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Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 1124
Naresh Kumar ◽  
Garima Sharma ◽  
Eithne Leahy ◽  
Bibek R. Shome ◽  
Samiran Bandyopadhyay ◽  

The use and misuse of antibiotics in both humans and animals contributes to the global emergence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria, a threat to public health and infection control. Currently, India is the world’s leading milk producer but antibiotic usage within the dairy sector is poorly regulated. Little data exists reflecting how antibiotics are used on dairy farms, especially on small-scale dairy farms in India. To address this lack of data, a study was carried out on 491 small-scale dairy farms in two Indian states, Assam and Haryana, using a mixed method approach where farmers were interviewed, farms inspected for the presence of antibiotics and milk samples taken to determine antibiotic usage. Usage of antibiotics on farms appeared low only 10% (95% CI 8–13%) of farmers surveyed confirmed using antibiotics in their dairy herds during the last 12 months. Of the farms surveyed, only 8% (6–11%) had milk samples positive for antibiotic residues, namely from the novobiocin, macrolides, and sulphonamide classes of antibiotics. Of the farmers surveyed, only 2% (0.8–3%) had heard of the term “withdrawal period” and 53% (40–65%) failed to describe the term “antibiotic”. While this study clearly highlights a lack of understanding of antibiotics among small-scale dairy farmers, a potential factor in the emergence of AMR bacteria, it also shows that antibiotic usage on these farms is low and that the possible role these farmers play in AMR emergence may be overestimated.

Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 1123
Anita Kotwani ◽  
Jyoti Joshi ◽  
Anjana Sankhil Lamkang

India has one of the highest rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) worldwide. Despite being prescription drugs, antibiotics are commonly available over-the-counter (OTC) at retail pharmacies. We aimed to gain insight into the OTC sale of antibiotics at retail pharmacies and to elucidate its underlying drivers. We conducted face-to-face, in-depth interviews using convenience sampling with 22 pharmacists and 14 informal dispensers from 36 retail pharmacies across two Indian states (Haryana and Telangana). Thematic analysis revealed that antibiotics were often dispensed OTC for conditions e.g., fever, cough and cold, and acute diarrhea, which are typically viral and self-limiting. Both Access and Watch groups of antibiotics were dispensed for 1–2 days. Respondents had poor knowledge regarding AMR and shifted the blame for OTC practices for antibiotics onto the government, prescribers, informal providers, cross practice by alternative medicine practitioners, and consumer demand. Pharmacists suggested the main drivers for underlying OTC dispensing were commercial interests, poor access to public healthcare, economic and time constraints among consumers, lack of stringent regulations, and scanty inspections. Therefore, a comprehensive strategy which is well aligned with activities under the National Action Plan-AMR, including stewardship efforts targeting pharmacists and evidence-based targeted awareness campaigns for all stakeholders, is required to curb the inappropriate use of antibiotics.

Zootaxa ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5034 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-112

The present catalogue is the first résumé of the family Nolidae Bruand, 1846 recorded in India comprising 354 species under 98 genera of 6 subfamilies, including four new records to India: Casminola seminigra (Hampson, 1896), Evonima ronkaygabori Han & Hu, 2019, Meganola suffusata (Wileman & West, 1929) and Nola euryzonata (Hampson, 1900). The Indian Nolidae represents 16.2 % of the global species (2,179 species) of Nolidae. The information on the type locality, type depository, sex of the type (wherever available), first reference, synonymy, host plants (wherever available) and distribution within as well as outside India for each of the included species is provided. Some clarifications regarding type locality, type depository along with new distributional records within Indian states are also given with 72 images of adults.  

2021 ◽  
pp. 146499342110304
Shelli Israelsen ◽  
Andrea Malji

Significant variations in infection, testing, and mortality rates have exposed key differences in the initial COVID-19 response by Indian states. At the onset of the pandemic, states like Gujarat, known for its large economic output, suffered high COVID-19 case fatality rates, a disorganized response, and poor access to healthcare. In contrast, Kerala, a less industrialized state on India’s southwestern coast, experienced low infection rates and fatalities. The low case fatality rate was accompanied by widespread access to care, extensive testing, and an organized response by the state. The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic provides an opportunity to compare how the Gujarat and Kerala models performed. Since 2000, the Gujarat model has emphasized industrialization and economic development, often at the expense of social development. In contrast, the Kerala model emphasizes social development, often at the expense of economic development. This article analyses the initial response to COVID-19 by Kerala and Gujarat and finds that the Kerala model and its emphasis on social development helped the state respond more effectively to the first wave of the pandemic compared to Gujarat.

2021 ◽  
Neha Jain ◽  
Srinivas Goli

India is on the edge of a demographic revolution with a rapidly rising working-age population. For the first time in this study, we investigate the role of the rising working-age population on per capita small savings in post offices and banks net of socio-economic characteristics using state-level panel data compiled from multiple sources for the period 2001-2018. Our comprehensive econometric assessment with multiple robustness checks provide three key findings: (1) Per capita private savings is increasing because of India’s growing working-age population, thus the ‘economic life cycle hypothesis’ is supported. (2) The demographic factors contribute around one-fourth of the per capita private savings inequality across Indian states. (3) The demographic window of economic opportunity for India can yield maximum benefits in terms of private savings when accompanied by favourable socio-economic policies on education, health, gender equity, and economic growth.

2021 ◽  
Vol 81 ◽  
pp. 102263
Chao-yo Cheng ◽  
YuJung Julia Lee ◽  
Galen Murray ◽  
Yuree Noh ◽  
Johannes Urpelainen ◽  

Arpan Garg ◽  
Y D Sharma ◽  
Subit Kumar Jain

COVID-19 is causing a large number of causalities and producing tedious healthcare management problems at a global level. During a pandemic, resource availability and optimal distribution of the resources may save lives. Due to this issue, the authors have proposed an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based optimal distribution model. The proposed distribution model advances the AHP and enhances real-time model applicability by eliminating judgmental scale errors. The model development is systematically discussed. Also, the proposed model is utilized as a state-level optimal COVID-19 vaccine distribution model with limited vaccine availability. The COVID-19 vaccine distribution model used 28 Indian states and 7 union territories as the decision elements for the vaccination problem. The state-wise preference weights were calculated using the geometric mean AHP analysis method. The optimal state-level distribution of the COVID-19 vaccine was obtained using preference weights, vaccine availability and the fact that a patient requires exactly vaccine doses to complete a vaccination schedule. The optimal COVID-19 vaccine distribution along with state and union territory rank, and preference weights were compiled. The obtained results found Kerala, Maharashtra, Uttarakhand, Karnataka, and West Bengal to be the most COVID-19 affected states. In the future, the authors suggest using the proposed model to design an optimal vaccine distribution strategy at the district or country level, and to design a vaccine storage/inventory model to ensure optimal use of a vaccine storage center covering nearby territories.

Social Change ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 51 (3) ◽  
pp. 420-425
Surajit Deb

This contribution of the Social Change Indicators forms the eleventh part of the series. Over the last three segments, we have been focussing on the social and economic challenges arising out of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns. The topics previously covered were on the themes of vulnerable households across social classes, poverty and migration and living conditions for social distancing. In this part, we highlight the spread of the social protection network in various states of India. Aspects such as the percentage of households having a below poverty line (BPL) card, percentage of households having a health scheme or health insurance, percentage of households having a bank or post office account, Aadhaar card saturation, percentage of families/persons covered under the targetted Public Distribution System, percentage of Aadhaar-seeded ration cards, allocation of work under MGNREGA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act) and the number of fair price shops per thousand population in 2021 have been examined. The required data has been collected from the Aadhaar Saturation Report provided by the Unique Identification Authority of India, the Food Grain Bulletin of the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, Ration Card Dashboard of the National Food Security Act, the public data portal of MGNREGA and the Fourth Round of the National Family Health Survey’s state volumes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Tulasi Malini Maharatha ◽  
Umakant Dash

Abstract Background Though child mortality has dropped remarkably, it is considerably high in South Asia. Across the globe, 5.2 million children under 5 years of age died in 2019, and India accounts for a significant portion of these deaths. Common childhood illnesses are the leading cause of these deaths. Seeking care from formal providers can reduce these avoidable deaths. Inequity is a crucial blockage in optimum utilization of medical treatment for children. Hence, the present study analyzes the inequalities and horizontal inequities in utilizing the medical treatment for diarrhea, fever, acute respiratory infection (ARI), and any of these common childhood illnesses in India and across the Indian states. The study also attempts to locate significant contributors to these inequalities. Methods The study used 0 to 59 months children’s data sourced from the Demographic and Health Survey, India (2015–16). Concentration Index (CI) and Erreygers Corrected Concentration Index (EI) were used to measure the inequalities. The Horizontal Inequity Index (HII) was deployed to estimate inequity. The decomposition method introduced by Erreygers was applied to determine the significant contributors of inequalities. Results The EI in medical treatment-seeking for common childhood illnesses was 0.16, while the HII was 0.15. The highest inequality was perceived in the utilization of medical treatment for ARI (0.17). The primary contributing factors of these inequalities were continuum of maternal care (18.7%), media exposure (12%), affordability (9.3%), place of residence (9.1%), mother’s education (8.5%), and state groups (8.8%). The North-Eastern states showed the highest level of inequality across the Indian states. Conclusion The study reveals that the horizontal inequity in medical treatment utilization for children in India is pro-rich. The findings of the study suggest that attuning the efforts of existing maternal and child health programs into one seamless chain of care can bring the inequalities down and improve the utilization of child health care services. The spread of health education through different media sources, reaching out to rural and remote places with adequate health personnel, and easing out the financial hardship in accessing medical treatment could be the cornerstone in accelerating the utilization level amongst the impoverished children.

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