behavioral changes
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Naresh Kumar ◽  
Monu Yadav ◽  
Anil Kumar ◽  
Monika Kadian ◽  
Sunil Kumar

Abstract Background Psychosis is a complex mental illness divided by positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive decline. Clinically available medicines are associated with some serious side effects which limit their use. Treatment with flavonoids has been associated with delayed onset and development, decreased risk, or increased improvement of various neuropsychiatric disorders including psychosis with negligible side effects. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of hesperidin (flavonoid) alone or its combination with coenzyme Q10 against ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms in mice. Results Ketamine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was given for 21 days to induce psychosis in Laca mice of either sex. Locomotor activity and stereotypic behaviors, immobility duration (forced swim test), and increased transfer latency (elevated plus maze) were performed to test the effect of hesperidin (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, p.o.) and coenzyme Q10 (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, p.o.) and combination of hesperidin + coenzyme Q10 followed by biochemical and mitochondrial complexes assays. For 21 days, ketamine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) administration significantly produced increased locomotor activity and stereotypic behaviors (positive symptoms), increased immobility duration (negative symptoms) and cognitive deficits (increases transfer latency) weakens oxidative defense and mitochondrial function. Further, 21 days’ administration of hesperidin and coenzyme Q10 significantly reversed the ketamine-induced psychotic behavioral changes and biochemical alterations and mitochondrial dysfunction in the discrete areas (prefrontal cortex and hippocampus) of mice brains. The potential effect of these drugs was comparable to olanzapine treatment. Moreover, the combination of hesperidin with coenzyme Q10 and or a combination of hesperidin + coenzyme Q10 + olanzapine treatment did not produce a significant effect compared to their per se effect in ketamine-treated animals. Conclusions The study revealed that hesperidin alone or in combination with coenzyme Q10 could reduce psychotic symptoms and improve mitochondrial functions and antioxidant systems in mice, suggesting neuroprotective effects against psychosis.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262660
Pei-Yun Chen ◽  
Pei-Ni Chuang ◽  
Chien-Hsieh Chiang ◽  
Hao-Hsiang Chang ◽  
Chia-Wen Lu ◽  

Background Coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a great impact on global health, but with relatively few confirmed cases in Taiwan. People in Taiwan showed excellent cooperation with the government for disease prevention and faced social and behavioral changes during this period. This study aimed to investigate people’s knowledge of COVID-19, attitudes and practices regarding vaccinations for influenza, pneumococcus and COVID-19. Methods We conducted a community-based, cross-sectional questionnaire survey from September 2020 to October 2020 among adults in northern Taiwan. The four-part questionnaire included questions on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude, and practice toward COVID-19. Results Among a total of 410 respondents, 58.5% were categorized as having “good knowledge” responding to COVID-19. Among the total respondents, 86.6% were willing to receive influenza or pneumococcal vaccines, and 76% of them acted to receive COVID-19 immunization once the vaccine became available. Compared with the respondents with poor knowledge of COVID-19, those with good knowledge had a more positive attitude toward receiving influenza or pneumococcal immunization (OR 3.26, 95% CI = 1.74–6.12). Conclusions Participants with good knowledge of COVID-19 had greater intent to receive immunization for influenza or pneumococcal vaccine. The promotion of correct knowledge of both COVID-19 and immunization preparations is necessary.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mu Yang ◽  
Yajun Lian

Objective: To analyze the clinical features of common autoimmune encephalitis and evaluate the sensitivity of antibodies contributing to focal epilepsy signs and symptoms (ACES) score.Methods: Collecting and analyzing the data of 242 patients with autoimmune encephalitis (AE) diagnosed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from August 2015 to December 2020 in this retrospective study. The six items of the ACES score (cognitive symptoms, behavioral changes, autonomic symptoms, speech problems, autoimmune diseases, temporal MRI hyperintensities) were screened in patients with complete clinical data.Results: (1) In total, 242 patients were included, with 147 cases of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, 47 cases of anti-γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA-B) receptor encephalitis, and 48 cases of anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivating protein 1 (LGI1) encephalitis. The most common clinical symptoms are cognitive impairment (77%), behavioral changes (79%), and seizures (71%). In total, 129 cases (54%) combined with autonomic dysfunction, such as gastrointestinal dysmotility, sinus tachycardia, and central hypoventilation. Twelve patients had autoimmune diseases, most of which were of thyroid diseases. (2) One hundred and twenty-seven patients with complete clinical data evaluated ACES score, 126 cases of whom (126/127, 99.2%) were equal to or >2 points, 1 case (1/127, 0.8%) was of <2 points.Interpretation: (1) Cognitive impairment, abnormal behavior, and seizures are the most common manifestations of AE and autonomic symptoms. Thyroid disease is the most autoimmune disease in AE. Clinically, for patients of suspected AE, increasing the knowledge and testing of thyroid function and rheumatism is necessary. (2) ACES score is a simple, effective, and easy-to-operate score, with a certain screening value for most patients suspected of AE.

2022 ◽  
Aarcha Sunil Lekshmi

Modern healthcare systems have been dominated by virtual approaches and digital technologies. This has increased the concern for the security of healthcare devices and data due to the lack of information confidentiality and data integrity in this sector. Information category at risk and the importance of patient safety make cybersecurity unique in the field of health. Regarding the context of this problem construction of cyber resilience in healthcare organizations has become a vital task. A comprehensive solution to this problem can be obtained by the combination of human behavioral changes, technological enhancements, process modifications, and new legislations and regulations.

2022 ◽  
Caleb Ing ◽  
David O. Warner ◽  
Lena S. Sun ◽  
Randall P. Flick ◽  
Andrew J. Davidson ◽  

Anesthetic agents disrupt neurodevelopment in animal models, but evidence in humans is mixed. The morphologic and behavioral changes observed across many species predicted that deficits should be seen in humans, but identifying a phenotype of injury in children has been challenging. It is increasingly clear that in children, a brief or single early anesthetic exposure is not associated with deficits in a range of neurodevelopmental outcomes including broad measures of intelligence. Deficits in other domains including behavior, however, are more consistently reported in humans and also reflect findings from nonhuman primates. The possibility that behavioral deficits are a phenotype, as well as the entire concept of anesthetic neurotoxicity in children, remains a source of intense debate. The purpose of this report is to describe consensus and disagreement among experts, summarize preclinical and clinical evidence, suggest pathways for future clinical research, and compare studies of anesthetic agents to other suspected neurotoxins.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 43-51
G. Balaji ◽  
S.N. Sinha ◽  
M.V. Surekha ◽  
V. Kasturi ◽  

Aim: To determine the plasma neurotransmitters simultaneously and to find any correlation with pathological changes in the hippocampus and Purkinje cells and their relation with behavioral changes in Balb/c mice. Methodology: In the present study, both sexes of Balb /C mice were divided into two groups (4 males and 4 females; n = 8): Both the groups were given a single dose of either saline or sodium valproate (400mg kg-1) respectively through subcutaneous injection on PND 14. Behavioural tests were conducted on mice pups on various postnatal days till 40th day. On PND 41, blood samples were collected from all the animals for quantification of the neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenalin) in plasma, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and whole brain was isolated for histological examination of the Purkinje cells and hippocampus. Results: Sodium valproate exposed animals showed loss of motor skill development (delayed negative geotaxic response), increased locomotor activity, increased anxiety, and retardation in water maze performance, and lower social interaction. Histopathological evolutions of cerebellum purkinje cells and hippocampus showed 40-50% atrophic cells in sodium valproate animals compared to control animals. Interpretation: The results of the present study indicate that Sodium valproate changes specific brain cell population in Balb/C mice, which might be the reason for the altered neurotransmitter levels, leading to behavioural changes in these animals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Nasim S. Sabounchi ◽  
Rebekah Heckmann ◽  
Gail D’Onofrio ◽  
Jennifer Walker ◽  
Robert Heimer

Abstract Background Although Good Samaritan laws (GSLs) have been widely adopted throughout the United States, their efficacy in individual states is often unknown. This paper offers an approach for assessing the impact of GSLs and insight for policy-makers and public health officials who wish to know whether they should expect to see outcomes from similar policy interventions. Methods Utilizing a system dynamics (SD) modeling approach, the research team conducted a policy evaluation to determine the impact of GSLs on opioid use disorder (OUD) in Connecticut and evaluated the GSL based upon the following health outcomes: (1) emergency department (ED) visits for overdose, (2) behavioral changes of bystanders, and (3) overdose deaths. Results The simulation model suggests that Connecticut’s GSL has not yet affected overdose deaths but has resulted in bystander behavioral changes, such as increased 911 calls for overdose. ED visits have increased as the number of opioid users has increased. Conclusions The simulation results indicate that the number of opioid-related deaths will continue to increase and that the GSL alone cannot effectively control the crisis. However, the SD approach that was used will allow policymakers to evaluate the effectiveness of the GSL over time using a simulation framework. This SD model demonstrates great potential by producing simulations that allow policymakers to assess multiple strategies for combating the opioid crisis and select optimal public health interventions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 62 (1) ◽  
pp. 211-233
Renata Bartesaghi ◽  
Stefano Vicari ◽  
William C. Mobley

Those with Down syndrome (DS)—trisomy for chromosome 21—are routinely impacted by cognitive dysfunction and behavioral challenges in children and adults and Alzheimer's disease in older adults. No proven treatments specifically address these cognitive or behavioral changes. However, advances in the establishment of rodent models and human cell models promise to support development of such treatments. A research agenda that emphasizes the identification of overexpressed genes that contribute demonstrably to abnormalities in cognition and behavior in model systems constitutes a rational next step. Normalizing expression of such genes may usher in an era of successful treatments applicable across the life span for those with DS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (4) ◽  
Ali Dashtgard ◽  
Hossein Dehghani ◽  
Seyed Mostafa Mohsenizadeh ◽  
Hadi Zare Marzouni ◽  
Mohammad Alinezhad Moqaddam

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and its subsequent changes in the community lifestyle can be associated with problems and complications. It seems very important to identify the problems caused by the COVID-19 pandemic accurately. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate behavioral changes in children due to the COVID-19 pandemic in South Khorasan in 2021. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 312 children were studied. Inclusion criteria included all children under 12 years of age without apparent mental disorders and chronic diseases affecting behavioral changes. Exclusion criteria were parental separation, experiencing natural disasters in the last two years, losing a first-degree family member in the last two years, and any underlying disease in the child and first-degree family members. The questionnaires included a demographic questionnaire and the Ruther Children's Behavior Questionnaire, completed by parents online due to the COVID-19 epidemic and the new situation. Results: The results showed that the behavioral disorder prevalence was 37.2% (n = 116). The mean scores were 3.10 ± 2.23 for aggression-hyperactivity, 3.11 ± 3.08 for anxiety-depression, 2.65 ± 1.79 for social maladaptation, 2.34 ± 1.83 for antisocial behavior, and 1.59 ± 1.29 for attention deficit. There was no significant relationship between demographic indicators and behavioral disorders (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results indicated an increase in the prevalence of behavioral disorders in children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, it seems necessary to identify influencing factors and find appropriate solutions to prevent such disorders.

2022 ◽  
Zakaria Babutsitdze ◽  
Dorian Vincileoni

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