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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 551-557
Zhen Liu ◽  
Canfang Hu ◽  
Dingzhong Tang ◽  
Guojun Luo

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with memory loss and cognitive impairment. Short non-coding RNAs (miRNAs) are potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for AD. This study aims to investigate miR-129’s role in AD. miR-129 and amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression was measured by Q-PCR, and LC3, p62, ATG5, Bcl-2, p-Tau and Caspase3 protein was detected by Western blot. Hydrogenase kits and DCFH-DA detected cell apoptosis, cytotoxicity and ROS generation. The interaction between APP and miR-129 was assessed by luciferase report experiment. HE staining and TUNEL assay evaluated hippocampal neuron damage. In AD patient serum, AD transgenic (TG) mouse brain tissue, and AB1-42-treated SH-SY5Y cells, miR-129 was downregulated but autophagy was increased. Overexpression of miR-129 reduced cell damage induced by AB1-42, and miR-129 can directly regulate APP expression by binding APP 3′-UTR. miR-129 inhibitors reversed the protective effect of shAPP on AB1-42-induced cell damage. In addition, miR-129 overexpression reduced neuronal damage through inhibiting autophagy in vivo. APP expression in AD patient and AD cell model was significantly increased compared to controls. Aβ-42 treatment caused up-regulation of APP expression, while APP knockdown inhibited neurons through autophagy. In conclusion, miR-129 overexpression can regulate autophagy by targeting APP5, thereby reducing neuronal damage in AD. These findings provide a new perspective for treating AD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 358-364
Wei Zhang ◽  
Fang Liu ◽  
Caixia Zhang

To elucidate the communication between exosomes (exo) derived from BMSCs and injured lung cells. BMSC-exo was isolated and characterized. Lung epithelial cells A549 were incubated with BMSC-exo, and treated by LPS to induce cell damage. CCK-8 assay was carried out to test cell proliferation, flow cytometry was adopted to analyze cell apoptosis, and RT-qPCR as well as Western blot analysis were selected to assess expression of apoptosis- and anti-apoptosis related proteins. Functional experiment was performed to identify the role of microRNA (miRNA)-328 in lung injury. LPS treatment significantly inhibited the viability of A549 cells, induced apoptosis of A549 cells by increasing Bax and casepase-3 levels and reducing Bcl-2 expression, whilst declined expression of miR-328 and suppressed the phosphorylation activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway. Meanwhile, the amount of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α were elevated in injured cells, but, the presence of BMSC-exo eliminated the elevation of the contents. Importantly, treatment with BMSC-exo increased miR-328 expression, activated MAPK MAPK/ERK pathway, inhibited apoptosis, and enhanced cell proliferation. However, the effect of BMSC-exo was attenuated when the cells were silenced for miR-328 expression. Collectively, BMSC-exo enriched miR-328 could relieve acute lung injury through MAPK/ERK pathway.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 835
Bang M. Tran ◽  
Samantha L. Grimley ◽  
Julie L. McAuley ◽  
Abderrahman Hachani ◽  
Linda Earnest ◽  

The global urgency to uncover medical countermeasures to combat the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has revealed an unmet need for robust tissue culture models that faithfully recapitulate key features of human tissues and disease. Infection of the nose is considered the dominant initial site for SARS-CoV-2 infection and models that replicate this entry portal offer the greatest potential for examining and demonstrating the effectiveness of countermeasures designed to prevent or manage this highly communicable disease. Here, we test an air–liquid-interface (ALI) differentiated human nasal epithelium (HNE) culture system as a model of authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Progenitor cells (basal cells) were isolated from nasal turbinate brushings, expanded under conditionally reprogrammed cell (CRC) culture conditions and differentiated at ALI. Differentiated cells were inoculated with different SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolates. Infectious virus release into apical washes was determined by TCID50, while infected cells were visualized by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. We demonstrate robust, reproducible SARS-CoV-2 infection of ALI-HNE established from different donors. Viral entry and release occurred from the apical surface, and infection was primarily observed in ciliated cells. In contrast to the ancestral clinical isolate, the Delta variant caused considerable cell damage. Successful establishment of ALI-HNE is donor dependent. ALI-HNE recapitulate key features of human SARS-CoV-2 infection of the nose and can serve as a pre-clinical model without the need for invasive collection of human respiratory tissue samples.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mahin Izadi ◽  
Laleh Dehghan Marvast ◽  
Mohammad Ebrahim Rezvani ◽  
Marzieh Zohrabi ◽  
Ali Aliabadi ◽  

Some microbial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have adverse effects on the reproductive tract, sperm function, and male fertility. Given that STIs are often asymptomatic and cause major complications such as urogenital inflammation, fibrosis, and scarring, optimal treatments should be performed to prevent the noxious effect of STIs on male fertility. Among STIs, Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common asymptomatic preventable bacterial STI. C. trachomatis can affect both sperm and the male reproductive tract. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived exosomes have been considered as a new therapeutic medicine due to their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and regenerative effects without consequences through the stem cell transplantation based therapies. Inflammation of the genital tract and sperm dysfunction are the consequences of the microbial infections, especially Chlamydia trachomatis. Exosome therapy as a noninvasive approach has shown promising results on the ability to regenerate the damaged sperm and treating asthenozoospermia. Recent experimental methods may be helpful in the novel treatments of male infertility. Thus, it is demonstrated that exosomes play an important role in preventing the consequences of infection, and thereby preventing inflammation, reducing cell damage, inhibiting fibrogenesis, and reducing scar formation. This review aimed to overview the studies about the potential therapeutic roles of MSCs-derived exosomes on sperm abnormalities and male infertility caused by STIs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 84
Mario Abate ◽  
Cristina Pagano ◽  
Milena Masullo ◽  
Marianna Citro ◽  
Simona Pisanti ◽  

The fruit of Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) is known in ancient traditional Asian medicine for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anticancer activities. These effects are mainly due to the action of polyphenols known as xanthones, which are contained in the pericarp of the fruit. In recent years, there has been a growing interest from pharmaceutical companies in formulating new topicals based on mangosteen full extracts to prevent skin aging. However, the molecules responsible for these effects and the mechanisms involved have not been investigated so far. Here, the arils and shells of Garcinia mangostana were extracted with chloroform and methanol, and the extracts were further purified to yield 12 xanthone derivatives. Their effects were evaluated using in vitro cultures of human epidermal keratinocytes. After confirming the absence of cytotoxicity, we evaluated the antioxidant potential of these compounds, identifying mangostanin as capable of both protecting and restoring oxidative damage induced by H2O2. We showed how mangostanin, by reducing the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), prevents the activation of AKT (protein kinase B), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), p53, and other cellular pathways underlying cell damage and apoptosis activation. In conclusion, our study is the first to demonstrate that mangostanin is effective in protecting the skin from the action of free radicals, thus preventing skin aging, confirming a potential toward its development in the nutraceutical and cosmeceutical fields.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 137
Ning Liu ◽  
Xue Wang ◽  
Qiang Shan ◽  
Le Xu ◽  
Yanan Li ◽  

Bacillus cereus, considered a worldwide human food-borne pathogen, has brought serious health risks to humans and animals and huge losses to animal husbandry. The plethora of diverse toxins and drug resistance are the focus for B. cereus. As an alternative treatment to antibiotics, probiotics can effectively alleviate the hazards of super bacteria, food safety, and antibiotic resistance. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and distribution of B. cereus in dairy cows and to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in a model of endometritis induced by multi-drug-resistant B. cereus. A strong poisonous strain with a variety of drug resistances was used to establish an endometrial epithelial cell infection model. B. cereus was shown to cause damage to the internal structure, impair the integrity of cells, and activate the inflammatory response, while L. rhamnosus could inhibit cell apoptosis and alleviate this damage. This study indicates that the B. cereus-induced activation of the NLRP3 signal pathway involves K+ efflux. We conclude that LGR-1 may relieve cell destruction by reducing K+ efflux to the extracellular caused by the perforation of the toxins secreted by B. cereus on the cell membrane surface.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Youjing Yang ◽  
Qianmin Li ◽  
Shuhui Wei ◽  
Kaimiao Chu ◽  
Lian Xue ◽  

Lung inflammatory injury is a global public health concern. It is characterized by infiltration of diverse inflammatory cells and thickening of pulmonary septum along with oxidative stress to airway epithelial cells. STAT6 is a nuclear transcription factor that plays a crucial role in orchestrating the immune response, but its function in tissue inflammatory injury has not been comprehensively studied. Here, we demonstrated that STAT6 activation can protect against particle-induced lung inflammatory injury by resisting oxidative stress. Specifically, genetic ablation of STAT6 was observed to worsen particle-induced lung injury mainly by disrupting the lungs’ antioxidant capacity, as reflected by the downregulation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway, an increase in malondialdehyde levels, and a decrease in glutathione levels. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) has been previously proved to positively regulate Nrf2 signals. In this study, silencing VDR expression in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells consistently suppressed autophagy-mediated activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway, thereby aggravating particle-induced cell damage. Mechanically, STAT6 activation promoted the nuclear translocation of VDR, which increased the transcription of autophagy-related genes and induced Nrf2 signals, and silencing VDR abolished these effects. Our research provides important insights into the role of STAT6 in oxidative damage and reveals its potential underlying mechanism. This information not only deepens the appreciation of STAT6 but also opens new avenues for the discovery of therapies for inflammatory respiratory system disorders.

2022 ◽  
Tamara Madacsy ◽  
Árpád Varga ◽  
Noémi Papp ◽  
Bálint Tél ◽  
Petra Pallagi ◽  

Abstract Background and aims. Alcoholic pancreatitis and hepatitis are frequent, potentially lethal diseases with limited treatment options. Our previous study reported that the expression of CFTR Cl- channel is impaired by ethanol in pancreatic ductal cells leading to more severe alcohol-induced pancreatitis. In addition to determining epithelial ion secretion, CFTR has multiple interactions with other proteins, which may influence intracellular Ca2+ signaling. Thus, we aimed to investigate the impact of ethanol-mediated CFTR damage on intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in pancreatic ductal epithelial cells and cholangiocytes.Methods. Human and mouse pancreas and liver samples and ex vivo organoids were used to study ion secretion, intracellular signaling and protein expression and interaction. The effect of PMCA4 inhibition was analysed in a mouse model of alcohol-induced pancreatitis.Results. The decreased CFTR expression impaired PMCA function and resulted in sustained intracellular Ca2+ elevation in ethanol-treated and mouse and human pancreatic organoids. Liver samples derived from alcoholic hepatitis patients and ethanol-treated mouse liver organoids showed decreased CFTR expression and function, and impaired PMCA4 activity. PMCA4 co-localizes and physically interacts with CFTR on the apical membrane of polarized epithelial cells, where CFTR-dependent calmodulin recruitment determines PMCA4 activity. The sustained intracellular Ca2+ elevation in the absence of CFTR inhibited mitochondrial function and was accompanied with increased apoptosis in pancreatic epithelial cells and PMCA4 inhibition increased the severity of alcohol-induced AP in mice.Conclusion. Our results suggest that improving Ca2+ extrusion in epithelial cells may be a potential novel therapeutic approach to protect the exocrine pancreatic function in alcoholic pancreatitis and prevent the development of cholestasis in alcoholic hepatitis.

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