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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ying Song ◽  
Shufang Tian ◽  
Ping Zhang ◽  
Nan Zhang ◽  
Yan Shen ◽  

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clonal malignant proliferative blood disorder with a poor prognosis. Ferroptosis, a novel form of programmed cell death, holds great promise for oncology treatment, and has been demonstrated to interfere with the development of various diseases. A range of genes are involved in regulating ferroptosis and can serve as markers of it. Nevertheless, the prognostic significance of these genes in AML remains poorly understood. Transcriptomic and clinical data for AML patients were acquired from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Univariate Cox analysis was performed to identify ferroptosis-related genes with prognostic value, and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) algorithm and stepwise multivariate Cox regression analysis were utilized to optimize gene selection from the TCGA cohort (132 samples) for model construction. Tumor samples from the GEO database (136 samples and 104 samples) were used as validation groups to estimate the predictive performance of the risk model. Finally, an eight-gene prognostic signature (including CHAC1, CISD1, DPP4, GPX4, AIFM2, SQLE, PGD, and ACSF2) was identified for the prediction of survival probability and was used to stratify AML patients into high- and low-risk groups. Survival analysis illustrated significantly prolonged overall survival and lower mortality in the low-risk group. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated good results for the training set (1-year: 0.846, 2-years: 0.826, and 3-years: 0.837), which verified the accuracy of the model for predicting patient survival. Independent prognostic analysis indicated that the model could be used as a prognostic factor (p ≤ 0.001). Functional enrichment analyses revealed underlying mechanisms and notable differences in the immune status of the two risk groups. In brief, we conducted and validated a novel ferroptosis-related prognostic model for outcome prediction and risk stratification in AML, with great potential to guide individualized treatment strategies in the future.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Dexin Chen ◽  
Hong Wang ◽  
Xing Xin ◽  
Long Zhang ◽  
Aihong Yu ◽  

ObjectiveCalcium supplementation can prevent gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. However, besides the non-consensus of existing studies, there is a lack of evidence regarding the optimal dosing of calcium.MethodEight electronic databases, namely, the Cochrane Library, PUBMED, Web of Science, EMBASE, WANGFANG, VIP, CBM, and CNKI, were searched. The studies were retrieved from inception to July 13, 2021. Two researchers independently screened the literature, extracted data, and evaluated the methodological quality based on the inclusion criteria. In particular, the calcium supplementation doses were divided into three groups, namely, the high-dose (≥1.5 g), medium-dose (1.0–1.49 g), and the low-dose group (<1.0 g). The participants were also divided into high-risk and low-risk groups, according to the risk of developing gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia.Results and DiscussionA total of 48 studies were incorporated into the final analyses. All doses of calcium supplementation reduced the incidence of gestational hypertension in the low-risk population (low dose - three studies; medium dose- 11 studies; high dose- 28 studies), whereas the medium-dose (three studies) reduced the incidence of gestational hypertension in high-risk groups. Moreover, a medium dose of calcium supplementation had the maximum effect in reducing gestational hypertension in low-risk and high-risk populations. The medium (three studies) and high doses (13 studies) of calcium supplementation reduced the incidence of pre-eclampsia in the low-risk groups. However, a medium-dose calcium supplementation maximally prevented pre-eclampsia in the low-risk population. The authenticity and reliability of the results were reduced due to the limitations of contemporary studies in terms of experimental design, result measurement, statistics, and evidence quality. Therefore, high-quality studies with larger sample size are required to evaluate further the effect of calcium supplementation in preventing gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Yao Peng ◽  
Hui Wang ◽  
Qi Huang ◽  
Jingjing Wu ◽  
Mingjun Zhang

Abstract Background Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression and can affect a variety of physiological processes. Recent studies have shown that immune-related lncRNAs play an important role in the tumour immune microenvironment and may have potential application value in the treatment and prognosis prediction of tumour patients. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is characterized by a high incidence and poor prognosis. However, there are few studies on immune-related lncRNAs in EOC. In this study, we focused on immune-related lncRNAs associated with survival in EOC. Methods We downloaded mRNA data for EOC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and mRNA data for normal ovarian tissue from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) database and identified differentially expressed genes through differential expression analysis. Immune-related lncRNAs were obtained through intersection and coexpression analysis of differential genes and immune-related genes from the Immunology Database and Analysis Portal (ImmPort). Samples in the TCGA EOC cohort were randomly divided into a training set, validation set and combination set. In the training set, Cox regression analysis and LASSO regression were performed to construct an immune-related lncRNA signature. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, time-dependent ROC curve analysis, Cox regression analysis and principal component analysis were performed for verification in the training set, validation set and combination set. Further studies of pathways and immune cell infiltration were conducted through Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and the Timer data portal. Results An immune-related lncRNA signature was identified in EOC, which was composed of six immune-related lncRNAs (KRT7-AS, USP30-AS1, AC011445.1, AP005205.2, DNM3OS and AC027348.1). The signature was used to divide patients into high-risk and low-risk groups. The overall survival of the high-risk group was lower than that of the low-risk group and was verified to be robust in both the validation set and the combination set. The signature was confirmed to be an independent prognostic biomarker. Principal component analysis showed the different distribution patterns of high-risk and low-risk groups. This signature may be related to immune cell infiltration (mainly macrophages) and differential expression of immune checkpoint-related molecules (PD-1, PDL1, etc.). Conclusions We identified and established a prognostic signature of immune-related lncRNAs in EOC, which will be of great value in predicting the prognosis of clinical patients and may provide a new perspective for immunological research and individualized treatment in EOC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Heather M. Macdonald ◽  
Stéphanie K. Lavigne ◽  
Andrew E. Reineberg ◽  
Michael H. Thaut

ObjectivesDuring their lifetimes, a majority of musicians experience playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD). PRMD prevalence is tied to instrument choice, yet most studies examine heterogeneous groups of musicians, leaving some high-risk groups such as oboists understudied. This paper aims to (1) ascertain the prevalence and nature of PRMDs in oboists, (2) determine relevant risk factors, and (3) evaluate the efficacy of treatment methods in preventing and remedying injuries in oboe players.MethodsA 10-question online questionnaire on PRMDs and their treatments was completed by 223 oboists. PRMDs were compared across gender, weekly playing hours, career level, age, and years of playing experience.ResultsOf all respondents, 74.9% (167/223) reported having had at least one PRMD in their lifetime. A majority of these injuries (61.9% of all respondents) were of moderate to extreme severity (5 or higher on a scale of 1 to 10). Females (mean = 5.88) reported significantly more severe injuries than males. No significant effects of career level (i.e., professional vs. student vs. amateur), age, or years of playing experience were observed. We found significant non-linear relationships between weekly playing hours and PRMD prevalence and severity. Injuries were most commonly on the right side of the body, with the right thumb, wrist, hand, and forearm being most affected in frequency and severity. Of those injuries for which recovery information was provided, only 26.1% of injuries were “completely recovered.” The perceived effectiveness of a few treatments (physical therapy, rest, stretching, occupational therapy, massage) tended to be ranked more highly than others.ConclusionThe oboists in this study experienced high rates of PRMD, particularly in the right upper extremities. Females and those playing 7-9 and 16-18 h per week reported a significantly higher severity of injuries than other groups.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Su Wang ◽  
Zhen Xie ◽  
Zenghong Wu

Background: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common and lethal subtype of lung cancer. Ferroptosis, an iron-dependent form of regulated cell death, has emerged as a target in cancer therapy. However, the prognostic value of ferroptosis-related genes (FRGs)x in LUAD remains to be explored.Methods: In this study, we used RNA sequencing data and relevant clinical data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset to construct and validate a prognostic FRG signature for overall survival (OS) in LUAD patients and defined potential biomarkers for ferroptosis-related tumor therapy.Results: A total of 86 differentially expressed FRGs were identified from LUAD tumor tissues versus normal tissues, of which 15 FRGs were significantly associated with OS in the survival analysis. Through the LASSO Cox regression analysis, a prognostic signature including 11 FRGs was established to predict OS in the TCGA tumor cohort. Based on the median value of risk scores calculated according to the signature, patients were divided into high-risk and low-risk groups. Kaplan–Meier analysis indicated that the high-risk group had a poorer OS than the low-risk group. The area under the curve of this signature was 0.74 in the TCGA tumor set, showing good discrimination. In the GEO validation set, the prognostic signature also had good predictive performance. Functional enrichment analysis showed that some immune-associated gene sets were significantly differently enriched in two risk groups.Conclusion: Our study unearthed a novel ferroptosis-related gene signature for predicting the prognosis of LUAD, and the signature may provide useful prognostic biomarkers and potential treatment targets.

2022 ◽  
Yujian Xu ◽  
Youbai Chen ◽  
Zehao Niu ◽  
Zheng Yang ◽  
Jiahua Xing ◽  

Abstract Ferroptosis-related lncRNAs are promising biomarkers for predicting the prognosis of many cancers. However, a ferroptosis-related signature to predict the prognosis of cutaneous melanoma (CM) has not been identified. The purpose of our study was to construct a ferroptosis-related lncRNA signature to predict prognosis and immunotherapy efficacy in CM. Ferroptosis-related differentially expressed genes (FDEGs) and lncRNAs (FDELs) were identified using TCGA, GTEx, and FerrDb datasets. We performed Cox and LASSO regressions to identify key FDELs, and constructed a risk score to stratify patients into high- and low-risk groups. A nomogram was developed for clinical use. We performed gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) to identify significantly enriched pathways. Differences in the tumor microenvironment (TME) between the 2 groups were assessed using 7 algorithms. To predict the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), we analyzed the association between PD1 and CTLA4 expression and the risk score. Finally, differences in Tumor Mutational Burden (TMB) and molecular drugs Sensitivity between the 2 groups were performed. Here, we identified 5 lncRNAs (AATBC, AC145423.2, LINC01871, AC125807.2, and AC245041.1) to construct the risk score. The AUC of the lncRNA signature was 0.743 in the training cohort and was validated in the testing and entire cohorts. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that the high-risk group had poorer prognosis. Multivariate Cox regression showed that the lncRNA signature was an independent predictor of OS with higher accuracy than traditional clinicopathological features. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival probabilities for CM patients were 92.7%, 57.2%, and 40.2% with an AUC of 0.804, indicating a good accuracy and reliability of the nomogram. GSEA showed that the high-risk group had lower ferroptosis and immune response. TME analyses confirmed that the high-risk group had lower immune cell infiltration (e.g., CD8+ T cells, CD4+ memory-activated T cells, and M1 macrophages) and lower immune functions (e.g., immune checkpoint activation). Low-risk patients whose disease expressed PD1 or CTLA4 were likely to respond better to ICIs. The analysis demonstrated that the TMB had significantly difference between low- and high- risk groups. Chemotherapy drugs, such as sorafenib, Imatinib, ABT.888 (Veliparib), Docetaxel, and Paclitaxel showed Significant differences in the estimated IC50 between the two risk groups. Overall, our novel ferroptosis-related lncRNA signature was able to accurately predict the prognosis and ICI outcomes of CM patients. These ferroptosis-related lncRNAs might be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for CM.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 374
Simon Bailey ◽  
Nicolas André ◽  
Lorenza Gandola ◽  
Maura Massimino ◽  
Stefan Rutkowski ◽  

Medulloblastoma patients receive adapted therapies stratified according to their risk-profile. Favourable, standard, and high disease-risk groups are each defined by the status of clinical and pathological risk factors, alongside an evolving repertoire of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Medulloblastoma clinical trials in Europe are coordinated by the International Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOP-Europe) brain tumour group. Favourable and standard-risk patients are eligible for the SIOP-PNET5-MB clinical trial protocol. In contrast, therapies for high-risk disease worldwide have, to date, encompassed a range of different treatment philosophies, with no clear consensus on approach. Higher radiotherapy doses are typically deployed, delivered either conventionally or in hyper-fractionated/accelerated regimens. Similarly, both standard and high-dose chemotherapies were assessed. However, trials to date in high-risk medulloblastoma have commonly been institutional or national, based on modest cohort sizes, and have not evaluated the relative performance of different strategies in a randomised fashion. We describe the concepts and design of the SIOP-E high-risk medulloblastoma clinical trial (SIOP-HR-MB), the first international biomarker-driven, randomised, clinical trial for high-risk medulloblastoma. SIOP-HR-MB is programmed to recruit >800 patients in 16 countries across Europe; its primary objectives are to assess the relative efficacies of the alternative established regimens. The HR-MB patient population is molecularly and clinically defined, and upfront assessments incorporate a standardised central review of molecular pathology, radiology, and radiotherapy quality assurance. Secondary objectives include the assessment of (i) novel therapies within an upfront ‘window’ and (ii) therapy-associated neuropsychology, toxicity, and late effects, alongside (iii) the collection of materials for comprehensive integrated studies of biological determinants within the SIOP-HR-MB cohort.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Taiyu He ◽  
Tianyao Chen ◽  
Xiaozhu Liu ◽  
Biqiong Zhang ◽  
Song Yue ◽  

Background: Primary liver cancer is a common malignant tumor primarily represented by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The number of elderly patients with early HCC is increasing, and older age is related to a worse prognosis. However, an accurate predictive model for the prognosis of these patients is still lacking.Methods: Data of eligible elderly patients with early HCC in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 2010 to 2016 were downloaded. Patients from 2010 to 2015 were randomly assigned to the training cohort (n = 1093) and validation cohort (n = 461). Patients' data in 2016 (n = 431) was used for external validation. Independent prognostic factors were obtained using univariate and multivariate analyses. Based on these factors, a cancer-specific survival (CSS) nomogram was constructed. The predictive performance and clinical practicability of our nomogram were validated. According to the risk scores of our nomogram, patients were divided into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. A survival analysis was performed using Kaplan–Meier curves and log-rank tests.Results: Age, race, T stage, histological grade, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy were independent predictors for CSS and thus were included in our nomogram. In the training cohort and validation cohort, the concordance indices (C-indices) of our nomogram were 0.739 (95% CI: 0.714–0.764) and 0.756 (95% CI: 0.719–0.793), respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) showed similar results. Calibration curves revealed high consistency between observations and predictions. In external validation cohort, C-index (0.802, 95%CI: 0.778–0.826) and calibration curves also revealed high consistency between observations and predictions. Compared with the TNM stage, nomogram-related decision curve analysis (DCA) curves indicated better clinical practicability. Kaplan–Meier curves revealed that CSS significantly differed among the three different risk groups. In addition, an online prediction tool for CSS was developed.Conclusions: A web-based prediction model for CSS of elderly patients with early HCC was constructed and validated, and it may be helpful for the prognostic evaluation, therapeutic strategy selection, and follow-up management of these patients.

Kirsten J. M. van Hooijdonk ◽  
Milagros Rubio ◽  
Sterre S. H. Simons ◽  
Tirza H. J. van Noorden ◽  
Maartje Luijten ◽  

Tobacco, alcohol and cannabis are commonly used among university students. However, student lives and their substance use have changed dramatically since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigated the impact of COVID-19 on (trends in) weekly smoking, weekly binge drinking and weekly cannabis use in Dutch university students and investigated associated student-, study- and COVID-19-related characteristics. Between April and June 2020, several Dutch higher educational institutes invited their students to participate in an online survey. Data of 9967 students (Mage = 22.0 (SD = 2.6); Nfemale = 7008 (70.3%)) were available for analyses. Overall, weekly smoking remained stable (±11.5%), weekly binge drinking decreased (from 27.8% to 13.9%) and weekly cannabis use increased (from 6.7% to 8.6%). Male gender, not living with parents, being a bachelor student, having less financial resources and less adherence to the COVID-19 measures were found to increase the risk of substance use (before/during the first COVID-19 lockdown). Additionally, male gender, not living with parents, being a bachelor student, not being born in the Netherlands and having a student loan contributed to the likelihood of increased substance use during COVID-19. Patterns of characteristics contributing to the likelihood of decreased weekly substance use during COVID-19 were less clear. The risk factors male gender, not living with parents and being a bachelor student do not only contribute to the likelihood of using substances but also contribute to the likelihood of increased use during a lockdown. Prevention and intervention programs should especially target these risk groups.

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