cold stress
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
S. U. Rehman ◽  
K. Muhammad ◽  
E. Novaes ◽  
Y. Que ◽  
A. Din ◽  
...  

Abstract Transcription factors (TF) are a wide class of genes in plants, and these can regulate the expression of other genes in response to various environmental stresses (biotic and abiotic). In the current study, transcription factor activity in sugarcane was examined during cold stress. Initially, RNA transcript reads of two sugarcane cultivars (ROC22 and GT08-1108) under cold stress were downloaded from SRA NCBI database. The reads were aligned into a reference genome and the differential expression analyses were performed with the R/Bioconductor edgeR package. Based on our analyses in the ROC22 cultivar, 963 TF genes were significantly upregulated under cold stress among a total of 5649 upregulated genes, while 293 TF genes were downregulated among a total of 3,289 downregulated genes. In the GT08-1108 cultivar, 974 TF genes were identified among 5,649 upregulated genes and 283 TF genes were found among 3,289 downregulated genes. Most transcription factors were annotated with GO categories related to protein binding, transcription factor binding, DNA-sequence-specific binding, transcription factor complex, transcription factor activity in RNA polymerase II, the activity of nucleic acid binding transcription factor, transcription corepressor activity, sequence-specific regulatory region, the activity of transcription factor of RNA polymerase II, transcription factor cofactor activity, transcription factor activity from plastid promoter, transcription factor activity from RNA polymerase I promoter, polymerase II and RNA polymerase III. The findings of above results will help to identify differentially expressed transcription factors during cold stress. It also provides a comprehensive analysis of the regulation of the transcription activity of many genes. Therefore, this study provides the molecular basis for improving cold tolerance in sugarcane and other economically important grasses.


2022 ◽  
Vol 209 ◽  
pp. 108646
Author(s):  
Xiaoyu Li ◽  
Yue Zhang ◽  
Dongying Li ◽  
Yangyang Xu ◽  
Robert D. Brown

Planta ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 255 (2) ◽  
Author(s):  
Maximilian Boinot ◽  
Esra Karakas ◽  
Karin Koehl ◽  
Majken Pagter ◽  
Ellen Zuther

Abstract Main conclusion Higher acclimated freezing tolerance improved winter survival, but reduced reproductive fitness of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions under field and controlled conditions. Abstract Low temperature is one of the most important abiotic factors influencing plant fitness and geographical distribution. In addition, cold stress is known to influence crop yield and is therefore of great economic importance. Increased freezing tolerance can be acquired by the process of cold acclimation, but this may be associated with a fitness cost. To assess the influence of cold stress on the fitness of plants, long-term field trials over 5 years were performed with six natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana ranging from very tolerant to very sensitive to freezing. Fitness parameters, as seed yield and 1000 seed mass, were measured and correlation analyses with temperature and freezing tolerance data performed. The results were compared with fitness parameters from controlled chamber experiments over 3 years with application of cold priming and triggering conditions. Winter survival and seed yield per plant were positively correlated with temperature in field experiments. In addition, winter survival and 1000 seed mass were correlated with the cold-acclimated freezing tolerance of the selected Arabidopsis accessions. The results provide strong evidence for a trade-off between higher freezing tolerance and reproductive fitness in A. thaliana, which might have ecological impacts in the context of global warming.


Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 201
Author(s):  
Tahereh Ashrostaghi ◽  
Sasan Aliniaeifard ◽  
Aida Shomali ◽  
Shiva Azizinia ◽  
Jahangir Abbasi Koohpalekani ◽  
...  

Low temperatures are a substantial limitation in the geographic distribution of warm-season crops such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Tolerance to low temperatures varies among different plant species and genotypes when changes in environmental cues occur. Therefore, biochemical and biophysical events should be coordinated to form a physiological response and cope with low temperatures. We examined how light intensity influences the effects of low temperature on photosynthesis and some biochemical traits. We used chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and polyphasic fluorescence transient to analyze cold stress damage by 4 °C. Photosynthetic Photon Flux Densities (PPFDs) of 0, 300, and 600 μmol m−2 s−1, in four accessions of cucumber, were investigated. The results show that the negative effects of cold stress are PPFD-dependent. The adverse effect of cold stress on the electron transport chain is more pronounced in plants exposed to 600 μmol m−2 s−1 than the control and dark-exposed plants, indicated by a disturbance in the electron transport chain and higher energy dissipation. Moreover, biochemical traits, including the H2O2 content, ascorbate peroxidase activity, electrolyte leakage, and water-soluble carbohydrate, increased under low temperature by increasing the PPFD. In contrast, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased under low temperature through PPFD elevation. Low temperature induced a H2O2 accumulation via suppressing ascorbate peroxidase activity in a PPFD-dependent manner. In conclusion, high PPFDs exacerbate the adverse effects of low temperature on the cucumber seedlings.


Horticulturae ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 80
Author(s):  
Jing Bin ◽  
Meilin Zhu ◽  
Huifen Ding ◽  
Zhouying Zai ◽  
Tingting Shi ◽  
...  

Sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) is an evergreen woody plant that emits a floral aroma and is widely used in the landscape and fragrance industries. However, its application and cultivation regions are limited by cold stress. Heat-shock transcription factor (HSF) family members are widely present in plants and participate in, and regulate, the defense processes of plants under various abiotic stress conditions, but now, the role of this family in the responses of O. fragrans to cold stress is still not clear. Here, 46 OfHSF members were identified in the O. fragrans genome and divided into three subfamilies on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis. The promoter regions of most OfHSFs contained many cis-acting elements involved in multiple hormonal and abiotic stresses. RNA-seq data revealed that most of OfHSF genes were differentially expressed in various tissues, and some OfHSF members were induced by cold stress. The qRT-PCR analysis identified four OfHSFs that were induced by both cold and heat stresses, in which OfHSF11 and OfHSF43 had contrary expression trends under cold stress conditions and their expression patterns both showed recovery tendencies after the cold stress. OfHSF11 and OfHSF43 localized to the nuclei and their expression patterns were also induced under multiple abiotic stresses and hormonal treatments, indicating that they play critical roles in responses to multiple stresses. Furthermore, after a cold treatment, transient expression revealed that the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of OfHSF11-transformed tobacco significantly increased, and the expression levels of cold-response regulatory gene NbDREB3, cold response gene NbLEA5 and ROS detoxification gene NbCAT were significantly inhibited, implying that OfHSF11 is a negative regulator of cold responses in O. fragrans. Our study contributes to the further functional characterization of OfHSFs and will be useful in developing improved cold-tolerant cultivars of O. fragrans.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mohammad A. Rahman ◽  
Eleonora Franceschi ◽  
Nayanesh Pattnaik ◽  
Astrid Moser-Reischl ◽  
Christian Hartmann ◽  
...  

AbstractGreen infrastructure (GI) has emerged as a feasible strategy for promoting adaptive capacities of cities to climate change by alleviating urban heat island (UHI) and thus heat stress for humans. However, GI can also intensify the winter cold stress. To understand the extent of UHI within a city as well as the link between outdoor thermal stress both diurnally and seasonally, we carried out an empirical study in Würzburg, Germany from 2018 to 2020. At sub-urban sites, relative humidity and wind speed (WS) was considerably higher and air temperature (AT) lower compared to the inner city sites. Mean AT of inner city sites were higher by 1.3 °C during summer and 5 °C during winter compared to sub-urban sites. The magnitude followed the spatial land use patterns, in particular the amount of buildings. Consequently, out of 97 hot days (AT > 30 °C) in 3 years, 9 days above the extreme threshold of wet bulb globe temperature of 35 °C were recorded at a centre location compared to none at a sub-urban site. Extreme heat stress could be halved with 30–40% cover of greenspaces including grass lawns, green roofs, and green walls with little compromise in increasing winter cold stress.


Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 103
Author(s):  
Zhenwang Li ◽  
Zhengchao Qiu ◽  
Haixiao Ge ◽  
Changwen Du

Short episodes of low-temperature stress during reproductive stages can cause significant crop yield losses, but our understanding of the dynamics of extreme cold events and their impact on rice growth and yield in the past and present climate remains limited. In this study, by analyzing historical climate, phenology and yield component data, the spatial and temporal variability of cold stress during the rice heading and flowering stages and its impact on rice growth and yield in China was characterized. The results showed that cold stress was unevenly distributed throughout the study region, with the most severe events observed in the Yunnan Plateau with altitudes higher than 1800 m. With the increasing temperature, a significant decreasing trend in cold stress was observed across most of the three ecoregions after the 1970s. However, the phenological-shift effects with the prolonged growing period during the heading and flowering stages have slowed down the cold stress decreasing trend and led to an underestimation of the magnitude of cold stress events. Meanwhile, cold stress during heading and flowering will still be a potential threat to rice production. The cold stress-induced yield loss is related to both the intensification of extreme cold stress and the contribution of related components to yield in the three regions.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fei Ding ◽  
Liming Ren ◽  
Fang Xie ◽  
Meiling Wang ◽  
Shuoxin Zhang

Both jasmonic acid (JA) and melatonin (MT) have been demonstrated to play positive roles in cold tolerance, however, whether and how they crosstalk in the cold responses in plants remain elusive. Here, we report that JA and MT act synergistically in the cold tolerance in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum). It was found that JA and MT were both substantially accumulated in response to cold stress and foliar applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and MT promoted cold tolerance as evidenced by increased Fv/Fm, decreased relative electrolyte leakage (EL) and declined H2O2 accumulation in tomato plants. Inhibition of MT biosynthesis attenuated MeJA-induced cold tolerance, while inhibition of JA biosynthesis reduced MT accumulation in tomato plants under cold conditions. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expressions of two MT biosynthetic genes, SlSNAT and SlAMST, were strongly induced by MeJA, whereas suppression of SlMYC2, a master JA signaling regulator, abated the expressions of SlSNAT and SlAMST under cold stress. Additionally, suppression of SlMYC2 reduced MT accumulation, decreased Fv/Fm and increased EL in cold-stressed tomato plants. Interestingly, exogenous MT promoted JA accumulation, while inhibition of MT biosynthesis significantly reduced JA accumulation in tomato plants under the cold condition. Taken together, these results suggest that JA and MT act cooperatively in cold tolerance and form a positive feedback loop, amplifying the cold responses of tomato plants. Our findings might be translated into the development of cold-resistant tomato cultivars by genetically manipulating JA and MT pathways.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 648
Author(s):  
Yueliang Zhang ◽  
Yiwu Zhang ◽  
Li Luo ◽  
Chunyi Lu ◽  
Weiwen Kong ◽  
...  

Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (Rbohs) are critical enzymes involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that play an important role in plant growth and development as well as various biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Thus far, there have been few reports on the characterization of the Rboh gene family in Citrus. In this study, seven Rboh genes (CsRbohA~CsRbohG) were identified in the Citrus sinensis genome. The CsRboh proteins were predicted to localize to the cell membrane. Most CsRbohs contained four conserved domains, an EF-hand domain, and a transmembrane region. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the CsRbohs were divided into five groups, suggesting potential distinct functions and evolution. The expression profiles revealed that these seven CsRboh genes displayed tissue-specific expression patterns, and five CsRboh genes were responsive to cold stress. Fourteen putative cis-acting elements related to stress response, hormone response, and development regulation were present within the promoters of CsRboh genes. The in-silico microRNA target transcript analyses indicated that CsRbohE might be targeted by csi-miR164. Further functional and physiological analyses showed that the knockdown of CsRbohD in trifoliate orange impaired resistance to cold stress. As a whole, our results provide valuable information for further functional studies of the CsRboh genes in response to cold stress.


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