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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Qasim Raza ◽  
Awais Riaz ◽  
Rana Muhammad Atif ◽  
Babar Hussain ◽  
Iqrar Ahmad Rana ◽  

MADS-box gene family members play multifarious roles in regulating the growth and development of crop plants and hold enormous promise for bolstering grain yield potential under changing global environments. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a key stable food crop around the globe. Until now, the available information concerning MADS-box genes in the wheat genome has been insufficient. Here, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis identified 300 high confidence MADS-box genes from the publicly available reference genome of wheat. Comparative phylogenetic analyses with Arabidopsis and rice MADS-box genes classified the wheat genes into 16 distinct subfamilies. Gene duplications were mainly identified in subfamilies containing unbalanced homeologs, pointing towards a potential mechanism for gene family expansion. Moreover, a more rapid evolution was inferred for M-type genes, as compared with MIKC-type genes, indicating their significance in understanding the evolutionary history of the wheat genome. We speculate that subfamily-specific distal telomeric duplications in unbalanced homeologs facilitate the rapid adaptation of wheat to changing environments. Furthermore, our in-silico expression data strongly proposed MADS-box genes as active guardians of plants against pathogen insurgency and harsh environmental conditions. In conclusion, we provide an entire complement of MADS-box genes identified in the wheat genome that could accelerate functional genomics efforts and possibly facilitate bridging gaps between genotype-to-phenotype relationships through fine-tuning of agronomically important traits.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Tobias Hoffmann ◽  
Xiuling Shi ◽  
Chuan-Yu Hsu ◽  
Aakilah Brown ◽  
Quintera Knight ◽  

Abstract Background Nuclear endosperm development is a common mechanism among Angiosperms, including Arabidopsis. During nuclear development, the endosperm nuclei divide rapidly after fertilization without cytokinesis to enter the syncytial phase, which is then followed by the cellularized phase. The endosperm can be divided into three spatial domains with distinct functions: the micropylar, peripheral, and chalazal domains. Previously, we identified two putative small invertase inhibitors, InvINH1 and InvINH2, that are specifically expressed in the micropylar region of the syncytial endosperm. In addition, ectopically expressing InvINH1 in the cellularized endosperm led to a reduction in embryo growth rate. However, it is not clear what are the upstream regulators responsible for the specific expression of InvINHs in the syncytial endosperm. Results Using protoplast transient expression system, we discovered that a group of type I MADS box transcription factors can form dimers to activate InvINH1 promoter. Promoter deletion assays carried out in the protoplast system revealed the presence of an enhancer region in InvINH1 promoter, which contains several consensus cis-elements for the MADS box proteins. Using promoter deletion assay in planta, we further demonstrated that this enhancer region is required for InvINH1 expression in the syncytial endosperm. One of the MADS box genes, AGL62, is a key transcription factor required for syncytial endosperm development. Using promoter-GFP reporter assay, we demonstrated that InvINH1 and InvINH2 are not expressed in agl62 mutant seeds. Collectively, our data supports the role of AGL62 and other type I MADS box genes as the upstream activators of InvINHs expression in the syncytial endosperm. Conclusions Our findings revealed several type I MADS box genes that are responsible for activating InvINH1 in the syncytial endosperm, which in turn regulates embryo growth rate during early stage of seed development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Zhikun Zhang ◽  
Yongxiang Zhao

AbstractMyocyte Enhancer Factor 2 C (MEF2C), one of the transcription factors of the MADS-BOX family, is involved in embryonic brain development, neuronal formation and differentiation, as well as in the growth and pruning of axons and dendrites. MEF2C is also involved in the development of various neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD), epilepsy, schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we review the relationship between MEF2C and neuropsychiatric disorders, and provide further insights into the mechanism of these diseases.

2021 ◽  
Xinlei Ma ◽  
Ningwei XU ◽  
Pengpeng Gu ◽  
Liqiang Du ◽  
Zhenqing Guo ◽  

Abstract MADS-box gene family is a key regulatory factor family, which controls vegetative growth, reproductive development and can be used to mediate abiotic stresses in many plants. However, Knowledge of this gene family is still limited in Setaria italica. In the present study, a total of 70 SitMADS genes were identified and renamed on the basis of the chromosomal distribution of the SitMADS genes. According to gene structure, conserved motif and phylogenetic feature, the 70 SitMADSs were classified into type-Ⅰ (Mα, Mβ, Mγ) and type-Ⅱ (MIKCC and MIKC*). All of the SitMADS genes were randomly distributed on nine chromosomes, and five tandem duplicated genes and 12 pairs of duplicated gene segments were detected in the SitMADS genes family. Synteny analysis provided a high homology between SitMADS genes and OsMADS genes. A cis-element analysis inferred that SitMADS genes, except for SitMADS23, possessed at least one drought stress response and ABA(Abscisic Acid)-induced response cis-element. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis was used to detect the expression patterns of SitMADS genes in various tissues and demonstrated that the genes responded drought stress and ABA treatments. SitMADS23, SitMADS42, SitMADS51, SitMADS52, SitMADS58 and SitMADS64 were highly expressed in PEG(Polyethylene glycol) and drought stress, which suggested its important role in drought stress response. SitMADS51, SitMADS63 and SitMADS64 seemed to be responsive to ABA hormone signaling, suggesting that they were involved in the ABA signaling pathways. This paper provided a deep insight into the evolutionary characteristics of SitMADS genes. The results provide comprehensive information for further analyses of the molecular functions of the MADS-box gene family in Setaria italica.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2825
Mohammed A. Sayed ◽  
Mohamed Allam ◽  
Quinn Kalby Heck ◽  
Ieva Urbanavičiūtė ◽  
Twan Rutten ◽  

MADS-box transcription factors are crucial regulators of inflorescence and flower development in plants. Therefore, the recent interest in this family has received much attention in plant breeding programs due to their impact on plant development and inflorescence architecture. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of HvMADS-box genes in lateral spikelet development in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A set of 30 spike-contrasting barley lines were phenotypically and genotypically investigated under controlled conditions. We detected clear variations in the spike and spikelet development during the developmental stages among the tested lines. The lateral florets in the deficiens and semi-deficiens lines were more reduced than in two-rowed cultivars except cv. Kristina. Interestingly, cv. Kristina, int-h.43 and int-i.39 exhibited the same behavior as def.5, def.6, semi-def.1, semi-def.8 regarding development and showed reduced lateral florets size. In HOR1555, HOR7191 and HOR7041, the lateral florets continued their development, eventually setting seeds. In contrast, lateral florets in two-rowed barley stopped differentiating after the awn primordia stage giving rise to lateral floret sterility. At harvest, the lines tested showed large variation for all central and lateral spikelet-related traits. Phylogenetic analysis showed that more than half of the 108 MADS-box genes identified are highly conserved and are expressed in different barley tissues. Re-sequence analysis of a subset of these genes showed clear polymorphism in either SNPs or in/del. Variation in HvMADS56 correlated with altered lateral spikelet morphology. This suggests that HvMADS56 plays an important role in lateral spikelet development in barley.

2021 ◽  
Charlotte Voogd ◽  
Lara A Brian ◽  
Rongmei Wu ◽  
Tianchi Wang ◽  
Andrew C Allan ◽  

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1956
Da Zhao ◽  
Zheng Chen ◽  
Lei Xu ◽  
Lijun Zhang ◽  
Quan Zou

The MADS-box gene family is one of the largest families in plants and plays an important roles in floral development. The MADS-box family includes the SRF-like domain and K-box domain. It is considered that the MADS-box gene family encodes a DNA-binding domain that is generally related to transcription factors, and plays important roles in regulating floral development. Our study identified 211 MADS-box protein sequences in the Zea mays proteome and renamed all the genes based on the gene annotations. All the 211 MADS-box protein sequences were coded by 98 expressed genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the MADS-box genes showed that all the family members were categorized into five subfamilies: MIKC-type, Mα, Mβ, Mγ, and Mδ. Gene duplications are regarded as products of several types of errors during the period of DNA replication and reconstruction; in our study all the 98 MADS-box genes contained 22 pairs of segmentally duplicated events which were distributed on 10 chromosomes. We compared expression data in different tissues from the female spikelet, silk, pericarp aleurone, ear primordium, leaf zone, vegetative meristem, internode, endosperm crown, mature pollen, embryo, root cortex, secondary root, germination kernels, primary root, root elongation zone, and root meristem. According to analysis of gene ontology pathways, we found a total of 41 pathways in which MADS-box genes in maize are involved. All the studies we conducted provided an overview of MADS-box gene family members in maize and showed multiple functions as transcription factors. The related research of MADS-box domains has provided the theoretical basis of MADS-box domains for agricultural applications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Ye Ai ◽  
Zhen Li ◽  
Wei-Hong Sun ◽  
Juan Chen ◽  
Diyang Zhang ◽  

AbstractThe marvelously diverse Orchidaceae constitutes the largest family of angiosperms. The genus Cymbidium in Orchidaceae is well known for its unique vegetation, floral morphology, and flower scent traits. Here, a chromosome-scale assembly of the genome of Cymbidium ensifolium (Jianlan) is presented. Comparative genomic analysis showed that C. ensifolium has experienced two whole-genome duplication (WGD) events, the most recent of which was shared by all orchids, while the older event was the τ event shared by most monocots. The results of MADS-box genes analysis provided support for establishing a unique gene model of orchid flower development regulation, and flower shape mutations in C. ensifolium were shown to be associated with the abnormal expression of MADS-box genes. The most abundant floral scent components identified included methyl jasmonate, acacia alcohol and linalool, and the genes involved in the floral scent component network of C. ensifolium were determined. Furthermore, the decreased expression of photosynthesis-antennae and photosynthesis metabolic pathway genes in leaves was shown to result in colorful striped leaves, while the increased expression of MADS-box genes in leaves led to perianth-like leaves. Our results provide fundamental insights into orchid evolution and diversification.

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