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2022 ◽  
Vol 305 ◽  
pp. 114304
Author(s):  
Nan Wang ◽  
Yunyan Du ◽  
Fuyuan Liang ◽  
Huimeng Wang ◽  
Jiawei Yi

2022 ◽  
Vol 150 ◽  
pp. 105712
Author(s):  
Marup Hossain ◽  
Athur Mabiso ◽  
Alessandra Garbero

MAUSAM ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
pp. 115-128
Author(s):  
SANDIP NIVDANGE ◽  
Chinmay Jena ◽  
Pooja Pawar

This paper discusses the comparative results of surface and satellite measurements made during the Phase1 (25 March to 14 April), Phase2 (15 April to 3 May) and Phase3 (3 May to 17May) of Covid-19 imposed lockdown periods of 2020 and those of the same locations and periods during 2019 over India. These comparative analyses are performed for Indian states and Tier 1 megacities where economic activities have been severely affected with the nationwide lockdown. The focus is on changes in the surface concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), PM2.5 and PM10, Ozone (O3), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)  and retrieved columnar NO2 from TROPOMI and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from MODIS satellite. Surface concentrations of PM2.5 were reduced by 30.59%, 31.64%  and 37.06%, PM10 by 40.64%, 44.95% and 46.58%, SO2 by 16.73%, 12.13% and 6.71%, columnar NO2 by 46.34%, 45.82% and 39.58% and CO by 45.08%, 41.51% and 60.45% during lockdown periods of Phase1, Phase2 and Phase3 respectively as compared to those of 2019 periods over India. During 1st phase of lockdown, model simulated PM2.5 shows overestimations to those of observed PM2.5 mass concentrations. The model underestimates the PM2.5 to those of without reduction before lockdown and 1st phase of lockdown periods. The reduction in emissions of PM2.5, PM10, CO and columnar NO2 are discussed with the surface transportation mobility maps during the study periods. Reduction in the emissions based on the observed reduction in the surface mobility data, the model showed excellent skills in capturing the observed PM2.5 concentrations. Nevertheless, during the 1st & 3rd phases of lockdown periods AOD reduced by 5 to 40%. Surface O3 was increased by 1.52% and 5.91% during 1st and 3rd Phases of lockdown periods respectively, while decreased by -8.29% during 2nd Phase of lockdown period.


Abstract This article presents an agroecosystem resilience index (ARI) relative to two types of exogenous drivers: biophysical and socioeconomic threats. The ARI is based on a theoretical framework of socioecological systems and draws upon multicriteria analysis. The multicriteria consists of variables related to natural, productive, socioeconomic, and institutional systems that are weighted and grouped through expert judgment. The index was operationalized in the Rio Grande Basin (RGB), in the Colombian Andes. The ARI was evaluated at the household level using information from 99 RGB households obtained through workshops, individual semistructured interviews, and surveys. The ARI is a continuous variable that ranges between zero and one and results in five categories of resilience: very low, low, medium, high, and very high. When faced with climate change impacts, 19% of households showed low resilience, 64% medium resilience, and 16% high resilience according to the ARI. When faced with price fluctuations, 23% of households showed low resilience, 65% medium resilience, and 11% high resilience. Key variables associated with high resilience include the diversity of vegetation cover, households that have forests on their properties, a high degree of connectivity with other patches of forest, diversification of household economic activities, profitability of economic activities, availability of water sources, and good relationship with local institutions.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mohammad Ali Sahraei ◽  
Babak Ziaei

Abstract The coronavirus outbreak has led several cities to come to the standstill and country lockdown within several locations to reduce coronavirus spread. Here we investigate CO2 emission, NO2 concentration, and mobility throughout EU nations and the United Kingdom (UK) from January 2019 until the end of August 2021. In accordance with the previous research obtained by Liu et al. and Le Quéré et al., as mentioned in the literature, our results show a reduction of CO2 emission for an extended period of 2020 and 2021 compared to the annual emission in 2019. This work obtained abrupt reductions of 10.66% and 4.36% in 2020 and 2021, respectively. Although the ratios and relationship between CO2 and NO2 were considered, we found that monthly NO2 concentration was reduced by 2–39% for ±1σ in 2020 and 13–34% for ±1σ in 2021 (until August) relative to 2019. Additionally, during confinements, the average annual mobility was substantially reduced by 36% for 2020 and 24% for 2021 (until August) relative to 2019. By discussing the role of distinct countries, the current study can contribute to comprehending the role of coronavirus as a huge disruptive factor in socio-economic activities, air quality, and city mobility.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Constantina Chiriac ◽  
◽  
Valeriu Stelian Niţoi ◽  
Marius Gîrtan ◽  
◽  
...  

The paper aims to be a model of analysis on passenger transport management for Bucharest and the metropolitan area, in order to stimulate the economic development of the city by supporting economic activities of local interest, by increasing the mobility of the transport system, economic activities that benefit local communities and that do not adversely affect people's health or the environment. The analysis presented proposes the use of geospatial information systems for urban traffic management and the construction of traffic simulation models.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Valeriu Stelian Niţoi ◽  
◽  
Constantina Chiriac ◽  
Marius Gîrtan ◽  
◽  
...  

The paper aims to be a general analysis material on the principles of modelling sustainable development processes at the regional level, by studying sustainable development of the economy of the regions by supporting regional socio-economic activities, i.e. those processes leading to a sustainable and harmonious development of the region and which do not result in adverse impacts on the human health or the environment. In this context, a regional development plan is proposed that sets out aspects structured on the following dimensions: economy, ecology, social. The plan analyzes all these areas but, what is very important, the adopted measures include elements common to the three spheres, as it is not advisable to prioritize the sectors.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0257498
Author(s):  
Kaiyang Zhong

In recent years, digital finance has become a crucial part of the financial system and reshaped the mode of green finance in China. Digital finance has brought certain impact on economic growth, industrial structure, and resident income, which may affect pollution. The nexus of digital finance and environment in China is thus worth exploring. By revising the traditional Environmental Kuznets Curve model with income inequality variable, this paper decomposes the environmental effects of economic activities into income growth effect, industrial structure effect and income inequality effect, and use panel data of China’s provinces to conduct an empirical analysis. The results reveal the following: (1) the Environmental Kuznets Curve is still valid in sample, and digital finance can reduce air and water pollution (as measured through SO2 and COD emission) directly; (2) in the influence mechanism, digital finance can alleviate income inequality and promote green industrial structure, thus reducing pollution indirectly, but the scale effect of income growth outweighs the technological effect, which increases pollution indirectly; and (3) digital finance has a threshold effect on improving the environment, then an acceleration effect appears after a certain threshold value. From the regional perspective, digital finance development in eastern regions is generally ahead of central and western regions, and the effects of environmental improvement in the eastern regions are greater. According to the study, this paper suggest that digital finance can be an effective way to promote social sustainability by alleviating income inequality and environmental sustainability by reducing pollution.


Author(s):  
M. А. Sdvizhkov

The article examines the background of legislative consolidation and the main problems of the introduction by pharmaceutical companies of a new legal institution for the prevention of violations of antimonopoly legislation — antimonopoly compliance, introduced by Federal Law No. 33-FL of March 1, 2020.The definition of the concept and a brief description of the current state and trends in the development of the pharmaceutical industry in connection with the relations of competition are given.The necessity of introducing antimonopoly compliance by pharmaceutical companies as a relatively independent part of pharmaceutical compliance as the most general (universal) tool for self-prevention of any offenses by the company itself and all its employees in connection with official activities is substantiated.The main antimonopoly risks associated with the implementation of pharmaceutical companies’ economic activities are named. Typical examples of violations of antimonopoly legislation by pharmaceutical companies are considered.The results of a sample survey of pharmaceutical industry representatives conducted by the author on their attitude to the introduction of antimonopoly compliance are presented.Proposals have been formulated to amend the Code of Administrative Offences of the Russian Federation in order to create additional incentives for the implementation of antimonopoly compliance.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 75
Author(s):  
David Terfa Akighir ◽  
Tyagher Margaret ◽  
Jacob Terungwa Tyagher ◽  
Tordue Emmanuel Kpoghul

Twelve (12) out of the Twenty-three (23) local government areas (LGAs) in Benue State do not have the presence of banks over a long period of time. This situation has deprived the inhabitants of these LGAs of access to formal financial services until the advent of agency banking. This study therefore, investigates the impact of agency banking on financial inclusion and economic activities in Benue State focusing on the agency banking activities of First Bank Ltd. The study is anchored on the agency theory and it used a survey design. The study has utilized both primary and secondary data that were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools and structural equation models. Findings of the study have revealed that agency banking activities of First Bank Ltd have immensely enhanced financial inclusion and economic activities in Benue State. However, challenges such as shortages of cash, security problems, network failures, and lack of financial literacy are militating against the smooth operations of the agency banking in the State. On the basis of these findings, the study has recommended among others that, other banks operating in the State should be encouraged to venture into agency banking in the state so as to have a wider coverage of agency banking in the State. Also, government should provide security and partner with the private sector to provide national carrier communication network system to overcome the network failure challenge. Finally, banks should intensify efforts to educate the masses about the validity and potency of agency banking.


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