sex differences
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2022 ◽  
Vol 271 ◽  
pp. 163-170
Lindsay F. Remer ◽  
Christina I. Lee ◽  
Omar Picado ◽  
John I. Lew

2022 ◽  
Vol 76 ◽  
pp. 102078
Pablo Monterroso ◽  
Kristin J. Moore ◽  
Jeannette M. Sample ◽  
Natali Sorajja ◽  
Allison Domingues ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 185 ◽  
pp. 111288
Jessica A. Hehman ◽  
Catherine A. Salmon ◽  
Anthony Pulford ◽  
Eric Ramirez ◽  
Peter K. Jonason

Genus ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 78 (1) ◽  
Helena Cruz Castanheira ◽  
José Henrique Costa Monteiro da Silva

AbstractThe production, compilation, and publication of death registration records is complex and usually involves many institutions. Assessing available data and the evolution of the completeness of the data compiled based on demographic techniques and other available data sources is of great importance for countries and for having timely and disaggregated mortality estimates. In this paper, we assess whether it is reasonable, based on the available data, to assume that there is a sex difference in the completeness of male and female death records in Peru in the last 30 years. In addition, we assess how the gap may have evolved with time by applying two-census death distribution methods on health-related registries and analyzing the information from the Demographic and Health Surveys and civil registries. Our findings suggest that there is no significant sex difference in the completeness of male and female health-related registries and, consequently, the sex gap currently observed in adult mortality estimates might be overestimated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 1
Philipp Krisai ◽  
Ghassen Cheniti ◽  
Takamitsu Takagi ◽  
Tsukasa Kamakura ◽  
Elodie Surget ◽  

2022 ◽  
Marco Del Giudice ◽  
Steven Gangestad

Harrison et al. (2021) set out to test the greater male variability hypothesis with respect to personality in non-human animals. Based on the non-significant results of their meta-analysis, they concluded that there is no evidence to support the hypothesis, and that biological explanations for greater male variability in human psychological traits should be called into question. Here, we show that these conclusions are unwarranted. Specifically: (a) in mammals, birds, and reptiles/amphibians, the magnitude of the sex differences in variability found in the meta-analysis is entirely in line with previous findings from both humans and non-human animals; (b) the generalized lack of statistical significance does not imply that effect sizes were too small to be considered meaningful, as the study was severely underpowered to detect effect sizes in the plausible range; (c) the results of the meta-analysis can be expected to underestimate the true magnitude of sex differences in the variability of personality, because the behavioral measures employed in most of the original studies contain large amounts of measurement error; and (d) variability effect sizes based on personality scores, latencies, and proportions suffer from lac of statistical validity, adding even more noise to the meta-analysis. In total, Harrison et al.’s study does nothing to disprove the greater male variability hypothesis in mammals, let alone in humans. To the extent that they are valid, the data remain compatible with a wide range of plausible scenarios.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 413
César Fernández-de-las-Peñas ◽  
José D. Martín-Guerrero ◽  
Óscar J. Pellicer-Valero ◽  
Esperanza Navarro-Pardo ◽  
Víctor Gómez-Mayordomo ◽  

This multicenter cohort study investigated the differences between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related symptoms and post-COVID symptoms between male and female COVID-19 survivors. Clinical and hospitalization data were collected from hospital medical records in a sample of individuals recovered from COVID-19 at five public hospitals in Spain. A predefined list of post-COVID symptoms was systematically assessed, but patients were free to report any symptom. Anxiety/depressive levels and sleep quality were also assessed. Adjusted multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify the association of sex with post-COVID related-symptoms. A total of 1969 individuals (age: 61, SD: 16 years, 46.4% women) were assessed 8.4 months after discharge. No overall significant sex differences in COVID-19 onset symptoms at hospital admission were found. Post-COVID symptoms were present in up to 60% of hospitalized COVID-19 survivors eight months after the infection. The number of post-COVID symptoms was 2.25 for females and 1.5 for males. After adjusting by all variables, female sex was associated with ≥3 post-COVID symptoms (adj OR 2.54, 95%CI 1.671–3.865, p < 0.001), the presence of post-COVID fatigue (adj OR 1.514, 95%CI 1.040–2.205), dyspnea (rest: adj OR 1.428, 95%CI 1.081–1.886, exertion: adj OR 1.409, 95%CI 1.109–1.791), pain (adj OR 1.349, 95%CI 1.059–1.720), hair loss (adj OR 4.529, 95%CI 2.784–7.368), ocular problems (adj OR 1.981, 95%CI 1.185–3.312), depressive levels (adj OR 1.606, 95%CI 1.002–2.572) and worse sleep quality (adj OR 1.634, 95%CI 1.097–2.434). Female sex was a risk factor for the development of some long-term post-COVID symptoms including mood disorders. Healthcare systems should consider sex differences in the management of long haulers.

Aging ◽  
2022 ◽  
Michael Kolland ◽  
Edith Hofer ◽  
Lukas Pirpamer ◽  
Daniela Eibl ◽  
Christian Enzinger ◽  

Ahmed Haider ◽  
Susan Bengs ◽  
Angela Portmann ◽  
Alexia Rossi ◽  
Hazem Ahmed ◽  

Abstract Background A growing body of evidence highlights sex differences in the diagnostic accuracy of cardiovascular imaging modalities. Nonetheless, the role of sex hormones in modulating myocardial perfusion and coronary flow reserve (CFR) is currently unclear. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of female and male sex hormones on myocardial perfusion and CFR. Methods Rest and stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) was conducted by small animal positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]flurpiridaz in a total of 56 mice (7–8 months old) including gonadectomized (Gx) and sham-operated males and females, respectively. Myocardial [18F]flurpiridaz uptake (% injected dose per mL, % ID/mL) was used as a surrogate for myocardial perfusion at rest and following intravenous regadenoson injection, as previously reported. Apparent coronary flow reserve (CFRApp) was calculated as the ratio of stress and rest myocardial perfusion. Left ventricular (LV) morphology and function were assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Results Orchiectomy resulted in a significant decrease of resting myocardial perfusion (Gx vs. sham, 19.4 ± 1.0 vs. 22.2 ± 0.7 % ID/mL, p = 0.034), while myocardial perfusion at stress remained unchanged (Gx vs. sham, 27.5 ± 1.2 vs. 27.3 ± 1.2 % ID/mL, p = 0.896). Accordingly, CFRApp was substantially higher in orchiectomized males (Gx vs. sham, 1.43 ± 0.04 vs. 1.23 ± 0.05, p = 0.004), and low serum testosterone levels were linked to a blunted resting myocardial perfusion (r = 0.438, p = 0.020) as well as an enhanced CFRApp (r = −0.500, p = 0.007). In contrast, oophorectomy did not affect myocardial perfusion in females. Of note, orchiectomized males showed a reduced LV mass, stroke volume, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on CMR, while no such effects were observed in oophorectomized females. Conclusion Our experimental data in mice indicate that sex differences in myocardial perfusion are primarily driven by testosterone. Given the diagnostic importance of PET-MPI in clinical routine, further studies are warranted to determine whether testosterone levels affect the interpretation of myocardial perfusion findings in patients.

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