apoe genotype
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Peter Hermann ◽  
Anna Villar-Piqué ◽  
Matthias Schmitz ◽  
Christian Schmidt ◽  
Daniela Varges ◽  

Abstract Background Lipocalin-2 is a glycoprotein that is involved in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. In the brain, it is expressed in response to vascular and other brain injury, as well as in Alzheimer’s disease in reactive microglia and astrocytes. Plasma Lipocalin-2 has been proposed as a biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease but available data is scarce and inconsistent. Thus, we evaluated plasma Lipocalin-2 in the context of Alzheimer’s disease, differential diagnoses, other biomarkers, and clinical data. Methods For this two-center case-control study, we analyzed Lipocalin-2 concentrations in plasma samples from a cohort of n = 407 individuals. The diagnostic groups comprised Alzheimer’s disease (n = 74), vascular dementia (n = 28), other important differential diagnoses (n = 221), and healthy controls (n = 84). Main results were validated in an independent cohort with patients with Alzheimer’s disease (n = 19), mild cognitive impairment (n = 27), and healthy individuals (n = 28). Results Plasma Lipocalin-2 was significantly lower in Alzheimer’s disease compared to healthy controls (p < 0.001) and all other groups (p < 0.01) except for mixed dementia (vascular and Alzheimer’s pathologic changes). Areas under the curve from receiver operation characteristics for the discrimination of Alzheimer’s disease and healthy controls were 0.783 (95%CI: 0.712–0.855) in the study cohort and 0.766 (95%CI: 0.627–0.905) in the validation cohort. The area under the curve for Alzheimer’s disease versus vascular dementia was 0.778 (95%CI: 0.667–0.890) in the study cohort. In Alzheimer’s disease patients, plasma Lipocalin2 did not show significant correlation with cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of neurodegeneration and AD-related pathology (total-tau, phosphorylated tau protein, and beta-amyloid 1-42), cognitive status (Mini Mental Status Examination scores), APOE genotype, or presence of white matter hyperintensities. Interestingly, Lipocalin 2 was lower in patients with rapid disease course compared to patients with non-rapidly progressive Alzheimer’s disease (p = 0.013). Conclusions Plasma Lipocalin-2 has potential as a diagnostic biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease and seems to be independent from currently employed biomarkers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 ◽  
Carmen Peña-Bautista ◽  
Lourdes Álvarez-Sánchez ◽  
Lorena García ◽  
Miguel Baquero ◽  
Consuelo Cháfer-Pericás

Background: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is the major genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Some studies showed a relationship between ApoE4 genotype and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (β-amyloid42, p-Tau, t-Tau), as well as with cognitive status. In this sense, it could be interesting to develop an approach to establish amyloid status in a minimally invasive way. Methods: The present study assessed the ApoE genotype in different participant groups (mild cognitive impairment due to AD (MCI-AD), mild/moderate dementia due to AD, MCI not due to AD (MCI not AD), other neurological diseases, healthy participants) (n = 342). Results: As expected, the ApoE4 allele was more prevalent in AD patients, characterized by impairment in CSF β-amyloid42 levels (Aβ +), than in the other groups (Aβ -). In this sense, ApoE4-carrier subjects showed lower CSF levels for β-amyloid42 and higher CSF levels for t-Tau and p-Tau. From this, a multivariate model to predict Aβ status was developed by means of partial least square analysis (PLS) and predictive variables (ApoE genotype, cognitive score, sex, age). This model showed suitable AUC-ROC 0.792 (95% CI, 0.744-0.840) and predictive negative value (81.6%). Conclusion: ApoE genotype could be useful in detecting CSF β-amyloid42 impairment associated with early AD development.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Michelle M. Dunk ◽  
Ira Driscoll ◽  

Background: APOE ɛ4 allele confers greatest genetic risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), yet mechanisms underlying this risk remain elusive. APOE is involved in lipid metabolism, and literature suggest relationships between high total cholesterol, APOE, and AD. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the potential role of total cholesterol in AD risk. Objective: To investigate the relationship between total cholesterol and APOE-related AD risk in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Methods: Participants (N = 1,534) were classified as controls (cognitively normal; N = 404), early mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N = 294), late MCI (N = 539), or AD (N = 297). Total cholesterol levels were compared across APOE genotype and diagnosis. Mendelian randomization was performed to examine causality between total cholesterol and AD risk using APOE as a genetic instrument. Results: Total cholesterol was higher in APOE4+ compared to APOE3 and APOE2+ (ps < 0.04) carriers. Those with AD and late MCI (ps < 0.001) had higher total cholesterol than the control group. Comparing APOE4+ to APOE3 carriers, the predicted odds ratios per mg/dL greater total cholesterol were 1.11 for MCI (95% confidence interval, 1.04–7.32), 1.05 for early MCI (1.01–3.22), 1.13 for late MCI (1.05–11.70), 1.21 for AD (1.09–54.05), and 1.13 for composite dementia (MCI or AD; 1.06–11.59) (ps < 0.05, F-statistics>10). Conclusion: Higher total cholesterol may be a significant contributor to AD risk, particularly in APOE4 carriers who, based on existing literature, tend to have impaired cholesterol metabolism. Our findings highlight a possible mechanism by which APOE confers AD risk and indicate potential for AD risk modification through maintenance of healthy total cholesterol levels.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 ◽  
Mia Nishikawa ◽  
Adam M. Brickman ◽  
Jennifer J. Manly ◽  
Nicole Schupf ◽  
Richard P. Mayeux ◽  

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary prebiotic intake and risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods: This longitudinal study includes 1,837 elderly (≥65 years) participants of a multi-ethnic community-based cohort study who were dementia-free at baseline and had provided dietary information from food frequency questionnaires. Total daily intake of fructan, one of the best-known prebiotics, was calculated based on consumption frequency and fructan content per serving of 8 food items. The associations of daily fructan intake with AD risk were examined using a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusted for cohort recruitment wave, age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, daily caloric intake, and APOE genotype. Effect modification by race/ethnicity, APOE genotype, and gender was tested by including an interaction term into the Cox models, as well as by stratified analyses. Results: Among 1,837 participants (1,263 women [69%]; mean [SD] age = 76 [6.3] years), there were 391 incident AD cases during a mean follow-up of 7.5 years (13736 person-years). Each additional gram of fructan intake was associated with 24% lower risk for AD ((95% CI)=0.60-0.97; P =0.03). Additional adjusting for smoking, alcohol consumption, and comorbidity index did not change results materially. The associations were not modified by race/ethnicity, gender, and APOE genotype, although stratified analyses showed that fructan intake was significantly associated with reduced AD risk in Hispanics but not in non-Hispanic Blacks or Whites. Conclusion: Higher dietary fructan intake is associated with a reduced risk of clinical Alzheimer’s disease among older adults.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Liling Dong ◽  
Chenhui Mao ◽  
Caiyan Liu ◽  
Jie Li ◽  
Xinying Huang ◽  

Background: The previous studies have identified several genes in relation to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), such as ABCA7, CR1, etc. A few studies have explored the association between the common variants, mainly in the non-coding regions of these genes, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. Fewer studies target the variants in the coding regions. Objective: To illustrate the association between the common variants within or adjacent to the coding regions of AD susceptible genes and CSF biomarkers in AD patients. Methods: 75 sporadic probable AD patients were extracted from the dementia cohort of Peking Union Medical College Hospital. They all had history inquiry, physical examination, blood test, cognitive assessment, brain MRI, CSF testing of Aβ42, 181p-tau, and t-tau, and next-generation DNA sequencing. Sixty-nine common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (minor allele frequency > 0.01) within or near the coding region of 13 AD susceptible genes were included in the analysis. Results: The rs7412-CC (APOE) genotype showed lower CSF Aβ42 level and higher p-tau/Aβ42 ratio than the rs7412-CT genotype. The rs3752246-C (ABCA7) allele correlated with lower CSF Aβ42 level. The alternate alleles of six ABCA7 SNPs were related to lower CSF p-tau, including rs3745842, rs3764648, rs3764652, rs4147930, rs4147934 and rs881768. The rs11609582-TT (A2M) genotype showed higher CSF p-tau than the rs11609582-TA genotype. The p-tau/Aβ42 ratio was higher in the rs490460-TT (BACE1) genotype relative to the rs490460-GT genotype. Conclusion: Some common variants within or near the coding regions of APOE, ABCA7, A2M, and BACE1 are associated with CSF Aβ42, p-tau. or p-tau/Aβ42.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Naazneen Khan ◽  
Yelena Alimova ◽  
Sophie J. Clark ◽  
Hemendra Vekaria ◽  
Adeline E. Walsh ◽  

Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive age-dependent disorder whose risk is affected by genetic factors. Better models for investigating early effects of risk factors such as apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype are needed. Objective: To determine whether APOE genotype produces neuropathologies in an AD-susceptible neural system, we compared effects of human APOE ɛ3 (E3) and APOE ɛ4 (E4) alleles on the mouse olfactory epithelium. Methods: RNA-Seq using the STAR aligner and DESeq2, immunohistochemistry for activated caspase-3 and phosphorylated histone H3, glucose uptake after oral gavage of 2-[1,2-3H (N)]-deoxy-D-glucose, and Seahorse Mito Stress tests on dissociated olfactory mucosal cells. Results: E3 and E4 olfactory mucosae show 121 differentially abundant mRNAs at age 6 months. These do not indicate differences in cell type proportions, but effects on 17 odorant receptor mRNAs suggest small differences in tissue development. Ten oxidoreductases mRNAs important for cellular metabolism and mitochondria are less abundant in E4 olfactory mucosae but this does not translate into differences in cellular respiration. E4 olfactory mucosae show lower glucose uptake, characteristic of AD susceptibility and consistent with greater expression of the glucose-sensitive gene, Asns. Olfactory sensory neuron apoptosis is unaffected at age 6 months but is greater in E4 mice at 10 months. Conclusion: Effects of human APOE alleles on mouse olfactory epithelium phenotype are apparent in early adulthood, and neuronal loss begins to increase by middle age (10 months). The olfactory epithelium is an appropriate model for the ability of human APOE alleles to modulate age-dependent effects associated with the progression of AD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (S1) ◽  
Emrin Horgusluoglu‐Moloch ◽  
Minghui Wang ◽  
Xianxiao Zhou ◽  
Qi Zeng ◽  
Bin Zhang

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 1005-1006
Teresa Warren ◽  
McKenna Williams ◽  
Christine Fennema-Notestine ◽  
Jeremy Elman ◽  
Jennifer de Anda ◽  

Abstract American Heart Association’s (AHA) Life’s Simple 7 (LS7), an index of cardiovascular health risks, has been associated with worse brain outcomes but few examined this relationship in midlife. We examined whether LS7 scores at midlife were associated with brain morphometry in early old age. Participants were 471 men who participated in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. The LS7 index was assessed at mean age 62 (range 55-66) and 68 (range 61-71) and included smoking, physical activity, diet, body mass index, cholesterol, glucose, and blood pressure. Each factor was coded, per AHA criteria, on a 3-point scale (0/poor-2/ideal) and summed to create a composite score (0-14). At mean age 68, participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging, which was used to create the previously validated brain measures. Scores included: the ratio of abnormal white matter to white matter, and two Alzheimer’s disease brain signatures (cortical thickness/volume signature and a mean diffusivity (MD) signature). Analyses controlled for age, education, income, ethnicity, and APOE genotype. Concurrently at mean age 68, the LS7 was associated with cortical thickness/volume (F=4.85, p = .028), MD (F=10.89, p = .001) signatures and abnormal white matter ratio (F=14.04, p &lt; .001). Prospectively, the LS7 at mean 62 was significantly associated with age 68 cortical thickness/volume (F=5.08, p = .025) and MD (F=5.54, p = .019) signatures but not with abnormal white matter ratio. These results suggest that prevention strategies that promote heart healthy behaviors could have implications for healthy brain aging.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (S5) ◽  
Avnish Bhattrai ◽  
Adam C. Raikes ◽  
Aarti Mishra ◽  
Roberta Diaz Brinton

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