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Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 550
Author(s):  
Hussah Abdullah Alshwyeh ◽  
Sahar Khamees Aldosary ◽  
Muna Abdulsalam Ilowefah ◽  
Raheem Shahzad ◽  
Adeeb Shehzad ◽  
...  

Nigella species are widely used to cure various ailments. Their health benefits, particularly from the seed oils, could be attributed to the presence of a variety of bioactive components. Roasting is a critical process that has historically been used to facilitate oil extraction and enhance flavor; it may also alter the chemical composition and biological properties of the Nigella seed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the roasting process on the composition of the bioactive components and the biological activities of Nigella arvensis and Nigella sativa seed extracts. Our preliminary study showed that seeds roasted at 50 °C exhibited potent antimicrobial activities; therefore, this temperature was selected for roasting Nigella seeds. For extraction, raw and roasted seed samples were macerated in methanol. The antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca were determined by measuring the diameter of the zone of inhibition. The cell viability of extracts was tested in a colon carcinoma cell line, HCT-116, by using a microculture tetrazolium technique (MTT) assay. Amino acids were extracted and quantified using an automatic amino acid analyzer. Then, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis was performed to identify the chemical constituents and fatty acids. As a result, the extracts of raw and roasted seeds in both Nigella species showed strong inhibition against Klebsiella oxytoca, and the raw seed extract of N.arvensis demonstrated moderate inhibition against S. pyogenes. The findings of the MTT assay indicated that all the extracts significantly decreased cancer cell viability. Moreover, N. sativa species possessed higher contents of the measured amino acids, except tyrosine, cystine, and methionine. The GC–MS analysis of extracts showed the presence of 22 and 13 compounds in raw and roasted N. arvensis, respectively, and 9 and 11 compounds in raw and roasted N. sativa, respectively. However, heat treatment decreased the detectable components to 13 compounds in roasted N. arvensis and increased them in roasted N. sativa. These findings indicate that N. arvensis and N. sativa could be potential sources of anticancer and antimicrobials, where the bioactive compounds play a pivotal role as functional components.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Haojie Sun ◽  
Peng Lai ◽  
Wei Wu ◽  
Hao Heng ◽  
Shanwen Si ◽  
...  

Diabetes mellitus has become a major global health issue. Currently, the use of antibiotics remains the best foundational strategy in the control of diabetic foot infections. However, the lack of accurate identification of pathogens and the empirical use of antibiotics at early stages of infection represents a non-targeted treatment approach with a poor curative effect that may increase the of bacterial drug resistance. Therefore, the timely identification of drug resistant bacteria is the key to increasing the efficacy of treatments for diabetic foot infections. The traditional identification method is based on bacterial morphology, cell physiology, and biochemistry. Despite the simplicity and low costs associated with this method, it is time-consuming and has limited clinical value, which delays early diagnosis and treatment. In the recent years, MALDI-TOF MS has emerged as a promising new technology in the field of clinical microbial identification. In this study, we developed a strategy for the identification of drug resistance in the diagnosis of diabetic foot infections using a combination of macro-proteomics and MALDI MS analysis. The macro-proteomics result was utilized to determine the differential proteins in the resistance group and the corresponding peptide fragments were used as the finger print in a MALDI MS analysis. This strategy was successfully used in the research of drug resistance in patients with diabetic foot infections and achieved several biomarkers that could be used as a finger print for 4 different drugs, including ceftazidime, piperacillin, levofloxacin, and tetracycline. This method can quickly confirm the drug resistance of clinical diabetic foot infections, which can help aid in the early treatment of patients.


Author(s):  
Emmanuel Uka1,

Sphenocentrum jollyanum is a plant genus of the family Menispermaceae. It has high medicinal importance as it is used traditionally to treat various diseases such as jaundice, breast engorgement related to the menstrual cycle, tumour, fibroids and improve the health of people. The present investigation was carried out to analyze the bioactive compounds present in ethanol crude extract of Sphenocentrum jollyanum leaves using GC-MS analysis. GC-MS analysis of ethanol extract Sphenocentrum jollyanum was done using a 7890A GC system (Agilent Technologies), coupled with 5977B MSD (Agilent Technologies) while the mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract was matched with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) library. A total of 45 bioactive compounds representing 99.98% of the total extract based on the retention time, peak area, molecular formula, molecular weight, and biological activities were identified by GC-MS which ranges from high molecular weight to low molecular weight compounds. The major compounds identified with their peak area percentages were 2,4-Di-tertbutylphenol, (21.05%), Z-8-Methyl-9-tetradecenoic acid (19.12), Hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester (7.86%), Diisooctyl phthalate (7.13%), Phytol, Oleic Acid (7.03), 6,9,12- Octadecatrien-1-ol (6.65%), 3-Eicosene, (E)-(4.63%), 2-Methyl-Z, Z-3,13-octadecadienol (4.24%), n- Hexadecanoic acid (4.09%), trans-13-Octadecenoic acid (3.81%), Cyclohexene, 4-(4-ethylcyclohexyl) -1- pentyl- (3.74%), Dibutyl phthalate (3.20%), and 9-Oxabicyclo (6.1.0) nonane, cis-(3.18%). The presence of these major phytoconstituents in the leaf extract provides various biological activities including antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumour which supports the ethno-medicinal uses of the plant in curing diseases. We recommend


Author(s):  
Kehinde O. Fagbemi ◽  
Daniel A. Aina ◽  
Roger M. Coopoosamy ◽  
Olufunmiso O. Olajuyigbe

Background: As a result of high percentage of women infected with urinary tract infection (UTI) annually, many rural dwellers use Adansonia digitata fruit pulp as herbal cure. Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae) is one of the great trees idolised in Africa because of its therapeutic properties.Aim: This study aimed at identifying chemical compounds in the ethylacetate fraction of the baobab fruit pulp and indicated their biological activities to justify its use for the folkloric treatment of UTI.Methods: The crude extract from Baobab fruit pulp was partitioned and ethylacetate extract was used for assay. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis was performed to identify the bioactive compounds in the ethylacetate fraction, antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays whilst the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by already adopted protocols. The antibacterial properties were tested against some urinary tract pathogens using macro broth dilution method.Results: A total of 36 bioactive compounds were identified by GC–MS analysis, most of them have been reported as antibacterial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antiasthma, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agents. The extract exhibited highest activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 19582 (1.22 mg/mL) whilst Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 (˃ 8.6 mg/mL) displayed high level of resistance amongst the five bacterial isolates used in this study.Conclusion: These findings indicated that the extract contained bioactive compounds of therapeutic importance with significant antioxidant and antibacterial potentials and justify the folkloric use of this fruit in the treatment of UTIs by many African dwellers.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 768-774
Author(s):  
Pankaj Kushwaha ◽  
Shashi Alok ◽  
Lavkush Dwivedi

Chlorophytum borivilianum (Safed Musli), a member of the Liliaceae family is a well-known plant in India for its aphrodisiac and adaptogenic activities. The present study was carried out to identify the novel compounds based new medicinal properties of the plant. The preliminary phytochemical screening and GC-MS based chromatographic analysis of a methanolic extract of C. borivilianum (MECB) tubors resulted the detection of Phenol, Tannins, Flavo-noids, Alkaloids, Saponins, and Glycosides in the plant. In GC-MS analysis of the MECB, more than 200 compounds were identified in different peak are-as. All of them were crosschecked at various online compound databses like PubChem, Drugbank, etc. for the identification of their known biological ac-tivities, if any. Out of them, mainly 21 compounds (falling in 70.74% peak area) like 4-mercaptophenol, 1,4-Benzenediol, 2-methoxy-, Octadecanal, Pentadecanal, 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, Betulin, Levomenthol, etc. were characterized in this study. As per their reported medicinal activities at standard databases the plant tubor is hereby reported to have anti-microbial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic, anti-pruritic, anti-tussive and anti-spasmodic activites. Moreover, the compounds like Cyclo-hexanol, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl), Palmitoyl Chloride, Triarachine, Phytol, 4-mercaptophenol with their mentholating, food additives and other valua-ble effects have underlined the industrial value of the plant.


2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 141-151
Author(s):  
VithyaEswari. D ◽  
◽  
R. Subashkumar ◽  

Phytolacca octandra is a perennial usually about 1m high herb, dense and erect in full sun. As only few reports were available on the studies about the bioactive compounds and various activities in the Phytolacca octandra, the present study focuses on the bio active compounds attributed to antibacterial activity in the plant extracts by Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) and molecular docking methods. Antibacterial activity of Phytolacca octandra showed maximum inhibitory zones of 21mm, 18mm, 19mm, 19mm and 20mm against respective organisms for 25mg/ml of acetone extracts. The outcome of Phytolacca octandra extracts that was exposed to GC-MS analysis, showed the presence of 20 more compounds. The most identified compounds to have anti-oxidant activity are Dodecane, Octadecane and Octacosane. The other major compounds present in extract are Cyclohexen-oxopropyl, 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid.The overall docking energies of the target protein, rhamnolipids biosynthesis 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase with quercetin with the number of hydrogen bonds were presented in the study; The docking report revealed –8.01Kcal/Mol binding energies and 8 hydrogen bonding between the Phytolacca octandra compound, quercetin and the target binding protein, rhlG of infection causing pathogen Staphylococcus aureus.


2022 ◽  
pp. e978
Author(s):  
Fatima Zohra Houari ◽  
Ramazan Erenler ◽  
Sena Bakir ◽  
Esra Capanoglu ◽  
Ahmed Hariri

The present study investigated the chemical profile, toxicity, and anti-anaemic activity of Rubia tinctorum root aqueous extract against phenylhydrazine induced hemolytic anaemia. Phenolic compounds were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS; acute toxicity test was evaluated by administering a single dose of 2,000 mg.kg-1 of the extract; anaemia was induced by administration of 40 mg phenylhydrazine by intraperitoneal injection for 2 days. Moreover, the anti-anaemic activity was evaluated by measuring the haematological parameters of rats treated with iron and aqueous extract for 15 days. The LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis results revealed the presence of 31 phytochemical compounds, among them, citric acid was found as the most abundant. No signs of toxicity or death were recorded, indicating that the LD50 of R. tinctorum root extract is higher than 2,000 mg.kg-1. Furthermore, the aqueous extract increased red blood cell levels by 69.82 and 71.67 % in the groups treated with 200 and 400 mg.kg-1 of the extract, respectively. Besides, a significant increase in hemoglobin from 12.05 ± 0.15 to 12.9 ± 0.52 g.dL-1 was noted in rats treated with 400 mg.kg-1 of extract. Thus, the data indicate that the root extract could be considered a natural source for the treatment of anaemia.


Author(s):  
Mariam M. Magdy ◽  
Yasser Gaber ◽  
Mohamed Sebak ◽  
Ahmed F. Azmy ◽  
Sameh AbdelGhani

Abstract Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as anthracene are one of the most toxic contaminants to our environment. Microbial biodegradation of these xenobiotics is a cost-effective technological solution. The present study aimed to recover some bacterial isolates from Beni-Suef Governorate in Egypt with high capabilities of anthracene biodegradation. The selected isolates were molecularly characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the degree of anthracene biodegradation was monitored using optical density (OD) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), PCR amplification of some selected genes encoding biodegradation of PAHs was monitored, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis was applied for detecting the resulted metabolites. Result Three bacterial isolates were studied, the 16s rRNA sequences of the isolates showed homology of the first isolate to Brevibacillus sp. (94.58 %), the second isolates showed homology to Pseudomonas sp. (94.53%) and the third isolate showed homology to Methylocystis sp. (99.61 %), all isolates showed the ability to degrade anthracene. PCR amplification of some selected genes encoding biodegradation of PAHs revealed the presence of many biodegrading genes in the selected strains. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of the metabolites resulted from anthracene biodegradation in the present study suggested that more than one biodegradation pathway was followed by the selected isolates. Conclusions The selected strains could represent a potential bioremediation tool in solving the PAHs problem in the Egyptian environment with a clean and cost-effective technique. Graphical Abstract


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