model samples.Discussion. The efficiency of detection and confirmation of dual HIV infection depends both on the content of each virus in the sample and on genetic characteristics of these viruses. Conclusion. Using NGS genetic testing in routine practice will be instrumental for efficient identification of genetic characteristics of infectious agents and for thorough analysis of the epidemiological situation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Shijulal Nelson-Sathi ◽  
P. K. Umasankar ◽  
E. Sreekumar ◽  
R. Radhakrishnan Nair ◽  
Iype Joseph ◽  

Abstract Background SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19 pandemic is a RNA virus prone to mutations. Formation of a stable binding interface between the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) of host is pivotal for viral entry. RBD has been shown to mutate frequently during pandemic. Although, a few mutations in RBD exhibit enhanced transmission rates leading to rise of new variants of concern, most RBD mutations show sustained ACE2 binding and virus infectivity. Yet, how all these mutations make the binding interface constantly favourable for virus remain enigmatic. This study aims to delineate molecular rearrangements in the binding interface of SARS-CoV-2 RBD mutants. Results Here, we have generated a mutational and structural landscape of SARS-CoV-2 RBD in first six months of the pandemic. We analyzed 31,403 SARS-CoV-2 genomes randomly across the globe, and identified 444 non-synonymous mutations in RBD that cause 49 distinct amino acid substitutions in contact and non-contact amino acid residues. Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggested independent emergence of RBD mutants. Structural mapping of these mutations on the SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan reference strain RBD and structural comparison with RBDs from bat-CoV, SARS-CoV, and pangolin-CoV, all bound to human or mouse ACE2, revealed several changes in the interfacial interactions in all three binding clusters. Interestingly, interactions mediated via N487 residue in cluster-I and Y449, G496, T500, G502 residues in cluster-III remained largely unchanged in all RBD mutants. Further analysis showed that these interactions are evolutionarily conserved in sarbecoviruses which use ACE2 for entry. Importantly, despite extensive changes in the interface, RBD-ACE2 stability and binding affinities were maintained in all the analyzed mutants. Taken together, these findings reveal how SARS-CoV-2 uses its RBD residues to constantly remodel the binding interface. Conclusion Our study broadly signifies understanding virus-host binding interfaces and their alterations during pandemic. Our findings propose a possible interface remodelling mechanism used by SARS-CoV-2 to escape deleterious mutations. Future investigations will focus on functional validation of in-silico findings and on investigating interface remodelling mechanisms across sarbecoviruses. Thus, in long run, this study may provide novel clues to therapeutically target RBD-ACE2 interface for pan-sarbecovirus infections.

2022 ◽  
Slim Fourati ◽  
Etienne Audureau ◽  
Romain Arrestier ◽  
Stéphane Marot ◽  
Claire Dubois ◽  

Abstract Background: SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC) α spread worldwide, including in France, at the beginning of 2021. This variant was suggested to be associated with a higher risk of mortality than other variants. Little information is available in the subset of patients with severe disease admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU). We aimed to characterize the genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 variants isolated from patients with severe COVID-19 in order to unravel the relationships between specific viral mutations/mutational patterns and clinical outcomes.Methods: Prospective multicentre observational cohort study. Patients aged ≥18 years admitted in 11 ICUs from Great Paris area hospitals between October 1, 2020, and May 30, 2021 (before the introduction of VOC δ (B.617.2) in France) for acute respiratory failure (SpO2≤90% and need for supplemental oxygen or ventilator support) were included. SARS-CoV-2 infection, determined by RT-PCR testing. The primary clinical endpoint was day-28 mortality. Full-length SARS-CoV-2 genomes were sequenced by means of next-generation sequencing (Illumina COVIDSeq).Results: 413 patients were included, 183 (44.3%) had been infected with pre-existing variants, 197 (47.7%) with variant α (B.1.1.7), and 33 (8.0%) with other variants. Patients infected with pre-existing variants were significantly older (64.9±11.9 vs 60.5±11.8 years; p=0.0005); they had significantly more frequent COPD (11.5% (n=21/183) vs 4.1% (n=8/197); p=0.009), and higher SOFA score (4 [3-8] vs 3 [2-4]; 0.0002). Day-28 mortality was not different between patients infected with pre-existing, α (B.1.1.7) or other variants (31.1% (n=57/183) vs 26.2% (n=51/197) vs 30.3% (n=10/33), respectively; p=0.550). There was no association between day-28 mortality with a specific variant or the presence of specific mutations in SARS CoV-2 genome, including 17 mutations selected in the spike protein and all 1017 non-synonymous mutations detected throughout the entire viral genome.Conclusions: At ICU admission, patients infected with pre-existing variants had a different clinical presentation from those infected with variant α (B.1.1.7) and other variants later in the course of the pandemic, but mortality did not differ between these groups. There was no association between a specific variant or SARS CoV-2 genome mutational pattern and day-28 mortality.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. e002927
Mona O Mohsen ◽  
Daniel E Speiser ◽  
Justine Michaux ◽  
HuiSong Pak ◽  
Brian J Stevenson ◽  

BackgroundHarnessing the immune system to purposely recognize and destroy tumors represents a significant breakthrough in clinical oncology. Non-synonymous mutations (neoantigenic peptides) were identified as powerful cancer targets. This knowledge can be exploited for further improvements of active immunotherapies, including cancer vaccines, as T cells specific for neoantigens are not attenuated by immune tolerance mechanism and do not harm healthy tissues. The current study aimed at developing an optimized multitarget vaccine using short or long neoantigenic peptides utilizing virus-like particles (VLPs) as an efficient vaccine platform.MethodsMutations of murine mammary carcinoma cells were identified by integrating mass spectrometry-based immunopeptidomics and whole exome sequencing. Neoantigenic peptides were synthesized and covalently linked to virus-like nanoparticles using a Cu-free click chemistry method for easy preparation of vaccines against mouse mammary carcinoma.ResultsAs compared with short peptides, vaccination with long peptides was superior in the generation of neoantigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which readily produced interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor-necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The resulting anti-tumor effect was associated with favorable immune re-polarization in the tumor microenvironment through reduction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Vaccination with long neoantigenic peptides also decreased post-surgical tumor recurrence and metastases, and prolonged mouse survival, despite the tumor’s low mutational burden.ConclusionIntegrating mass spectrometry-based immunopeptidomics and whole exome sequencing is an efficient approach for identifying neoantigenic peptides. Our multitarget VLP-based vaccine shows a promising anti-tumor effect in an aggressive murine mammary carcinoma model. Future clinical application using this strategy is readily feasible and practical, as click chemistry coupling of personalized synthetic peptides to the nanoparticles can be done at the bedside directly before injection.

Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 70
Eduardo D. Rodríguez-Aguilar ◽  
Jesús Martínez-Barnetche ◽  
Cesar R. González-Bonilla ◽  
Juan M. Tellez-Sosa ◽  
Rocío Argotte-Ramos ◽  

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which causes Chikungunya fever. Three CHIKV genotypes have been identified: West African, East-Central-South African and Asian. In 2014, CHIKV was detected for the first time in Mexico, accumulating 13,569 confirmed cases in the following three years. Studies on the molecular diversification of CHIKV in Mexico focused on limited geographic regions or investigated only one structural gene of the virus. To describe the dynamics of this outbreak, we analyzed 309 serum samples from CHIKV acute clinical cases from 15 Mexican states. Partial NSP3, E1, and E2 genes were sequenced, mutations were identified, and their genetic variability was estimated. The evolutionary relationship with CHIKV sequences sampled globally were analyzed. Our sequences grouped with the Asian genotype within the Caribbean lineage, suggesting that the Asian was the only circulating genotype during the outbreak. Three non-synonymous mutations (E2 S248F and NSP3 A437T and L451F) were present in our sequences, which were also identified in sequences of the Caribbean lineage and in one Philippine sequence. Based on the phylogeographic analysis, the viral spread was reconstructed, suggesting that after the introduction through the Mexican southern border (Chiapas), CHIKV dispersed to neighboring states before reaching the center and north of the country through the Pacific Ocean states and Quintana Roo. This is the first viral phylogeographic reconstruction in Mexico characterizing the CHIKV outbreak across the country.

2021 ◽  
Jin-Jong Bong ◽  
Wonsig Lee ◽  
Qu-Ehn Park ◽  
Kyung Tae Noh

Abstract Background: Malaria chemoprophylaxis using chloroquine (CQ) and primaquine (PQ) has been administered to resident soldiers in the 3rd Army of Republic of Korea (ROK) to prevent malaria infection since the year 1997. Due to mass chemoprophylaxis against malaria, concern exists about occurrence of chloroquine resistance (CQR). Herein, we investigated the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the Plasmodium vivax multi-drug resistance protein-1 (pvmdr-1) gene to monitor the risk of CQR. Methods: SNPs of the pvmdr-1 gene were analyzed in 73 soldiers of the 3rd Army of ROK diagnosed with infection by Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax). Results: Quintuple mutations (G698S, L845F, M908L, T958M, and F1076L) were detected in 73 soldiers. Mutation in the Y541C position was firstly detected in soldiers at a frequency of 1.3% (1/73). In addition, synonymous mutations were detected at positions K44, L493, T529, and E1233. Based on these SNPs, pvmdr-1 sequences of ROK were classified into 6 haplotypes. The phylogenetic analysis closed to Type of North Korean showed that P. vivax malaria of ROK could be a reason of influx from North Korea. In this study, there was no therapeutic resistance (CQ-mediated parasite clearance within 72 hours) for clinical samples that possessed various SNPs of pvmdr-1. Various SNPs including a newly identified non-synonymous mutation (Y541C) had been introduced into P. vivax malaria-endemic areas in ROK. Conclusions: Our study showed that synonymous and non-synonymous mutations of pvmdr-1 were introduced to the malaria chemoprophylaxis-executed regions of ROK from 2016 to 2017. Thus, to prevent the emergence of CQR, continuous surveillance for SNPs of pvmdr-1 related with CQR in the malaria-endemic regions of ROK is essential.

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