Lipid Content
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Marjut Rajasilta ◽  
Katja Mäkinen ◽  
Suvi Ruuskanen ◽  
Jari Hänninen ◽  
Päivi Laine

In fish, the lipid resources of the female form a link between the environment and progeny, contributing to the contents of the egg yolk. Variation of the environmental conditions is therefore expected to affect the egg quality via maternal pathways, reflecting the female’s response to the environmental factors before spawning. We investigated the content of lipids and thyroid hormones in the ovary and eggs of the Baltic herring during 1988–2019, when salinity of the Baltic Sea first declined and then stabilized to a lower level, and winters varied between severe and mild. The total lipid resources of spawning females decreased by 40–50% during the study, and the ovarian lipid concentration followed this trend resulting in a decrease of the lipid content of eggs. The concentration of thyroid hormones in the ovary suggested a hormonal response in females to salinity and winter temperature and was observable also in the content of thyroid hormones in the eggs. A change in the egg lipid content took place approximately around 1998 (SE ± 3 years) suggesting that in declining salinity, egg quality was associated with salinity and intrinsic factors in the female, i.e., fecundity and amount of lipids deposited into the ovary. However, during the period of stable salinity, egg quality was mainly limited by the female’s lipid resources. As also the body size of the females decreased over the years, it is suggested that small body size can be a key phenotypic trait to reduce the environmental impact on egg quality in variable environmental conditions.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 3009
De-Sing Ding ◽  
Wei-Ting Sun ◽  
Chih-Hung Pan

Nutritional requirements are critical in the process of coral aquaculture. In addition to energy from symbiotic algae, corals obtain sufficient nutrition through heterotrophic feeding. Microalgae and yeast are commonly used as nutritional supplements for many aquaculture organisms. In addition, if artificial feed can match or improve upon the nutritional supplementation provided by microalgae and yeast in the case of G. columna, then feeding this coral would be markedly easier. Hence, this article preliminarily discusses feeds suitable for G. columna. In this study, artificial PUFA rich in animal protein (R), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Isochrysis galbana tml, and Nannochloropsis oculate were fed to G. columna at quantities of 5% and 10% of body weight. Growth, survival, body composition, and digestive enzymes were assessed. Regarding body composition, the coral’s protein content is higher than that of carbohydrate or fat; thus, evaluating the heterotrophic nutrition of G. columna by using protein absorption is appropriate. The protease content is also high in digestive enzymes. Protein content, protease activity, and specific growth rate were significantly higher in the R group than in other groups. The number of polyps in the groups fed R at 5% and 10% of body weight increased by 40.00 ± 2.43 and 47.33 ± 0.89 number, respectively, significantly greater increases than those achieved in the other groups (p < 0.05). Changes in body composition and digestive enzymes over a 24-h period were compared to determine the optimal feeding time. Protein content and protease activity increased markedly between 6:00 and 12:00. The experimental results suggest that R can improve the activity of G. columna digestive enzymes and their protein and lipid content in body tissue, shorten the cultivation time, and enhance the profitability of coral aquaculture.

Laís Vales Mennitti ◽  
Asha A. M. Carpenter ◽  
Elena Loche ◽  
Lucas C. Pantaleão ◽  
Denise S. Fernandez-Twinn ◽  

Abstract Objective This study investigated the effect of maternal obesity on aged-male offspring liver phenotype and hepatic expression of a programmed miRNA. Methods A mouse model (C57BL/6 J) of maternal diet-induced obesity was used to investigate fasting-serum metabolites, hepatic lipid content, steatosis, and relative mRNA levels (RT-PCR) and protein expression (Western blotting) of key components involved in hepatic and mitochondrial metabolism in 12-month-old offspring. We also measured hepatic lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial content, fibrosis stage, and apoptosis in the offspring. To investigate potential mechanisms leading to the observed phenotype, we also measured the expression of miR-582 (a miRNA previously implicated in liver cirrhosis) in 8-week-old and 12-month-old offspring. Results Body weight and composition was similar between 8-week-old offspring, however, 12-month-old offspring from obese mothers had increased body weight and fat mass (19.5 ± 0.8 g versus 10.4 ± 0.9 g, p < 0.001), as well as elevated serum levels of LDL and leptin and hepatic lipid content (21.4 ± 2.1 g versus 12.9 ± 1.8 g, p < 0.01). This was accompanied by steatosis, increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and overexpression of p-SAPK/JNK, Tgfβ1, Map3k14, and Col1a1 in the liver. Decreased levels of Bcl-2, p-AMPKα, total AMPKα and mitochondrial complexes were also observed. Maternal obesity was associated with increased hepatic miR-582-3p (p < 0.001) and miR-582-5p (p < 0.05). Age was also associated with an increase in both miR-582-3p and miR-582-5p, however, this was more pronounced in the offspring of obese dams, such that differences were greater in 12-month-old animals (−3p: 7.34 ± 1.35 versus 1.39 ± 0.50, p < 0.0001 and −5p: 4.66 ± 1.16 versus 1.63 ± 0.65, p < 0.05). Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that maternal diet-induced obesity has detrimental effects on offspring body composition as well as hepatic phenotype that may be indicative of accelerated-ageing phenotype. These whole-body and cellular phenotypes were associated with age-dependent changes in expression of miRNA-582 that might contribute mechanistically to the development of metabolic disorders in the older progeny.

Géssica Fernanda da Silva FONTE ◽  
Ianca Carolina Magalhães GENTIL ◽  
Anelisa Doretto Freitas FURLAN

Com o passar dos anos, a busca por alimentos que melhorem a qualidade de vida tem sido aumentada, como por exemplo, os alimentos funcionais. O kefir é um tipo de leite fermentado produzido através da fermentação do leite usando os grãos, sendo estes, massas gelatinosas de cor branca ou amarelada que contêm leveduras e/ou bactérias. É um alimento probiótico, pois contém microrganismos presentes benéficos ao ser humano e, se consumido numa quantidade de, no mínimo, 106UFC/100 mL ou gramas do produto pode auxiliar na prevenção ou correção de alguns problemas de saúde, sendo eles diabetes, desnutrição, obesidade, doenças cardiovasculares e outras doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. O objetivo deste estudo foi cultivar 3 amostras de kefir à base de leite e realizar análises físico-químicas para quantificar e definir os elementos presentes neste alimento, como o teor de carboidratos, proteínas, umidade, cinzas e lipídeos. A metodologia aplicada para execução do trabalho ocorreu através de revisão bibliográfica utilizando como base artigos em periódicos científicos, livros, teses, dissertações e resumos de congresso, sendo selecionadas publicações entre 2015 e 2020, nos idiomas inglês, espanhol e português e pesquisa de campo, realizando o cultivo e as análises bromatológicas. Os resultados obtidos através da caracterização físico-química dos grãos de kefir são semelhantes aos relatados na literatura, havendo algumas diferenças decorrentes do clima, matéria-prima utilizada e cuidados no cultivo. Conclui-se assim que o kefir é um alimento benéfico à saúde, porém são necessários certos cuidados no cultivo e manejo para garantir sua qualidade.   CHARACTERIZATION OF MILK KEFIR REGARDING PHYSICOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION   ABSTRACT Over the years, the search for foods that improve the quality of life has increased, such as functional foods. Kefir is a type of fermented milk produced by fermenting milk using grains, which are gelatinous masses of white or yellowish color that contain yeast and/or bacteria.  It is a probiotic food, because it contains microorganisms present that are beneficial to humans and, if consumed in an amount of at least 106 CFU/100 mL or grams of the product, may help prevent or correct some health problems, including diabetes, malnutrition, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic non-transmissible diseases. This study aimed to cultivate 3 milk-based kefir samples and to conduct physicochemical analyses to quantify and define the elements found in this food, such as carbohydrate, protein, moisture, ash, and lipid content. The methodology used to carry out the study was a literature review based on articles in scientific journals, books, thesis, dissertations, and conference summaries, selecting publications between 2015 and 2020, in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, as well as field research, with cultivation and bromatological analysis. The results observed in the physical-chemical characterization of kefir grains are similar to those reported in the literature, with some differences resulting from climate, raw material used and cultivation care. It is thus concluded that kefir is a beneficial food to health, but it is necessary to take proper care in cultivation and management to ensure its health benefits. Descriptors: Functional foods. Probiotics. Cultured milk products.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Magdalena Rakicka-Pustułka ◽  
Joanna Miedzianka ◽  
Dominika Jama ◽  
Sylwia Kawalec ◽  
Kamila Liman ◽  

Abstract Background Contemporary biotechnology focuses on many problems related to the functioning of developed societies. Many of these problems are related to health, especially with the rapidly rising numbers of people suffering from civilization diseases, such as obesity or diabetes. One factor contributing to the development of these diseases is the high consumption of sucrose. A very promising substitute for this sugar has emerged: the polyhydroxy alcohols, characterized by low caloric value and sufficient sweetness to replace table sugar in food production. Results In the current study, yeast belonging to the Yarrowia clade were tested for erythritol, mannitol and arabitol production using crude glycerol from the biodiesel and soap industries as carbon sources. Out of the 13 tested species, Yarrowia divulgata and Candida oslonensis turned out to be particularly efficient polyol producers. Both species produced large amounts of these compounds from both soap-derived glycerol (59.8–62.7 g dm−3) and biodiesel-derived glycerol (76.8–79.5 g dm−3). However, it is equally important that the protein and lipid content of the biomass (around 30% protein and 12% lipid) obtained after the processes is high enough to use this yeast in the production of animal feed. Conclusions The use of waste glycerol for the production of polyols as well as utilization of the biomass obtained after the process for the production of feed are part of the development of modern waste-free technologies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (Supplement_3) ◽  
pp. 307-307
Brandon I Smith ◽  
Manuel A Vasquez-Hidalgo ◽  
Kimberly A Vonnahme ◽  
Anna T Grazul-Bilska ◽  
Kendall C Swanson ◽  

Abstract To determine the effects of maternal nutrient restriction and re-alimentation on fetal liver and muscle development, 48 pregnant ewes with singletons, were fed a control diet [100% National Research Council (NRC) requirements (CON)] starting at the beginning of gestation. On day 50 of gestation, ewes (n = 7) were euthanized and fetal liver and skeletal muscle samples were collected. The remaining animals were fed either CON or 60% NRC requirements (RES), a subset were euthanized at day 90 of gestation (n = 7/treatment), and fetal samples obtained. Remaining ewes were maintained on the current diet (CON-CON, n = 6; RES-RES, n = 7) or switched to alternative diet (CON-RES, RES-CON; n = 7/treatment). On day 130 of gestation, remaining ewes were euthanized, and fetal samples collected. Fetal liver was analyzed for general tissue morphology, and fetal skeletal muscles were analyzed for lipid accumulation. mRNA expression of growth and metabolic factors were quantified in liver and muscle tissues. Hepatocellular vacuolation was increased in RES-CON and RES-RES compared with CON-CON and CON-RES (P &lt; 0.01). In semitendinosus and triceps brachii, intramyocellular lipid content increased 19% and 15%, respectively, in RES-CON and RES-RES compared with CON-CON and CON-RES (P£0.02) and in longissimus dorsi, lipid content was decreased 7% in CON-RES and RES-RES compared with CON-CON and RES-CON (P=0.01). In liver, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, glycogen synthase 2, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 expression increased 1.92-fold, 1.45-fold, and 1.47-fold, respectively (P£0.03) in CON-RES and RES-RES compared with RES-CON and CON-CON. In LD, IGF1-R expression increased 3.19-fold in CON-RES and RES-RES compared with RES-CON and CON-CON (P = 0.05). These results demonstrate that maternal nutrient restriction followed by re-alimentation restores liver and muscle gene expression of growth and metabolic factors while negatively impacting liver composition and muscle lipid content potentially leading to altered tissue function and metabolism later in life. Supported by USDA-AFRI grants 2016-67016-24884 and 2017-67016-26568.

2021 ◽  
Benedikt Ehrenfels ◽  
Julian Junker ◽  
Demmy Namutebi ◽  
Cameron M. Callbeck ◽  
Christian Dinkel ◽  

Lake Tanganyika's pelagic fish sustain the second largest inland fishery in Africa and are under pressure from heavy fishing and global warming related increases in stratification. Only little is known about whether basin-scale hydrodynamics - including a more stratified north and an upwelling-driven south - lead to regional fish populations with varying ecological adaptations. Here, we examine whether the basin-scale dynamics leave distinct isotopic imprints in the pelagic fish of Lake Tanganyika, which may reveal differences in habitat, diet, or lipid content. We conducted two lake-wide campaigns during different seasons and collected physical, nutrient, chlorophyll, phytoplankton and zooplankton data. Additionally, we analyzed the pelagic fish - the clupeids Stolothrissa tanganicae, Limnothrissa miodon and four Lates species - for their isotopic and elemental carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) compositions. The δ13C values were significantly higher in the productive south after the upwelling/mixing period across all trophic levels, implying that the fish have regional foraging grounds, and thus record these latitudinal isotope gradients. However, the degree of regional isolation is insufficient to suppress lake-wide gene flow, suggesting that the fish form regional populations only on a basin-wide and seasonal scale. Based on δ15N and C:N ratios, we found no strong evidence for varying diets or lipid contents between those populations. Additional analyses revealed that isotopic variations between specimens from the same location are not linked to genetic differences. Our findings provide fundamental insight on the connectivity and ecology of Lake Tanganyika's pelagic fish and imply that sustainable management strategies may adopt basin-scale fishing quotas.

QJM ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 114 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Sanaa Y Shaaban ◽  
Enas Abd El Hameed ◽  
Yasmin G Abdo El Gendy ◽  
Athar FM Abd Elazim

Abstract Background Infant growth is a big concern among the community, mothers and the pediatricians, this study focused on what can affect newborns growth in Egyptian community. Objective Primary objective to detect the relationships between protein and lipid content of the breast milk of Egyptian women with their infant’s growth. Secondary objective is to correlate protein and lipid content in the mother’s milk and their diet. Patients and Methods This is a cohort study done on 30 infant in Ain Shams University for a period of six months.history was taken by questionnaire about infant’s Gestational age. parity. Dietetic history of infant (breast fed, frequency of feeds),Mother’s age, education, address, body weight, height, BMI and maternal illness. Mother’s dietetic history by 24 hour recall.breast milk samples was collected by hand expression between 4 and 8 weeks of lactation, kept frozen at20 °C. Triglyceride (fat) concentrations were measured in homogenized HM samples using H-Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. For protein, total nitrogen was measured by the Dumas method. Results The growth rate range of infants under study was (18gm/day _ 28gm/day). Protein content of mother’s milk lowest value was 0.7gm, and highest value was 1.9gm. Lipid content of mother’s milk lowest value was 3.1gm, and highest value was 5.6gm. Lactose content of mother’s milk lowest value was 5.9gm, and highest value was 7.4gm.Caloric content of maternal diet lowest value was 1013kcal/day and highest value was 2818kcal/day. the protein of breast milk has a direct positive effect on Infant’s growthrate(r = 0.735,p=0.000)weight(r = 0.689,p=0.000)and z score(r = 0.573, p = 0.001).lipid content of breast milk has a positive effect on Infant’s growthrate(r = 0.677,p=0.000)weight(r = 0.742,p=0.000)and zscore(r = 0.592,p=0.001). Protein of maternal diet has an impact on the protein content of her breast milk(r = 0.719,p=0.000)and lipid content of breast milk(r = 0.712, p = 0.000).lipid of maternal diet has no effect on lipid content of breast milk(r = 0.127,p=0.52)and protein of breast milk (r = 0.118,p=0.536).caloric intake of mothers has positive effect on protein of breast milk(r = 0.599,p=0.000),and lipid of breast milk(r = 0.496,p=0.005). Conclusion Protein content of breast milk of mothers positively affects growth rate weight and height of their infants. (P value 0.000, 0.001,0.005 respectively). As protein content of breast milk exceeds 1.1gm/dl infant kept same or higher weight/height centile and z score. As lipid content of breast milk exceeds 4mg/dl infant kept same or higher weight/height centile and z score. Protein content of breast milk is positively affected by protein in maternal diet(r = 0.747,P 0.000) and her total caloric intake(r = 0.519,p 0.005).lipid content of breast milk is positively affected by protein content of maternal diet (r = 0.719,P 0.000)and her total caloric intake(r = 0.496,p 0.005).

2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (Supplement_1) ◽  
M Octave ◽  
L Pirotton ◽  
A Ginion ◽  
V Robaux ◽  
S Lepropre ◽  

Abstract Introduction Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the first enzyme regulating lipid synthesis, promotes thrombus formation by increasing platelet phospholipid content. Inhibition of its activity decreases lipogenesis and increases the content in acetyl-CoA which can serve as a substrate for protein acetylation. This posttranslational modification plays a key role in the regulation of platelet aggregation, via tubulin acetylation. Purpose To demonstrate that ACC inhibition may affect platelet functions via an alteration of lipid content and/or tubulin acetylation. Methods Platelets were treated 2 hours with CP640.186, a pharmacological ACC inhibitor, prior to thrombin stimulation. Platelet functions were assessed by aggregometry and flow cytometry. Lipogenesis was measured via 14C-acetate incorporation into lipids. Lipidomics analysis was carried out on the commercial Lipidyzer platform. Protein phosphorylation and acetylation were evaluated by western blot. Results Treatment with CP640.186 drastically decreased platelet lipogenesis. However, the quantitative lipidomics analyses showed that preincubation with the compound did not affect global platelet lipid content. Interestingly, this short-term ACC inhibition was sufficient to increase tubulin acetylation level, at basal state and after thrombin stimulation. It was associated with an impaired platelet aggregation, in response to low thrombin concentration, while granules secretion was not affected. Mechanistically, we highlighted a decrease in Rac1 activity, associated with a reduced phosphorylation of its downstream effector PAK2. Surprisingly, actin cytoskeleton was not impacted but we evidenced a significant decrease in ROS production which could result from a decreased NOX2 activity. Conclusion Pharmacological ACC inhibition decreases platelet aggregation upon thrombin stimulation. The mechanism depends on increased tubulin acetylation, with subsequent alteration of the Rac1/PAK2/NOX2 signaling pathway FUNDunding Acknowledgement Type of funding sources: Other. Main funding source(s): Fonds pour la formation à la Recherche dans l'Industrie et l'Agriculture (FRIA)

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