Anatomical Variant
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2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (3) ◽  
pp. 55-68
Svetla Dineva ◽  
Milko Stoyanov ◽  
Aneliya Partenova ◽  
Boyan Kunev ◽  
Victoria Stoyanova ◽  

Anatomical variants of pulmonary venous drainage in the left atrium are often found. Divergent results have been reported on the impact of variant anatomy on atrial fi brillation (AF) recurrence after catheter ablation. We aimed to study the frequency of different anatomical variants of pulmonary venous drainage and their relationship with documented recurrences of AF after ablation. Material and methods: A retrospective study of patients with AF in whom radiofrequency pulmonary vein isolation was done after previously performed cardiac contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography. Clinical and procedural characteristics, type and frequency of anatomical variants of the veno-atrial junction and their association with AF recurrences were studied. Results: One hundred seventy-seven patients (112 men, 63.3%) with AF were studied, of which 148 (83.6%) with paroxysmal AF. Variant anatomy was found in 91 patients (51.4%). In 20.9% there was a common left trunk, in 23.2% – more or less than two right-sided veins, and in 7.3% – variations for both right and left veins. No differences in clinical and procedural characteristics were found between the groups with normal and variant anatomy. Recurrences of AF and their association with pulmonary venous anatomy were studied in 104 patients with follow-up ≥ 3 months. No signifi cant relation was found between the presence of variant anatomy and AF recurrences within the blinding period after ablation, OR = 0.864, 95% CI = 0.397 – 1.88, p = 0.843, nor afterwards, OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.5 – 2.5, p = 0.839. Cox regression analysis showed no differences in AF recurrence-free survival regardless of the anatomical variant of pulmonary venous drainage, HR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.58 – 2.05, p = 0.779. Conclusion: In this local population of patients with AF, the incidence of variant pulmonary venous drainage is just over 50%. No association was found between variant anatomy and the rate of AF recurrences after fi rst pulmonary vein isolation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Claudio Giacomozzi ◽  
Lisa Nicolì ◽  
Carlo Sozzi ◽  
Enrico Piovan ◽  
Mohamad Maghnie

IntroductionMagnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the best approach to investigate the hypothalamic-pituitary region in children with central precocious puberty (CPP). Routine scanning is controversial in girls aged 6-8 year, due to the overwhelming prevalence of idiopathic forms and unrelated incidentalomas. Cerebral lipomas are rare and accidental findings, not usually expected in CPP. We report a girl with CPP and an unusually shaped posterior pituitary gland on SE-T1w sequences.Case DescriptionA 7.3-year-old female was referred for breast development started at age 7. Her past medical history and physical examination were unremarkable, apart from the Tanner stage 2 breast. X-ray of the left-hand revealed a bone age 2-years ahead of her chronological age, projecting her adult height prognosis below the mid parental height. LHRH test and pelvic ultrasound were suggestive for CPP. Routine brain MRI sequences, SE T1w and TSE T2w, showed the posterior pituitary bright spot increased in size and stretched upward. The finding was considered as an anatomical variant, in an otherwise normal brain imaging. Patient was started on treatment with GnRH analogue. At a thorough revaluation, imaging overlap with adipose tissue was suspected and a new MRI scan with 3D-fat-suppression T1w-VIBE sequences demonstrated a lipoma of the tuber cinereum, bordering a perfectly normal neurohypophysis. 3D-T2w-SPACE sequences, acquired at first MRI scan, would have provided a more correct interpretation if rightly considered.ConclusionThis is the first evidence, to our knowledge, of a cerebral lipoma mimicking pituitary gland abnormalities. Our experience highlights the importance of considering suprasellar lipomas in the MRI investigation of children with CPP, despite their rarity, should the T1w sequences show an unexpected pituitary shape. 3D-T2w SPACE sequences could be integrated into standard ones, especially when performing MRI routinely, to avoid potential misinterpretations.

Aorta ◽  
2021 ◽  
Umberto G. Rossi ◽  
Anna M. Ierardi ◽  
Maurizio Cariati

AbstractWe report the case of a 73-year-old male who underwent abdominal multidetector computed tomography with vascular reconstruction that highlighted a congenital variant of iliac arteries. Iliac artery anatomical variants are exceedingly rare and only a few cases have been reported in the literature.

P. K. Roopa Rajavarthini ◽  
I. Venkatraman

Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) scan of paranasal sinuses has become mandatory for all patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery. It depicts the anatomical variations in much simpler way and acts as a roadmap for endoscopic sinus surgery. In this study the maximum of participants were in the age group of 41- 50 years (32 %). The mean age of the study participants was observed to be 43.8 ± 15.6 years. HRCT PNS results shows nasal septum was found to be the most common anatomical variant (DNS- 94%). Concha Bullosa in right side were seen in 37.5% and left side were 21.9% (total unilateral cases- 59.4%) and bilateral Concha Bullosa were seen in 40.6% of the cases. Agger nasi were found to be present in 58% of the CRS cases among which right AN was 41%, left side was 30.8%, and bilateral AN were seen in 28.2% of the cases and Paradoxical Middle Turbinate were seen in 42% of cases in our study. Medialised uncinate was seen in 22% of the cases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 162-166
Mihai-Iuliu Harșa ◽  
Loránd Kocsis ◽  
Angéla-Mária Czundel ◽  
Lóránd Dénes ◽  
Zsuzsanna Pap

Abstract Introduction: The extensor digitorum longus and peroneus tertius muscles have multiple morphological variations. The tendinous slips of these muscles are used as grafts to replace other damaged tendons. Case presentation: We present a unique anatomical variant observed during dissection of a cadaver at the Department of Anatomy and Embryology of the “George Emil Palade” University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science and Technology of Târgu Mureș, Romania. The peroneus tertius muscle was identified on the left lower extremity as originating from the inferior third of the fibula and interosseus membrane. The posterior belly of this muscle joins the muscular belly of the extensor digitorum longus muscle. The tendons of toes II to V detach from the extensor digitorum longus muscle with an additional tendon. This last tendon gives off an accessory tendinous slip; lateral to this, the peroneus tertius muscle tendon is observed. In case of the right lower limb we also noted the peroneus tertius muscle originating from the distal part of the extensor digitorum longus muscle. Regarding the extensor digitorum longus muscle we describe an accessory tendinous slip. Conclusion: The anatomical variation reported in this study is similar to those reported by previous studies, but displays particular characteristics regarding the VI tendon of extensor digitorum longus and the joining of the peroneus tertius and extensor digitorum longus muscles in the left lower extremity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (3) ◽  
pp. 166-170
Sang Hyun Ko ◽  
Jin Seong Park ◽  
Tong Joo Lee

The accessory palmaris longus is a rare anatomical variant in the wrist and forearm, which has been reported as the cause of carpal tunnel syndrome. This paper reports a case of the accessory palmaris longus incidentally found during carpal tunnel surgery. The paucity of awareness on the accessory palmaris longus in carpal tunnel surgery may lead to accidental iatrogenic injury to the median nerve or insufficient decompression of the median nerve.

2021 ◽  
Vol 108 (Supplement_6) ◽  
H Samarendra ◽  
D Zargaran ◽  
N Saeed ◽  
D Nikkhah ◽  
P Butler

Abstract Introduction Non-surgical / minimally invasive aesthetic procedures are a growing trend in the UK. A range of devices are available for soft tissue augmentation, including injectable Poly-L-Lactic acid (PLLA). PLLA is used for soft tissue augmentation and is thought effective for the correction of contour deficiencies, facial wrinkles and in restoring subcutaneous volume in patients with HIV-associated lipoatrophy. Method In this case report, we present a rare but serious complication of subdermal injection of Poly-L-Lactic acid. A 45-year-old lady presented to our service approximately 24 hours after administration of self-sourced poly-L-Lactic acid. Results A 4cm ovaloid patch of full thickness skin necrosis over the zygomatic region was evident on presentation, with reactive/inflammatory changes in the adjacent skin. Vascular compromise is deemed the most likely cause, with loss of the transverse facial artery mapping to the area of necrosis. This patient was managed conservatively, with dressings and a prophylactic course of antibiotics. Conclusions Vascular compromise is a recognised and rare complication of subdermal injectable devices for facial soft tissue augmentation. The transverse facial artery branches from the superficial temporal artery within the substance of the parotid gland. Cadaveric and imaging studies alike demonstrate that the most common anatomical variant is a single TFA (70%), originating at the level of the temporofacial trunk of the facial nerve. It typically has a 5cm course, giving off on average 1.9 cutaneous perforators. This case highlights the importance of a detailed understanding of facial anatomy to ensure safe and effective placement of dermal fillers/devices.

Benjamin Lin ◽  
Jonathan Bartlett ◽  
Thomas D. Lloyd ◽  
Dimitris Challoumas ◽  
Cecilia Brassett ◽  

Abstract Purpose This cadaveric study aimed at describing the anatomical variations of the iliopsoas complex. Methods The iliopsoas complex was dissected unilaterally in 28 formalin-embalmed cadavers—13 males and 15 females with a mean age of 85.6 years. The number, courses and widths of the iliacus and psoas major tendons were determined. Patients with previous hip surgery were excluded. The following measurements were taken from the mid-inguinal point: the distance to the point of union of the psoas major and iliacus tendon; and the distance to the most distal insertion of iliopsoas. Results The presence of single, double and triple tendon insertions of iliopsoas were found in 12, 12 and 4 of the 28 specimens, respectively. When present, double and triple tendons inserted separately onto the lesser trochanter. The average length of the iliopsoas tendon from the mid-inguinal point to the most distal attachment at the lesser trochanter was 122.3 ± 13.0 mm. The iliacus muscle bulk merged with psoas major at an average distance of 24.9 ± 17.9 mm proximal to the mid-inguinal point. In all cases, the lateral-most fibres of iliacus yielded a non-tendinous, muscular insertion on to the anterior surface of the lesser trochanter and the femoral shaft, rather than joining onto the main iliopsoas tendon(s). The average total width of the psoas major tendon decreased with an increasing number of tendons: 14.6 ± 2.2 mm (single tendon), 8.2 ± 3.0 mm (2 tendons present) and 5.9 ± 1.1 mm (3 tendons present) (P < 0.001). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that multiple tendinous insertions of iliopsoas are present as an anatomical variant in more than 50% of the population. The non-tendinous muscular insertion of the iliopsoas on to the anterior surface of the lesser trochanter and femoral shaft found represents a novel anatomical variant not previously described. Level of evidence Level V

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (8) ◽  
pp. e241328
Theodore Paul Pezas ◽  
Rajive Jose

Carpal tunnel release is a routinely performed operation to relieve pressure caused by compression on the median nerve. In the majority of cases, the causation of the compression will be idiopathic. Among the secondary causes of median nerve compression is the palmaris profundus, a rare anatomical variant separate to the palmaris longus tendon. It has been suggested that it may cause carpal tunnel syndrome as it courses underneath the flexor retinaculum with the contents of the carpal tunnel reducing the space available to the median nerve. Several cases have found it intimately associated with the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. Raising awareness of this anatomical variant is therefore important for those undertaking carpal tunnel decompression in order to avoid unintended damage.

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