respiratory support
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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 151-153
Onaisa Aalia Mushtaq ◽  
Javaid Ahmad Mir ◽  
Bushra Mushtaq

Neonatal Intensive Care is defined as, “care for medically unstable and critically ill newborns requiring constant nursing, complicated surgical procedures, continual respiratory support, or other intensive interventions.” A NICU is a unit that provides high quality skilled care to critically ill neonates by offering facilities for continuous clinical, biochemical and radio logical monitoring and use of life support systems with the aim of improving survival of these babies. Intermediate care includes care of ill infants requiring less constant nursing care, but does not exclude respiratory support. Care of ill infants requiring less constant nursing care, but does not exclude respiratory support. When an intensive care nursery is available, the intermediate nursery serves as a “step down unit” from the intensive care area.

Samuel J. Gentle ◽  
Benjamin Carper ◽  
Matthew M. Laughon ◽  
Erik A. Jensen ◽  
Austin Williams ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Zachary P. Sullivan ◽  
Luca Zazzeron ◽  
Lorenzo Berra ◽  
Dean R. Hess ◽  
Edward A. Bittner ◽  

AbstractThe significant mortality rate and prolonged ventilator days associated with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in patients with severe COVID-19 have incited a debate surrounding the use of noninvasive respiratory support (NIRS) (i.e., HFNC, CPAP, NIV) as a potential treatment strategy. Central to this debate is the role of NIRS in preventing intubation in patients with mild respiratory disease and the potential beneficial effects on both patient outcome and resource utilization. However, there remains valid concern that use of NIRS may prolong time to intubation and lung protective ventilation in patients with more advanced disease, thereby worsening respiratory mechanics via self-inflicted lung injury. In addition, the risk of aerosolization with the use of NIRS has the potential to increase healthcare worker (HCW) exposure to the virus. We review the existing literature with a focus on rationale, patient selection and outcomes associated with the use of NIRS in COVID-19 and prior pandemics, as well as in patients with acute respiratory failure due to different etiologies (i.e., COPD, cardiogenic pulmonary edema, etc.) to understand the potential role of NIRS in COVID-19 patients. Based on this analysis we suggest an algorithm for NIRS in COVID-19 patients which includes indications and contraindications for use, monitoring recommendations, systems-based practices to reduce HCW exposure, and predictors of NIRS failure. We also discuss future research priorities for addressing unanswered questions regarding NIRS use in COVID-19 with the goal of improving patient outcomes.

ASAIO Journal ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Qamar Ahmad ◽  
Adam Green ◽  
Abhimanyu Chandel ◽  
James Lantry ◽  
Mehul Desai ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Fredrik Methi ◽  
Ketil Størdal ◽  
Kjetil Telle ◽  
Vilde Bergstad Larsen ◽  
Karin Magnusson

Aim: To compare hospital admissions across common respiratory tract infections (RTI) in 2017-21, and project possible hospital admissions for the RTIs among children aged 0–12 months and 1-5 years in 2022 and 2023.Methods: In 644 885 children aged 0–12 months and 1–5 years, we plotted the observed monthly number of RTI admissions [upper- and lower RTI, influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and COVID-19] from January 1st, 2017 until October 31st, 2021. We also plotted the number of RTI admissions with a need for respiratory support. We used the observed data to project four different scenarios of RTI admissions for the rest of 2021 until 2023, with different impacts on hospital wards: (1) “Business as usual,” (2) “Continuous lockdown,” (3) “Children's immunity debt,” and (4) “Maternal and child immunity debt.”Results: By October 31st, 2021, the number of simultaneous RTI admissions had exceeded the numbers usually observed at the typical season peak in January, i.e., ~900. Based on our observed data and assuming that children and their mothers (who transfer antibodies to the very youngest) have not been exposed to RTI over the last one and a half years, our scenarios suggest that hospitals should be prepared to handle two to three times as many RTI admissions, and two to three times as many RTI admissions requiring respiratory support among 0–5-year-olds as normal, from November 2021 to April 2022.Conclusion: Scenarios with immunity debt suggest that pediatric hospital wards and policy makers should plan for extended capacity.

2022 ◽  
Lixia Li ◽  
Haijing Li ◽  
Yejun Jiang ◽  
Beimeng Yu ◽  
Xiuren Wang ◽  

Abstract Background: Administration of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) is an effective strategy for the management of preterm infants, which can improve neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) and attenuate the risk of neonatal mortality. However, many preterm infants do not expose to a complete course of ACS administration, and the effects of different ACS-to-delivery intervals on NRDS and respiratory support remain unclear.we explore the relationships of ACS administration-to-birth intervals with NRDS and respiratory support in preterm infants in this study.Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, the preterm infants born between 240/7 and 316/7 wk of gestation were recruited from Jan 2015 to Jul 2021. All participants were categorized based on the time interval from the first ACS dose to delivery: <24 h, 1-2 d, 2-7 d, and more >7 d. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between ACS-to-birth interval and primary or secondary outcome, while adjusting for potential confounders.Results: Of the 706 eligible neonates, 264, 83, 292 and 67 received ACS-to-delivery intervals of <24 h, 1-2 d, 2-7 d and >7 d, respectively. After adjusting these confounding factors, multivariable logistic analysis showed a significant increased risk of NRDS (aOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.7), neonatal mortality (aOR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-6.8), the need for surfactant use (aOR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.7-4.4), endotracheal intubation in delivery room (aOR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0-3.7), mechanical ventilation (aOR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.4) in the ACS-to-delivery interval of <24 h group when compared with the ACS-to-birth interval of 2-7 d group. Similar findings were observed in the subgroup analysis of the ACS interval of <6 h and 6-12 h groups (incidence of death and surfactant use), but no obvious differences were found in the ACS intervals of 12-24 h, 1-2 d and >7 d groups compared with the ACS-to-birth interval of 2-7 d group.Conclusions: Neonatal outcomes such as NRDS, neonatal mortality, the need for surfactant use, intubation in delivery room, mechanical ventilation are at a higher risk when the neonates exposed to ACS interval for less than 12 h before delivery.

2022 ◽  
Thomas Laumon ◽  
Elie Courvalin ◽  
Geoffrey Dagod ◽  
Pauline Deras ◽  
Mehdi Girard ◽  

Abstract Background: Optimal decarboxylation dose under extracorporeal respiratory support to ensure sufficient reduction of mechanical ventilation stress remains unclear and understudied. The aim of this study was to assess the interdependence of blood flow (BF) and gas flow (GF) in predicting CO2 removal and mechanical ventilation reduction (MVR) under extracorporeal respiratory support. Methods: All patients who benefited from veno-venous ECMO (HLS-maquet 7.0, 1.8 m²) and high-flow ECCO2R (HLS-maquet 5.0, 1.3 m²) in our intensive care unit over a period of 18 months were included. CO2 removal was calculated from inlet/outlet blood gases performed in clinical practice during the first 7 days of oxygenator use. The relationship between the BF × GF product and CO2 removal or MVR was studied using linear regression models. Results: Eighteen patients were analysed, corresponding to 24 oxygenators and 261 datasets. CO2 removal was 393 mL/min (IQR, 310–526 mL/min) for 1.8 m2 oxygenators and 179 mL/min (IQR, 165–235 mL/min) for 1.3 m2 oxygenators. The decarboxylation index was associated linearly with CO2 removal (R2 = 0.62 and R2 = 0.77 for the two oxygenators, respectively) and MVR (R2 = 0.72 and R2 = 0.62, respectively). Values in the range 20−30L2/min2 were associated with an MVR ratio between 38% and 58% for 1.8 m2 oxygenators, and between 37% and 55% for 1.3 m2 oxygenators. Conclusion: The decarboxylation index is a simple parameter to predict CO2 removal and MVR under extracorporeal respiratory support. A BF of 2 L2/min2 or more may be necessary to obtain a significant reduction of mechanical convection.Trial Registration: Being a retrospective study, no trial registration was made.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Shu-Hua Lai ◽  
Ying-Ling Xie ◽  
Zhi-Qin Chen ◽  
Rong Chen ◽  
Wen-Hong Cai ◽  

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and feasibility of nHFOV as initial respiratory support in preterm infants with RDS.Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 244 premature infants with RDS who were treated in our hospital from January 2016 to January 2019 and divided into the nHFOV group (n = 115) and the BiPAP group (n = 129) based on the initial respiratory support method.Results: Respiratory outcomes showed that the rate of NIV failure during the first 72 hours of life in the nHFOV group was significantly lower than that in the BiPAP group. The time of NIV in the nHFOV group was significantly shorter than that in the BiPAP group. The time of supplemental oxygen in the nHFOV group was significantly shorter than that in the BiPAP group. The incidence of air leakage syndrome in the nHFOV group was significantly lower than that in the BiPAP group, and the length of hospital stay of the nHFOV group was also significantly shorter than that in the BiPAP group. Although the rate of infants diagnosed with BPD was similar between the two groups, the rate of severe BPD in the nHFOV group was significantly lower than that in the BiPAP group.Conclusion: This study showed that nHFOV as initial respiratory support for preterm infants with RDS was feasible and safe compared to BiPAP. Furthermore, nHFOV can reduce the need for IMV and reduce the incidence of severe BPD and air leak syndrome.

Critical Care ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
Jessica González ◽  
Iván D. Benítez ◽  
David de Gonzalo-Calvo ◽  
Gerard Torres ◽  
Jordi de Batlle ◽  

Abstract Question We evaluated whether the time between first respiratory support and intubation of patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) due to COVID-19 was associated with mortality or pulmonary sequelae. Materials and methods Prospective cohort of critical COVID-19 patients on IMV. Patients were classified as early intubation if they were intubated within the first 48 h from the first respiratory support or delayed intubation if they were intubated later. Surviving patients were evaluated after hospital discharge. Results We included 205 patients (140 with early IMV and 65 with delayed IMV). The median [p25;p75] age was 63 [56.0; 70.0] years, and 74.1% were male. The survival analysis showed a significant increase in the risk of mortality in the delayed group with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 2.45 (95% CI 1.29–4.65). The continuous predictor time to IMV showed a nonlinear association with the risk of in-hospital mortality. A multivariate mortality model showed that delay of IMV was a factor associated with mortality (HR of 2.40; 95% CI 1.42–4.1). During follow-up, patients in the delayed group showed a worse DLCO (mean difference of − 10.77 (95% CI − 18.40 to − 3.15), with a greater number of affected lobes (+ 1.51 [95% CI 0.89–2.13]) and a greater TSS (+ 4.35 [95% CI 2.41–6.27]) in the chest CT scan. Conclusions Among critically ill patients with COVID-19 who required IMV, the delay in intubation from the first respiratory support was associated with an increase in hospital mortality and worse pulmonary sequelae during follow-up.

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