harsh conditions
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 957
Franziska Steger ◽  
Johanna Reich ◽  
Werner Fuchs ◽  
Simon K.-M. R. Rittmann ◽  
Georg M. Gübitz ◽  

Strategies for depleting carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gases are urgently needed and carbonic anhydrases (CAs) can contribute to solving this problem. They catalyze the hydration of CO2 in aqueous solutions and therefore capture the CO2. However, the harsh conditions due to varying process temperatures are limiting factors for the application of enzymes. The current study aims to examine four recombinantly produced CAs from different organisms, namely CAs from Acetobacterium woodii (AwCA or CynT), Persephonella marina (PmCA), Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (MtaCA or Cab) and Sulphurihydrogenibium yellowstonense (SspCA). The highest expression yields and activities were found for AwCA (1814 WAU mg−1 AwCA) and PmCA (1748 WAU mg−1 PmCA). AwCA was highly stable in a mesophilic temperature range, whereas PmCA proved to be exceptionally thermostable. Our results indicate the potential to utilize CAs from anaerobic microorganisms to develop CO2 sequestration applications.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 601
Przemyslaw Dabek ◽  
Jaroslaw Szrek ◽  
Radoslaw Zimroz ◽  
Jacek Wodecki

Complex mechanical systems used in the mining industry for efficient raw materials extraction require proper maintenance. Especially in a deep underground mine, the regular inspection of machines operating in extremely harsh conditions is challenging, thus, monitoring systems and autonomous inspection robots are becoming more and more popular. In the paper, it is proposed to use a mobile unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) platform equipped with various data acquisition systems for supporting inspection procedures. Although maintenance staff with appropriate experience are able to identify problems almost immediately, due to mentioned harsh conditions such as temperature, humidity, poisonous gas risk, etc., their presence in dangerous areas is limited. Thus, it is recommended to use inspection robots collecting data and appropriate algorithms for their processing. In this paper, the authors propose red-green-blue (RGB) and infrared (IR) image fusion to detect overheated idlers. An original procedure for image processing is proposed, that exploits some characteristic features of conveyors to pre-process the RGB image to minimize non-informative components in the pictures collected by the robot. Then, the authors use this result for IR image processing to improve SNR and finally detect hot spots in IR image. The experiments have been performed on real conveyors operating in industrial conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shihong Zhao ◽  
Boya Xu ◽  
Wenbin Ma ◽  
Hao Chen ◽  
Chuanlu Jiang ◽  

With the gradual understanding of tumor development, many tumor therapies have been invented and applied in clinical work, and immunotherapy has been widely concerned as an emerging hot topic in the last decade. It is worth noting that immunotherapy is nowadays applied under too harsh conditions, and many tumors are defined as “cold tumors” that are not sensitive to immunotherapy, and brain tumors are typical of them. However, there is much evidence that suggests a link between DNA damage repair mechanisms and immunotherapy. This may be a breakthrough for the application of immunotherapy in brain tumors. Therefore, in this review, first, we will describe the common pathways of DNA damage repair. Second, we will focus on immunotherapy and analyze the mechanisms of DNA damage repair involved in the immune process. Third, we will review biomarkers that have been or may be used to evaluate immunotherapy for brain tumors, such as TAMs, RPA, and other molecules that may provide a precursor assessment for the rational implementation of immunotherapy for brain tumors. Finally, we will discuss the rational combination of immunotherapy with other therapeutic approaches that have an impact on the DNA damage repair process in order to open new pathways for the application of immunotherapy in brain tumors, to maximize the effect of immunotherapy on DNA damage repair mechanisms, and to provide ideas and guidance for immunotherapy in brain tumors.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 88
Charlie Tran ◽  
Ian E. Cock ◽  
Xiaojing Chen ◽  
Yunjiang Feng

The agricultural industry utilizes antibiotic growth promoters to promote livestock growth and health. However, the World Health Organization has raised concerns over the ongoing spread of antibiotic resistance transmission in the populace, leading to its subsequent ban in several countries, especially in the European Union. These restrictions have translated into an increase in pathogenic outbreaks in the agricultural industry, highlighting the need for an economically viable, non-toxic, and renewable alternative to antibiotics in livestock. Probiotics inhibit pathogen growth, promote a beneficial microbiota, regulate the immune response of its host, enhance feed conversion to nutrients, and form biofilms that block further infection. Commonly used lactic acid bacteria probiotics are vulnerable to the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal system, leading to novel research using spore-forming bacteria from the genus Bacillus. However, the exact mechanisms behind Bacillus probiotics remain unexplored. This review tackles this issue, by reporting antimicrobial compounds produced from Bacillus strains, their proposed mechanisms of action, and any gaps in the mechanism studies of these compounds. Lastly, this paper explores omics approaches to clarify the mechanisms behind Bacillus probiotics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2114138119
Junhui Wang ◽  
Qi Fu ◽  
Jiaxing Yu ◽  
Huangsheng Yang ◽  
Zhengping Hao ◽  

The Fenton-like process catalyzed by metal-free materials presents one of the most promising strategies to deal with the ever-growing environmental pollution. However, to develop improved catalysts with adequate activity, complicated preparation/modification processes and harsh conditions are always needed. Herein, we proposed an ultrafast and facile strategy to convert various inefficient commercial nanocarbons into highly active catalysts by noncovalent functionalization with polyethylenimine (PEI). The modified catalysts could be in situ fabricated by direct addition of PEI aqueous solution into the nanocarbon suspensions within 30 s and without any tedious treatment. The unexpectedly high catalytic activity is even superior to that of the single-atom catalyst and could reach as high as 400 times higher than the pristine carbon material. Theoretical and experimental results reveal that PEI creates net negative charge via intermolecular charge transfer, rendering the catalyst higher persulfate activation efficiency.

2022 ◽  
Wei Wang ◽  
Peng Ji ◽  
Cassondra Davies ◽  
Feng Gao ◽  
Jing Chen ◽  

Abstract Reactions that lead to destruction of aromatic ring systems often require harsh conditions and, thus, take place with poor selectivities. Selective partial dearomatization of fused arenes is even more challenging but it can be a strategic approach to creating versatile, complex polycyclic frameworks. Herein we describe a general organophotoredox approach for the chemo- and regioselective dearomatization of structurally diverse polycyclic aromatics, including quinolines, isoquinolines, quinoxalines, naphthalenes, anthracenes and phenanthrenes. The success of the new method for chemoselective oxidative rupture of aromatic moieties relies on precise manipulation of the electronic nature of the fused polycyclic arenes. Experimental and computational results show that the key to overcoming the intrinsic thermodynamic and kinetic unfavorability of the dearomatization process is an ultimate hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) step, which enables dearomatization to predominate over the otherwise favorable aromatization pathway. We show that this strategy can be applied to rapid synthesis of biologically valued targets and late-stage skeletal remodeling en route to complex structures.

2022 ◽  
Yuto Katsuyama ◽  
Takayuki Takehi ◽  
Shu Sokabe ◽  
Mai Tanaka ◽  
Mizuki Ishizawa ◽  

Abstract Inexpensive, high-performing, and environmentally friendly energy storage devices are required for smart grids that efficiently utilize renewable energy. Energy storage devices consisting of organic active materials are promising because organic materials, especially quinones, are ubiquitous and usually do not require harsh conditions for synthesis, releasing less CO2 during mass production. Although fundamental research-scale aqueous quinone-based organic supercapacitors have shown excellent energy storage performance, no practical research has been conducted. We aimed to develop a practical-scale aqueous-quinone-based organic supercapacitor. By connecting 12 cells of size 10 cm × 10 cm × 0.5 cm each in series, we fabricated a high-voltage (> 6 V) aqueous organic supercapacitor that can charge a smartphone at a 1 C rate. This is the first step in commercializing aqueous organic supercapacitors that could solve environmental problems, such as high CO2 emissions, air pollution by toxic metals, and limited electricity generation by renewable resources.

2022 ◽  
Vol 334 ◽  
pp. 04005
Eva Sousa ◽  
Sofia Delgado ◽  
Tiago Lagarteira ◽  
Adélio Mendes

Hybrid supports have been proposed as a new alternative to increase the stability of ORR catalysts used in PEMFCs for automotive applications since they are known to be stable under harsh conditions. In this work, Pt nanoparticles were deposited over C/SiO2, via single-step polyol method, to take advantage of the corrosion-resistance properties of silica nanoparticles. In fact, the synthesis parameters, namely, pH, temperature, and glycol concentration had a remarkable impact on the Pt size-distribution, crystallinity, and dispersion over the C/SiO2 supports. A maximum ORR activity and stability was obtained for Pt/C/SiO2 catalysts produced at 1:6 W/EG (v/v). The addition of SiO2 nanoparticles to the carbon structure showed their ability to effectively inhibit support corrosion and Pt nanoparticles detachment and/or growth, with the pH adjustments being critical for obtaining highly stable C/SiO2 supports. Pt/C/SiO2 synthetized under acidic conditions revealed the highest stability when subjected to accelerated stress tests (ASTs), losing only 30 % of the initial electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) of Pt after 4 000 cycles from 0.6 to 1 V (vs RHE), whereas the commercial Pt/C revealed > 50 % of ECSA loss.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 2270013
Mengwei Liu ◽  
Yujia Zhang ◽  
Yanghong Zhang ◽  
Zhitao Zhou ◽  
Nan Qin ◽  

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