Introduction. Plant raw materials can be a source of biologically active substances and increase the nutritional value of food products. The present research objective was to determine the content of biologically active substances in powdered viburnum and barberry.
Study objects and methods. The study featured viburnum (Viburnum opulus L.) and barberry (Berberis vulgaris L.), dried by convection and crushed into particles of 50 microns.
Results and discussion. The total content of phenolic compounds in powdered viburnum was 3114.07 mg/100 g, in powdered barberry – 2272.7 mg/100 g. The content of flavonoids in powdered viburnum was 324.52 mg/100 g, in powdered barberry – 390.00 mg/100 g. The flavonoid profile of the powders included rutin, hyperoside, quercitrin, isoquercintrin, and astralagin. The total content of catechins was 446 mg/100 g for viburnum and 506 mg/100 g for barberry. The catechins included mainly epigallocatechin and catechin. In powdered viburnum, the catechin composition was as follows: epicatechin – 196, catechin – 118, and epigallocatechin – 89 mg/100 g; in powdered barberry: epigallocatechin – 173, catechin – 111, and epicatechin – 74 mg/100 g. The antiradical activity in relation to trolox equivalent was 7560 mg/100 g in powdered viburnum and 9460 mg/100 g in powdered barberry.
Conclusion. The obtained viburnum and barberry powders can fortify food with biologically active substances and expand the range of functional products.
Introduction. Semi-finished choux dough has neither vitamins nor minerals. However, its nutritional value can be increased by adding vegetable raw materials. The research objective was to evaluate the possibilities of using spicy vegetable raw materials in the formulation of semi-finished choux dough.
Study objects and methods. The study featured fresh parsley (Petroselinum crispum), basil (Ocimum), celery (Apium) leaves and stems, and IR-dried powder of celery stalks. Standard research methods were used to determine the sensory, physico-chemical, and nutritional properties of the resulting choux samples.
Results and discussion. Classical semi-finished choux dough with craquelin served as control sample. Fresh spicy vegetable raw materials degraded the sensory characteristics of the product. However, powdered celery stalks did not interfere with the taste of the choux dough. They were added in the amount of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% by weight of wheat flour. The celery powder gave the dough a sour-spicy flavor, as well as increased the content of vitamins B (up to 10%) and beta-carotene (up to 70%) in the finished product.
Conclusion. The sample with 5% of IR-dried celery powder proved optimal for choux dough. It increased the content of vitamin B2 and beta-carotene, thus improving the nutritional value of the semi-finished product. In future, the powder can be tested as part of bakery filling in combination with ingredients that mask the typical celery taste.
Introduction. Commercial pectin is usually obtained from apples or citrus fruits. However, some wild fruits, such as hawthorn, are also rich in pectin with valuable nutritional and medical properties. The research objective was to study and improve the process of combined surfactant and enzyme-assisted extraction of pectin from hawthorn fruits.
Study objects and methods. The study involved a 1% solution of Polysorbate-20 surfactant and a mix of two enzymes, namely cellulase and xylanase, in a ratio of 4:1. The response surface methodology with the Box-Behnken experimental design improved the extraction parameters. The experiment featured three independent variables – temperature, time, and solvent-to-material ratio. They varied at three levels: 20, 40, and 60°C; 120, 180, and 240 min; 15, 30, and 45 mL per g. Their effect on the parameters on the pectin yield was assessed using a quadratic mathematical model based on a second order polynomial equation.
Results and discussion. The response surface methodology made it possible to derive a second order polynomial regression equation that illustrated the effect of extraction parameters on the yield of polyphenols. The regression coefficient (R2 = 98.14%) and the lack-of-fit test (P > 0.05) showed a good accuracy of the model. The optimal extraction conditions were found as follows: temperature = 41°C, time = 160 min, solvent-to-material ratio = 32 mL per 1 g. Under the optimal conditions, the predicted pectin yield was 14.9%, while the experimental yield was 15.2 ± 0.4%. The content of galacturonic acid in the obtained pectin was 58.5%, while the degree of esterification was 51.5%. The hawthorn pectin demonstrated a good complex-building ability in relation to ions of copper (564 mg Cu2+/g), lead (254 mg Pb2+/g), and cobalt (120 mg Co2+/g).
Conclusion. Combined surfactant and enzyme-assisted extraction made improved the extraction of pectin from hawthorn fruits. The hawthorn pectin can be used to develop new functional products.
Introduction. Statistical methods of data processing and IT technologies make it possible to introduce new modern methods of hazard and risk analysis in food industry. The research objective was to develop new software that would link together various risk-related production data.
Study objects and methods. The research featured food production company LLC Yug (Biysk, Russia) that specializes in functional products and various ready-made software automation solutions. The study also involved statistical methods, methods of observation, collection of primary information, sequential top-down development of algorithms, and the Java programming language.
Results and discussion. Food producers have a registration procedure for inconsistencies and violations of permissible limits at critical control points. The authors developed a new software program that allows production line operators to enter data on downtime and other violations of the production process. The program makes it possible for managers to receive up-to-date reports on various criteria, identify violations, and select appropriate corrective actions. This ready-made solution automates the process of accounting and hazard analysis. The program was tested at LLC Yug with the focus on the time that operators and managers needed to register the problem, analyze the data, develop corrective or preventive measures, and apply them.
Conclusion. The new software proved to be less time-consuming than standard procedures applied in food industry and made it possible to save the time that operators and managers spent on decision making and reporting.
Introduction. Sprouted grain can cause food poisoning, since inappropriate conditions can promote the growth of pathogenic microorganisms on the grain surface. As a result, products of long-term storage use thermally-treated sprouted grain, the parameters of which depend on the initial bacteria content. There are different ways to reduce bacterial contamination of sprouted grain, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages. Natural substances with antimicrobial properties, such as medicinal herbs, can serve as decontaminators. However, no scientific research has been performed so far to determine the exact temperature of grain sprouting to minimize its microbiological contamination. The research objective was to investigate the effect of antimicrobial agents and sprouting conditions on the microflora of wheat and buckwheat grain.
Study objects and methods. The study featured wheat grain and green buckwheat grain. A set of experiments was performed to define the effect of antimicrobial agents and sprouting conditions on the quantity of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms (QMAFAnM), molds, and yeasts. During sprouting at 10–30°C for 90 h, the grain was irrigated with distilled water, potassium permanganate solution (KMnO4), calendula infusion, and celandine i nfusion. QMAFAnM and the count of molds and yeasts were determined by standard methods; the qualitative analysis of the microflora was based on their morphological and cultural characteristics.
Results and discussion. Microflora development during sprouting of wheat and buckwheat grains was controlled by selecting appropriate conditions and grain treatment methods. The herbal infusions for sprouting reduced the total microbial insemination of grain during sprouting by 52–68%; the calendula infusion reduced the contamination with molds by 47–51%, yeasts – by 100%.
Conclusion. The research revealed the total microbial count and the count of mold and yeast colonies in dry sprouted grain. The optimal temperature of sprouting wheat and buckwheat was 20 ± 2°C in the infusion of medicinal herbs: it minimized the microflora of sprouted grain and reduced the sprouting time to 46 h. Calendula infusion could be recommended for commercial use in order reduce the microbiological contamination of sprouted grain. The initial microbial population of the product was found to affect the mode of heat treatment in long-term storage products.
Introduction. Iodine is one of the most important elements for maintaining human health and cognitive skills. Contemporary food industry is looking for new functional foods fortified with macro- and micronutrients. Confectionery products occupy a fairly large segment of human diet. The present research objective was to substitute traditional white sugar with an experimental granulated sugar-containing product that contained maltodextrin, cane molasses, and Japanese kelp extract. This substitute could reduce the calorie content of jelly and increase its functional properties while maintaining its sensory profile, e.g. consistency, increasing its shelf-life, and simplifying the tec hnological process.
Study objects and methods. Granulated sugar-containing product is a new component for the confectionery industry, but its effect on technological processes is unpredictable. The research featured an experimental granulated sugar-containing product with maltodextrin, cane molasses, and Japanese kelp. The growth rate of granules and their structure were studied by scanning microscopy and radiography, the granulometric composition and solubility – by determining the relative dissolution rate, the effect of the granulated sugar-containing product on the sensory and physicochemical parameters of jelly – by refractometry and titrometry.
Results and discussion. The experimental granulated sugar-containing product contained sucrose both in crystalline and amorphous state, which affected the distribution of nutrients within the product. The growth rate of granules affected the resulting structure of the product and its solubility, which decreased by 2.5 times as the size of the granules grew. The dissolution rate decreased compared to crystalline sugar. As a result, the technological process of jelly production had to be adjusted. The developed jelly had a lower energy value and better nutritional qualities. The high content of vitamins and macro- and microelements makes it a functional product. The experimental jelly received 22.3 points for sensory profile. Its hysico-chemical parameters (soluble solids < 68%, acidity > 2.2 8%) met the standard requirements for this type of product.
Conclusion. The new granulated sugar-containing product simplified the technological process and improved the sanitary, hygienic, and working conditions.
Introduction. Anthropogenic activities cause large-scale environmental problems. The growing volumes of toxic emissions contribute to soil, water, and air pollution, thus posing a serious threat to all living systems and the global ecosystem. New reclamation methods are a relevant research topic as they help to restore and preserve ecosystems.
Study objects and methods. The research covered sixteen years of scientific publications from PubMed of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (USA), Elsevier (Scopus, ScienceDirect), Web of Science, and the national electronic library service eLibrary.ru.
Results and discussion. The authors reviewed various scientific publications to define the main technogenic objects that have a toxic effect on biota. Soil is more vulnerable to destructive effects, and mining wastes are responsible for the largest share of technogenically disturbed objects. Pollutants include many compounds, such as heavy metals, hydrocarbons, sulfur compounds, acids, etc. Reclamation technologies reduce the man-induced impact on the environment, e.g. pollutants can be completely or partially destroyed, processed into non-toxic products, completely removed, stabilized into less toxic forms, etc. This review provides information on the main methods of reclamation of disturbed soils and substantiates the prospect of developing integrated reclamation technologies.
Conclusion. The present review featured the main pollutants of anthropogenic origin and the traditional soil reclamation methods. The most prospective new technologies of soil reclamation appeared to be a combination of such biological methods as phytoremediation, bioaugmentation, and biostimulation.
Introduction. The quality profile and nutritional values of cookies depend on the raw material. The research objective was to study the effect of oils and fats on the quality characteristics and storage capacity of cookies.
Study objects and methods. The study involved such types of oils and fats as margarine, confectionery fat, milk fat substitute, palm oil, sunflower oil, and high oleic sunflower oil. It was based on standard methods of sensory, physicochemical, structural, and rheological analyses.
Results and discussion. The experimental formulations relied on contemporary dilatory recommendations, consumer acceptability, and traditionality of sensory indicators. The mass fraction of fat was limited to ≤ 18%; added sugars – to ≤ 22%; salt – to ≤ 0.3%. For each type of oil and fat, as set of experiments was performed to define the optimal technological emulsion and dough parameters. Other aspects involved the patterns of moisture transfer, indicators of oxidative spoilage, fatty acid composition, sensory properties, physicochemical and microbiological indicators, storage capacity, etc. The samples with vegetable oils instead of fat had a lower content of saturated fatty acids, which fell from 8–9 to 2–3 g/100 g. However, the risk of oxidative spoilage increased significantly. On storage day 104, the content of linoleic acid in the samples with sunflower oil decreased from 62.0 to 60.4%, while the samples with high oleic sunflower oil maintained the same level of linoleic acid. The samples with confectionery fat and palm oil demonstrated the lowest rate of oxidative processes, while those with margarine and milk fat substitute had the best sensory profile after storage.
Conclusion. The cookies with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil appeared to have a shelf life of two months, while for those with milk fat substitute, margarine, palm oil, and confectionery fat it was six months. Further research should focus on various emulsifiers and antioxidants capable of forming bonds with proteins and starch fractions of flour, which could increase the resistance of liquid vegetable oils to oxidation.
Introduction. Contemporary food industry strives to increase the production volume of high-quality and biologically complete protein products. The Foodnet market also raised the demand for functional foods in Russia. The research objective was to develop a new functional curd product fortified with probiotic microflora.
Study objects and methods. The study featured cow’s milk, skimmed milk, cream, whey protein concentrate Milkiland-WPC 80, pollen, glutamine, starter cultures DVS Danisco Probat 576 and Howaru Bifido ARO-1, buckwheat flour, and oat flour. The experiment included physicochemical, sensory, biochemical, and microbiological methods.
Results and discussion. The milk-protein base of the curd product was produced in a GEA Westfalia KDB 30 curd separator. The research involved 15 and 20% cream with two different starter cultures. In case of 15% cream, Probat 576 Howaru Bifido appeared to be 1.66 times more active than ARO-1 Howaru Bifido, in case of 20% cream the result was even higher – 1.73 times. Probat 576 also demonstrated a better active acidity, i.e. 5.5 after three hours, which was two hours faster than ARO-1. Mathematical modeling revealed the positive effect of buckwheat and oat flour on the cream fermentation process. Oat flour (5%) was the optimal prebiotic, while buckwheat flour added its color to the final product, thus spoiling its market quality.
Conclusion. The new biotechnology for a curd product fortified with probiotic cultures can expand the range of functional products for sports diet.
Introduction. Durum wheat is vital for high-quality pasta production. The present research tested the high technological potential of durum wheat varieties developed in the Saratov region. The research objective was to study the effect of the quality of durum wheat on the quality of pasta.
Study objects and methods. The study featured durum wheat of the following varieties: Saratovskaya Zolotistaya, Valentina, Nik, Krasnokutka 13, Luch 25, Pamyati Vasilchuka, Bezenchukskaya 182 and Annushka. The experiment involved an original PSL-13 press for standard spaghetti with a diameter of 1.8 mm. The content of protein, raw gluten, and their quality were determined by standard methods. The cooking properties of the pasta were evaluated according to the method developed in the South-Eastern Federal Agricultural Research Center.
Results and discussion. The indicators of raw gluten and protein are known to correlate. The samples of Saratovskaya Zolotistaya and Luch 25 had a high protein content of 15.3 and 15.6%, respectively, as well as a high content of raw gluten (33.2 and 35.1%, respectively). The raw gluten of Saratov varieties proved to be much better than in the control samples. The indicator of microSDs sedimentation was 30–36 mm. The strength of spaghetti followed the increase in crude gluten (33–35%) and protein (15.3–15.6%), which is typical of this type of pasta. The strength, coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.98), and sharing force (R2 = 0.92) depended on the protein content.
Conclusion. The study established the following optimal selection criteria for durum wheat varieties to be used in strong spaghetti production: virtuosity – 80%, raw gluten – 33–35%, protein content – 5–7% higher than normal, raw gluten – 72–80 units.